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1.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 39(2): 99-100, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36799741
2.
Cogn Neurosci ; 14(2): 73-74, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36847365

RESUMO

This commentary makes three suggestions on Willems' neurocognitive model for understanding mixed and ambiguous emotions and morality. First, it proposes that his atheoretical approach risks unwittingly adopting theoretical and conceptual limitations implicit in reigning paradigms and overlooking the need for theoretical impetus and constraints in the development of valid constructs of targeted emotions. Second, it suggests that a dynamical systems approach to emotions provides a fruitful theory and neuro-phenomenology as a corresponding methodology. Lastly, it proposes that Willems' objective would benefit from a more systematic integration of insights from the humanities into the nature and nuances of literary (moral) emotions.


Assuntos
Emoções , Princípios Morais , Humanos , Ciências Humanas , Resolução de Problemas
3.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 105(4): 323-324, 2023 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36790393
4.
Med Educ Online ; 28(1): 2182691, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36840966

RESUMO

Humanistic education aims to promote educated people's practical and conscious activities to enhance their humanity, cultivate ideal personalities, and realize personal and social values, to develop a humanistic spirit. The advancement of higher education in China has led to the proposal to strengthen scientific and humanistic education integration. Medicine is between science and humanities, shouldering the important task of training senior medical personnel, the quality of medical students will affect the quality of future medical and health work; thus, medical students must explore and practice humanistic education. Promoting and practicing volunteerism is a specific act of constructing spiritual civilization in the whole society, and it is also considered beneficial for improving citizens' sense of responsibility and dedication. Medical students' practice of volunteerism and help in society is a precise manifestation of humanistic care. This review summarizes medical students' exploration and practice of humanistic education in volunteering.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Ciências Humanas/educação , Humanismo , Currículo
5.
PLoS Biol ; 21(2): e3001991, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36854036

RESUMO

The conservation of evolutionary history has been linked to increased benefits for humanity and can be captured by phylogenetic diversity (PD). The Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered (EDGE) metric has, since 2007, been used to prioritise threatened species for practical conservation that embody large amounts of evolutionary history. While there have been important research advances since 2007, they have not been adopted in practice because of a lack of consensus in the conservation community. Here, building from an interdisciplinary workshop to update the existing EDGE approach, we present an "EDGE2" protocol that draws on a decade of research and innovation to develop an improved, consistent methodology for prioritising species conservation efforts. Key advances include methods for dealing with uncertainty and accounting for the extinction risk of closely related species. We describe EDGE2 in terms of distinct components to facilitate future revisions to its constituent parts without needing to reconsider the whole. We illustrate EDGE2 by applying it to the world's mammals. As we approach a crossroads for global biodiversity policy, this Consensus View shows how collaboration between academic and applied conservation biologists can guide effective and practical priority-setting to conserve biodiversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Animais , Filogenia , Evolução Biológica , Ciências Humanas , Mamíferos
6.
PeerJ ; 11: e14553, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36643645

