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1.
Food Chem ; 370: 130979, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543921

RESUMO

Hops are abundant in natural bioactive compounds. In this work, nine prenylated bitter compounds from hop were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase. As a result, four flavonoids and one phloroglucinol (lupulone, LP) outperformed acarbose in inhibiting α-glucosidase. Isoxanthohumol (IX) and LP with two types of structures were selected for inhibition mechanism studies by spectroscopic methods and molecular dynamics simulation (MD). Results showed that IX acted as noncompetitive inhibitor and bound to α-glucosidase in allosteric sites via hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic, van der Waals (vdW), and electrostatic force, whereas LP was uncompetitive inhibitor and bound to catalytic sites via hydrophobic and vdW interactions. Notably, the conformation around binding site of α-glucosidase formed stable α-helix and tightened after binding IX and LP, respectively, which helped to elucidate noncompetitive and uncompetitive inhibitory mechanisms. This work demonstrated that two types of prenylated bitter compounds are discrepant in their mechanisms of interaction with α-glucosidase.


Assuntos
Humulus , Simulação por Computador , Flavonoides , Paladar , alfa-Glucosidases
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639194

RESUMO

Humulus lupulus Linn. is a traditional medicinal and edible plant with several biological properties. The aims of this work were: (1) to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of H. lupulus ethanolic extract; (2) to study the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of isoxanthohumol, an isoprene flavonoid from H. lupulus, against Botrytis cinerea; and (3) to explore the antifungal mechanism of isoxanthohumol on B. cinerea. The present data revealed that the ethanolic extract of H. lupulus exhibited moderate antifungal activity against the five tested phytopathogenic fungi in vitro, and isoxanthohumol showed highly significant antifungal activity against B. cinerea, with an EC50 value of 4.32 µg/mL. Meanwhile, it exhibited moderate to excellent protective and curative efficacies in vivo. The results of morphologic observation, RNA-seq, and physiological indicators revealed that the antifungal mechanism of isoxanthohumol is mainly related to metabolism; it affected the carbohydrate metabolic process, destroyed the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and hindered the generation of ATP by inhibiting respiration. Further studies indicated that isoxanthohumol caused membrane lipid peroxidation, thus accelerating the death of B. cinerea. This study demonstrates that isoxanthohumol can be used as a potential botanical fungicide for the management of phytopathogenic fungi.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Humulus/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Xantonas/farmacologia , Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639413

RESUMO

Athletic taping is widely used in sports to prevent injury. However, the effect of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) protective taping on neuromuscular control during dynamic tasks remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the immediate effect of ACL protective taping on landing mechanics and muscle activations during side hops in healthy individuals. Fifteen healthy individuals (11 males and 4 females; age, 23.1 ± 1.4 years; height, 175.1 ± 10.4 cm; weight, 66.3 ± 11.2 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. Landing mechanics and muscle activations were measured while each participant performed single-leg hops side-to-side for ten repetitions with and without taping. An optical motion capture system and two force plates were used to collect the kinematic and kinetic data during the side hops. Surface electromyogram recordings were performed using a wireless electromyography system. Paired t-tests were performed to determine the differences in landing mechanics and muscle activations between the two conditions (taping and non-taping). The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Compared with the non-taping condition, participants landed with a smaller knee abduction angle, greater knee external rotation angle, and smaller knee extensor moment in the taping condition. Given that greater knee abduction, internal rotation, and knee extension moment are associated with a greater risk of ACL injury, our findings suggest that ACL protective taping can have an immediate effect on dynamic knee stability. Clinicians should consider using ACL protective taping to facilitate the use of favorable landing mechanics for ACL injuries.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Humulus , Adulto , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho , Músculos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641609

RESUMO

In recent years, the interest in the health-promoting effects of hop prenylflavonoids, especially its estrogenic effects, has grown. Unfortunately, one of the most potent phytoestrogens identified so far, 8-prenylnaringenin, is only a minor component of hops, so its isolation from hop materials for the production of estrogenically active food supplements has proved to be problematic. The aim of this study was to optimize the conditions (e.g., temperature, the length of the process and the amount of the catalyst) to produce 8-prenylnaringenin-rich material by the magnesium oxide-catalyzed thermal isomerization of desmethylxanthohumol. Under these optimized conditions, the yield of 8-prenylnaringenin was 29 mg per 100 gDW of product, corresponding to a >70% increase in its content relative to the starting material. This process may be applied in the production of functional foods or food supplements rich in 8-prenylnaringenin, which may then be utilized in therapeutic agents to help alleviate the symptoms of menopausal disorders.