RESUMO

Background: The way humans perceive and interact with non-human animals is particular to each person, from antipathetic interactions evidenced by fear, aversion or repulsion, to empathy evidenced by feelings of affection, enchantment and interest in the animal. In this sense, herein we investigated the perception of university students about species belonging to different classes of wild vertebrates and the influence of social and educational factors on that. Methods: Data were obtained through online forms answered by 700 university students from nine Brazilian states, 328 females and 372 males, aged between 18 and 65 years. The form had eight sentences to be answered in relation to 17 species of wild vertebrates. The agreement level for each of these sentences was to be indicated using a five-point Likert scale. The sentences were designed to assess aesthetic, risk, utilitarian, and preservation perceptions attributed to each species by students. Results: We found that species perceived as useful by the students are generally also perceived as beautiful and as those that should be preserved. On the other hand, we found similarity between the species perceived as ugly and those that should not be preserved; and between the species perceived as harmful and those considered dangerous. Female and lower-income students more often agree that animals are harmful. We found that perceptions of danger in relation to animals were predominantly associated with younger respondents. However, this did not lead to less support for conservation among these students, as students of all age groups agree that species should be preserved. Our results show that students' knowledge area was an important predictor associated with empathetic and antipathetic perceptions. Environmental area students showed greater empathy in all analyzed categories (beauty, usefulness, harmlessness, and preservation) than non-environmental areas students. On the other hand, students from the area of the exact sciences showed greater dislike in all analyzed categories than students from other areas. We found a strong relationship between the areas "Environmental" and "Humanities, Languages and Arts" for the attitudinal factors associated with utility and preservation, suggesting a similar empathetic worldview for students in these areas. Conclusions: We found that the perception directed towards wild vertebrates varies according to the gender, age, income and study area of the students, in addition to the taxon considered. Finally, our results indicate that negative perceptions should be taken into account in environmental education efforts, educational policies and in planning fauna conservation plans which should incorporate the most diverse audiences, and not only encompass charismatic species but extend to animals that arouse great aversion from the part of people.


Assuntos
Ciências Humanas , Estudantes , Masculino , Animais , Humanos , Feminino , Escolaridade , Brasil
7.
Med Educ Online ; 28(1): 2173045, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36718544

RESUMO

More medical schools are incorporating wellness activities and the medical humanities into their curriculum. Finding implementable programming that is feasible and enjoyable is challenging. Both student participants and faculty who might facilitate programs are busy with clinical and educational responsibilities. Book club discussions in general are an activity that bring people together and expose groups to literature. In medical education, informal books clubs have been shown to increase camaraderie and expose participants to topics in medicine that they may not have encountered without the structure of the group assignment. At one large private urban medical school, all fourth year medical students were required to participate in a one-time hour-long book discussion with a faculty member one week before Match Day 2021. This paper describes the implementation of that program and discusses survey results from 179 students who broadly indicated that the books were enjoyable, the discussions were enriching, and that the program should continue for future classes of medical students.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Docentes , Currículo , Ciências Humanas/educação , Docentes de Medicina
8.
J Radiol Prot ; 43(1)2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634359

RESUMO

In the Tohoku region of Japan, risk communication programs on radiation exposure are of great importance, especially with respect to reducing the stress and anxiety among those affected by radiation exposure. Although the concepts of 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) and regulatory sciences (RS) were very important for the smooth operation of risk communication among a wide range of stakeholders, our previous research showed that only 23.5% and 16.5% of medical doctors in Japan had an accurate awareness of them, respectively. To make risk communication more effective, this study examined the levels of awareness of the concepts of ALARA and RS among academic experts in Japan and compared their level of awareness of technical terms regarding radiation to that of the expected level for a layperson. This study also showed that, even among faculty working at graduate schools in Japan, only 29.8% and 39.4% had an accurate knowledge of ALARA and RS. To improve the knowledge of laypeople and experts on these concepts, they should be added to the primary education curriculum. This study demonstrated that among experts in many academic fields, a significant range of estimates existed of lay knowledge of technical terms regarding radiation. The highest scores were assigned by faculty in the field of humanities. Thus, before conducting risk communications, experts from all fields should identify the expected level of awareness among laypeople on the topic. In addition, risk communications regarding radiation should be conducted by academic experts and healthcare professionals together with facilitators or lecturers.


Assuntos
Exposição à Radiação , Humanos , Ciências Humanas , Comunicação , Japão
9.
Vet Rec ; 192(1): 37-38, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607692
10.
Ber Wiss ; 46(1): 114-132, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646516

RESUMO

This paper examines the controversy that followed the 1987 publication of Joseph Greenberg's book, Language in the Americas, attending to the role of language and linguistic research within overlapping disciplinary traditions. With this text, Greenberg presented a macro-level tripartite classification that opposed then dominant fine-grained analyses recognizing anywhere from 150 to 200 distinct language families. His proposal was the subject of a landmark conference, examining strengths and weaknesses, the unpublished proceedings of which are presented here for the first time. For specialists in the anthropological and comparative-historical study of Indigenous American languages, Greenberg's intervention highlighted the tension between language, conceived as an abstract object of study, and languages, understood to be carriers of specific cultural knowledge. For physical anthropologists and archaeologists, his theory was initially fortuitous on programmatic, substantive, and methodological grounds. The essay will show how interdisciplinary appeals were figured by supporters as a virtue, and by critics as a vice. The essay further highlights ethical reasons for integrating historical narratives of science and the humanities.


Assuntos
Idioma , Linguística , Humanos , Ciências Humanas , América , Antropologia
12.
Nurs Sci Q ; 36(1): 92-94, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36571315

RESUMO

The author here introduces Graham McCaffrey's Nursing and Humanities, exploring the relevance of nursing and humanities and contemplating the significance of nursing science as a human science.


Assuntos
Ciências Humanas , Pesquisa , Humanos
13.
Med Educ Online ; 28(1): 2145105, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36373894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Professional identity formation is an important aspect of medical education that can be difficult to translate into formal curricula. The role of arts and humanities programs in fostering professional identity formation remains understudied. Analyzing learners' written reflections, we explore the relationship between an arts-based course and themes of professional identity formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two cohorts of learners participated in a 5-day online course featuring visual arts-based group activities. Both cohorts responded to a prompt with written reflections at the beginning and end of the course. Using a thematic analysis method, we qualitatively analyzed one set of reflections from each cohort. RESULTS: Themes included the nature of the good life; fulfilling, purposeful work; entering the physician role; exploration of emotional experience; and personal growth. Reflections written at the end of the course engaged significantly with art - including literature, poetry, lyrics, and film. One student disclosed a mental illness in their reflection. CONCLUSIONS: Our qualitative analysis of reflections written during a visual arts-based course found several themes related to professional identity formation. Such arts-based courses can also enrich learners' reflections and provide a space for learners to be vulnerable. PRACTICE POINTS: (five short bullets conveying the main points) Arts-based courses can support learners' professional identity formationReflection themes related to professional identity formation included entering the physician role, fulfilling clinical work, and personal growthAt the end of the course, learners' reflections included significant engagement with artReflective writing in small, arts-based learning communities can provide space for learners to be vulnerableThe Role of Arts-Based Curricula in Professional Identity Formation: Results of A Qualitative Analysis of Learner's Written Reflections.


Assuntos
Currículo , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Redação , Ciências Humanas , Aprendizagem , Identificação Social , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia
14.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 20(1): 155-173, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36458638

RESUMO

https://doi.org/10.31952/amha.20.1.8   The objective of this article is to highlight the bidirectional relationship between neuroscience and art in the life and times of the most preeminent sculptor in modern Greek history, Yannoulis Chalepas. Analysis of biographical sources and testimonies on the life and works of Yannoulis Chalepas was performed. Findings are discussed in relation to the neuropsychiatric maladies that he faced in his lifespan and their impact on his art. Yannoulis Chalepas' life and art are trichotomized in a charismatic, premorbid era (1851-1877), a prolonged, medieval, morbid period (1878-1917), and a transfigurative, post morbid era (1918-1938). The amalgamate of medical evidence suggests that Yannoulis Chalepas suffered from schizophrenia. That was reflected in his art through two distinct periods of artistic productivity and stylistic creativity. The bidirectional relationship between neuroscience and art in the history of humanity is also exemplified in the legacy of Yannoulis Chalepas. The borderland of artistic ingenuity with aberrant behavior, the misconceptions of neurocognitive disorders with psychosis along with their associated social stigma, the effect of artistic expression in the manifestation of psychiatric disease, as well as its healing and often transformative power are concepts that still tantalize equally scientists and artists around the globe.