Assuntos
Flavanonas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Fitoestrógenos/metabolismo , Preparações de Plantas/metabolismo , Propiofenonas/metabolismo , Cerveja/análise , Catálise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Flavanonas/química , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Humulus/química , Óxido de Magnésio/química , Óxido de Magnésio/metabolismo , Fitoestrógenos/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Preparações de Plantas/química , Propiofenonas/química , Temperatura
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502286

RESUMO

Humulus lupulus L. is an essential source of aroma compounds, hop bitter acids, and xanthohumol derivatives mainly exploited as flavourings in beer brewing and with demonstrated potential for the treatment of certain diseases. To acquire a comprehensive understanding of the biosynthesis of these compounds, the primary enzymes involved in the three major pathways of hops' phytochemical composition are herein critically summarized. Hops' phytochemical components impart bitterness, aroma, and antioxidant activity to beers. The biosynthesis pathways have been extensively studied and enzymes play essential roles in the processes. Here, we introduced the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of hop bitter acids, monoterpenes and xanthohumol derivatives, including the branched-chain aminotransferase (BCAT), branched-chain keto-acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH), carboxyl CoA ligase (CCL), valerophenone synthase (VPS), prenyltransferase (PT), 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS), 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (HDR), Geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS), monoterpene synthase enzymes (MTS), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), chalcone synthase (CHS_H1), chalcone isomerase (CHI)-like proteins (CHIL), and O-methyltransferase (OMT1). Furthermore, research advancements of each enzyme in terms of reaction conditions, substrate recognition, enzyme structures, and use in engineered microbes are described in depth. Hence, an extensive review of the key enzymes involved in the phytochemical compounds of hops will provide fundamentals for their applications in beer production.


Assuntos
Enzimas/química , Enzimas/metabolismo , Humulus/química , Humulus/enzimologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química
6.
J Altern Complement Med ; 27(11): 959-967, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399063

RESUMO

Objectives: Soy and hop extracts have been investigated as alternatives for hormone replacement therapy. However, their combined efficacy is not known. We investigated the efficacy and safety of a combined soy and hop extract on postmenopausal symptoms. Design: Double-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Settings/Location: Gynecological outpatient clinic of tertiary hospital. Subjects: Seventy-eight women with moderate or severe menopausal symptoms assessed as modified Kupperman Menopoausal Index (KMI) scores >20. Interventions: They received either a combined soy and hop extract (n = 38) or placebo (n = 40). Outcome measures: Menopausal symptoms were evaluated through self-reporting of modified Kupperman Menopausal Index (KMI) scores at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks. We assessed serum levels of bone metabolism biomarkers, ultrasonographic parameters, hormone profiles, compliance, and safety. Results: After 12 weeks of the treatment, treatment group scores decreased by 20.61 points compared with 14.80 points in the placebo group (p < 0.05). Fatigue, paresthesia, arthralgia, and myalgia, palpitation and vaginal dryness significantly improved more in the treatment group compared with the placebo group after 12 weeks (p < 0.05). Urine N-telopeptide in participants ≥50 years in the treatment group showed a reduced increase. Endometrial thickness and hormonal profiles did not show significant changes in either group. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion: The results suggest that 190 mg of combined soy and hop extract is safe and effective for improvement of menopausal symptoms. CRIS No.: KCT0006019.