Assuntos
Médicos , Transtornos Psicóticos , Masculino , Humanos , Ciências Humanas
15.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 44(4): 70, 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460822

RESUMO

This essay surveys the situation of Italian women life scientists from the late nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century. It follows the path that took women from being an exceptional presence to becoming a common, yet not equal, presence in the Italian science departments. Very different proportions of women occupied the three ranks in the academic hierarchy-students, research staff and professors. From the late nineteenth century onwards, women started to enrol in Italian universities. Initially, the second most popular department among female students-outdone only by the humanities-was that of mathematics, physics and natural sciences. Concerning women among research staff, a brief statistical analysis reveals the growing proportion of the female workforce in academic institutions and brings into view poorly known female assistants and technicians. The most difficult career step for women was to gain a tenured university position. A comparison between bacteriologist Giuseppina Cattani's 'failure' to gain such a position and the ultimately successful strategy of zoologist and limnologist Rina Monti, who became one of the very first female university professors in Europe, illustrates the opportunities as well as the obstacles women naturalists encountered on the way into the academia. These experiences and those of others show that well into the twentieth century the support of powerful male mentors continued to be indispensable for women scientists. Positions in peripheral institutes or specializations in emerging research fields, in particular hydrobiology, entomology and cytogenetics, provided opportunities for Italian women to work their way up to professorships.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Ciências Humanas , Europa (Continente) , Física , Citogenética
16.
Cuad Bioet ; 33(109): 243-248, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493409

RESUMO

Those who knew Prof. Gonzalo Herranz Rodríguez share a common feeling in which respect and admiration are intermingled, transmitted from a natural and simple personality. He generated a remarkable capacity for attraction. In the broad field of bioethics he has left an indelible example of passionate and tenacious defence of scientific truth, both in the multiple facets that mark the daily life of medical action with respect to the sick, and in his clear international leadership when it was necessary to point out where authenticity was to be found in the biological findings on the first stages of the human embryo that later enable correct medical action to be guaranteed. His tenacious effort in the search for scientific truth, together with his defence of an attitude of closeness and humanity towards the patient, stemmed both from his rigour in the study of illness and his gifts of fine observation that allowed him to find solutions, a mixture of science and humanity, to the thousand incidences of medical action. For this reason, it is necessary to disseminate his work, as it constitutes a reference that marks the level of quality that is required for correct medical action.


Assuntos
Ciências Humanas , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Asclepio ; 74(2)dic. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-212890

RESUMO

Élie Metchnikoff, ganador del Premio Nobel de medicina en 1908 y sucesor de Pasteur, fue sin duda un hombre intelectualmente muy fértil. Sus investigaciones pioneras en una gran variedad de áreas científicas, como la gerontología, la tanatología y la inmunología modernas, constatan lo anterior. Pero ¿es posible considerarlo, además, como el primer transhumanista moderno? El objetivo de este artículo es estudiar la pertinencia de atribuirle tal título. Para ello analizaremos su vida y obra desde un punto de vista transhumanista. En un primer momento examinaremos cómo Metchnikoff concebía la naturaleza de nuestra especie; posteriormente, esbozaremos el modo en que podría presentarse su proyecto de mejoramiento humano; y, por último, expondremos su interesante concepción de la mortalidad humana. Existen dos alicientes para esta investigación: rescatar para los lectores hispanohablantes el pensamiento de Metchnikoff bajo esta novedosa perspectiva, y la necesidad de observar críticamente cualquier propuesta que aspire a superar los límites de la humanidad.(AU)


Élie Metchnikoff, winner of the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1908 and Pasteur’s successor, was undoubtedly a very intellectually fertile man. His pioneering research in a wide variety of scientific areas, such as modern gerontology, thanatology, and immunology, confirms this. But is it also possible to consider him as the first modern transhumanist? The objective of this article is to study the appropriateness of attributing him such a title. To do so, we will analyze his life and work from a transhumanist point of view. We will first examine how Metchnikoff conceived the nature of our species; then we will outline how his project of human improvement might be presented; and finally, we will expose his interesting conception of human mortality. There are two incentives for this research: to rescue Metchnikoff’s thought under this novel perspective for Spanish-speaking readers, and the need to critically observe any proposal that aspires to overcome the limits of humanity.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Geriatria , Tanatologia , Alergia e Imunologia , Mortalidade , Envelhecimento , História da Medicina , Ciências Humanas
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(49): e2209078119, 2022 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36445964

RESUMO

In the history of humanity, most conflicts within and between societies have originated from perceived inequality in resource distribution. How humans achieve and maintain distributive justice has therefore been an intensely studied issue. However, most research on the corresponding psychological processes has focused on inequality aversion and has been largely agnostic of other motives that may either align or oppose this behavioral tendency. Here we provide behavioral, computational, and neuroimaging evidence that distribution decisions are guided by three distinct motives-inequality aversion, harm aversion, and rank reversal aversion-that interact with each other and can also deter individuals from pursuing equality. At the neural level, we show that these three motives are encoded by separate neural systems, compete for representation in various brain areas processing equality and harm signals, and are integrated in the striatum, which functions as a crucial hub for translating the motives to behavior. Our findings provide a comprehensive framework for understanding the cognitive and biological processes by which multiple prosocial motives are coordinated in the brain to guide redistribution behaviors. This framework enhances our understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying equality-related behavior, suggests possible neural origins of individual differences in social preferences, and provides a new pathway to understand the cognitive and neural basis of clinical disorders with impaired social functions.


Assuntos
Motivação , Justiça Social , Humanos , Encéfalo , Ciências Humanas , Afeto
19.
Soc Sci Med ; 315: 115503, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410139

RESUMO

Given that researchers from North America and Europe author most global scientific publications, indigenous frontline researcher perspectives are rarely incorporated in the general research enterprise and ethics. Addressing this shortcoming, we analyzed a subset of data from a larger study. We present results from semi-structured in-depth ethnographic interviews with nine indigenous research assistants (RAs) conducted in Southern Africa four years after implementing a national HIV/AIDS study collaboratively implemented by national, U.S., and European-based stakeholders. The aim is to elucidate how these frontline researchers understand and interpret the task of maintaining their role as researchers and when they felt it more appropriate to cross to prevention educator or interventionist. The obtained results demonstrate how practices intended to protect participants and produce minimally biased ethical data create a conflict for frontline researchers by pitting operational ethics against their humanity. RAs understood and accepted the standard study procedures and the need to maintain their role as researchers. Nevertheless, a majority chose to provide unsolicited information or advice to participants despite the risk of potentially losing their job or causing harm to participants. RAs justified their decision to intervene by the lack and questionable quality of local resources/referrals and the long turnaround from data collection to prevention programming. This article demonstrates how practical exigencies in fulfilling IRB/ethics oversight and designing studies that produce the expected standard of evidence to influence policy and programmatic decisions inadvertently stifle opportunities to translate research into action. We offer specific points of reflection for researchers trained in High Income Country (HIC) perspectives towards decolonizing and improving practices in designing ethical research and establishing reflexive work environments with indigenous researchers.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Pesquisadores , Humanos , Ciências Humanas , Antropologia Cultural , Emoções
20.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 44(4): 64, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414836

RESUMO

Art and science is an area of research that has strengthened recently, mainly due to the impact of interdisciplinary work. At the same time, approaches between the humanities and the sciences have succeeded in re-signifying traditional views towards critical positions such as postcolonialism, especially in the colonially so-called "Global South". In this paper, we want to review the case of the work of the Mexican artist Octavio Ocampo through works that present the case of biological and cultural evolution. From this, we want to reflect on the public perception of science in Mexico, the tensions between social and natural sciences, and the urgent need to strengthen the postcolonial discourse in scientific practice.


Assuntos
Ciências Humanas , México
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