Assuntos
Fogachos , Isoflavonas , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fogachos/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Humulus , Isoflavonas/uso terapêutico , Menopausa , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Soja
7.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200665

RESUMO

Beer is a fermented beverage widely consumed worldwide with high nutritional and biological value due to its bioactive components. It has been described that both alcoholic and non-alcoholic beer have several nutrients derived from their ingredients including vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates, and antioxidants that make beer a potential functional supplement. Some of these compounds possess redox, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties making the benefits of moderate beer consumption an attractive way to improve human health. Specifically, the hop cones used for beer brewing provide essential oils, bitter acids and flavonoids that are potent antioxidants and immune response modulators. This review focuses on the redox and anti-inflammatory properties of hop derivatives and summarizes the current knowledge of their neuroprotective effects.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Cerveja/análise , Humulus/química , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Oxirredução
8.
Food Chem ; 364: 130410, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237617

RESUMO

Aroma compounds in Cascade and Chinook hops harvested from multiple Virginia locations were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Selected aroma compounds were quantitated by combination of stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) and standard addition method (SAM). A total of 33 aroma-active compounds were detected in five samples with ß-myrcene, methyl octanoate, geraniol and linalool being the predominant compounds based on their high flavor dilution (FD) factors and odor activity values (OAVs). L-Calamenene and germacrene B was the major characteristic component unique to Cascade and Chinook variety, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed distinctive aroma profiles for all samples except for Blacksburg and Petersburg Cascade. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) reflected the higher contents of most aroma-active compounds in Meadowview Cascade and Chinook when compared to their counterparts. The significant variations suggested the potential influences of environmental factors and agronomic practices on hop aroma quality.


Assuntos
Humulus , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Aromatizantes , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
9.
Food Chem ; 365: 130478, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243125

RESUMO

The growing demand for authentic products that provide sensory characteristics combined with health benefits has been the focus of current studies. This study developed a Red Ale style craft beer with spices such as turmeric (T), black pepper (P) and aroma hops (H), used isolated or in mixtures. A mixture design was employed to evaluate the total phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity in the green and aged beers formulations. The spice extracts influenced the product's shelf-life. The addition of spices into the beers did not affect the physicochemical parameters that classify the Red Ale style, according to the hierarchical cluster analysis, except for aroma hops. A multiresponse optimization approach simultaneously maximized the antioxidant activity and the phenolic compounds in beers. The ideal formulation obtained for green beers was 25% T and 37.5% P and H; for aged beers, the formulation was 50% T, 20% P and 30% H.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Humulus , Antioxidantes/análise , Cerveja/análise , Fenóis/análise , Especiarias
10.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 84(4): 733-753, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244884

RESUMO

Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a major pest species in numerous crops including hop (Humulus lupulus L.). Substantial T. urticae infestation was observed to occur in this recently introduced crop in Brazil. The adoption of less suitable cultivars to the pest species is highly desirable for integrated pest management. We used free-choice trials and two-sex life table analysis to determine the preference and population growth of T. urticae under laboratory conditions using three of hop cultivars currently expanding in Brazil (Mantiqueira, Victoria, and Yakima Gold). We also estimated the density of non-glandular trichomes and lupulin glands found on the abaxial leaf surface of these cultivars and correlated them with performance parameters of T. urticae. Mantiqueira appeared to be the least preferred by adult females for attractiveness and oviposition suggesting existence of antixenosis on this cultivar. Female immature stages developed slower on Yakima Gold and Mantiqueira, but no difference was observed between the latter and Victoria. Fecundity and longevity were significantly lower on Mantiqueira than on Victoria and Yakima Gold. No significant differences were observed among cultivars for intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and net rate of reproduction (R0), suggesting the absence of antibiosis. Although, lupilin gland densities were higher on Mantiqueira and Yakima Gold than on Victoria, no significant correlations were observed between these defensive traits and performance parameters of T. urticae. However, 30-day population simulations of T. urticae suggest that Yakima Gold is the least susceptible, Mantiqueira is moderately susceptible, and Victoria is highly susceptible.


Assuntos
Humulus , Tetranychidae , Animais , Feminino , Tábuas de Vida , Oviposição , Reprodução
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(27): 7798-7814, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181402

RESUMO

The female flowers ("cones") of the hop plant (Humulus L.) produce compounds that contribute to the flavor and other properties of beer. Hop leaves and cones produce many of the same compounds, which also confer agronomic traits such as insect and disease resistance. Targeted and untargeted ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry with Waters MSE technology (UPLC-QTof-MSE) metabolomics were used to compare leaf phytochemical compositions of greenhouse-grown southwestern American wild Humulus neomexicanus (A. Nelson and Cockerell) Rydb. against a group of commercial hop cultivars consisting of both pure European Humulus lupulus L. and European-North American hybrids. Principal component analysis showed a clear distinction in chemical profiles between the two groups. H. neomexicanus leaves had a significantly higher content of total α acids (p = 4.4 × 10-9), total bitter acids (p = 2.6 × 10-6), cohumulone (p = 1.0 × 10-13), humulone + adhumulone (p = 9.1 × 10-4), and the prenylflavonoids xanthohumol (p = 0.013) and desmethylxanthohumol (p = 0.029) as well as significantly higher densities of glandular trichomes (p = 1.3 × 10-6), the biosynthetic site of those compounds. Most flavonol glycosides measured were also significantly more abundant in H. neomexicanus (p = 1.5 × 10-22 to 0.0027), whereas phenolic acids were consistently, but generally nonsignificantly (p > 0.05), more abundant in the cultivars. The higher bitter acid, prenylflavonoid, and flavonol glycoside content of H. neomexicanus leaves may help to confer more favorable insect and disease-resistance properties.


Assuntos
Humulus , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas , Folhas de Planta , Tricomas , Estados Unidos
12.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 12(13): 2373-2384, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156813

RESUMO

Adenosine receptors (ARs) have been involved in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease, where oxidative stress contributes to neurodegeneration and cell death. Therefore, there is increasing interest in developing antioxidative strategies to avoid or reduce neurodegeneration. We have previously described that different beer extracts modulate ARs and protect glioma and neuroblastoma cells from oxidative stress. The present work aimed to analyze the possible protective effect of hops (Humulus lupulus L.), a major component of beer, and xanthohumol on cell death elicited by oxidative stress and their modulation of ARs in rat C6 glioma and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Different extraction methods were employed in two hops varieties (Nugget and Columbus). Cell viability was determined by the XTT method in cells exposed to these hops extracts and xanthohumol. ARs were analyzed by radioligand binding and real-time PCR assays. Hops extract reverted the cell death observed under oxidative stress and modulated adenosine A1 and A2 receptors in both cell types. Xanthohumol was unable to revert the effect of oxidative stress in cell viability but it also modulated ARs similarly to hops. Therefore, healthy effects of beer described previously could be due, at least in part, to their content of hops and the modulation of ARs.


Assuntos
Humulus , Propiofenonas , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Propiofenonas/farmacologia , Ratos , Receptores Purinérgicos P1
13.
J Biomech ; 124: 110546, 2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171677

RESUMO

Motion capture systems enable in-depth interpretations of human movements based on data from three-dimensional joint angles and moments. Such analyses carry important bearings for evaluation of movement control during for instance hop landings among sports-active individuals from a performance perspective but also in rehabilitation. Recent statistical development allows analysis of entire time-series of angle and moment during hops using functional data analysis, but the reliability of such multifaceted data is not established. We used integrated pointwise indices (intra-class correlation, ICC; standard error of measurement, SEM) to establish the test-retest reliability of three-dimensional hip, knee and ankle angle and moment curves during landings of one-leg hop for distance (OLHD) in 23 asymptomatic individuals aged 18-28. We contrasted these findings to reliability of discrete variables extracted at specific events (initial contact, peak value). We extended the calculations of ICC and SEM to handle unbalanced situations (varying number of repetitions) to include all available data. Hip and knee angle curves proved reliable with stable ICC curves throughout the landing, with integrated ICCs ≥ 0.71 for all planes except for knee internal/external rotation (ICC = 0.57). Hip and knee moment curves and ankle angle and moments were less reliable and less stable, particularly in the first ~ 10-25% of the landing (integrated ICCs 0.44-0.57). Curve data were generally not in agreement with the results for discrete event data, thus advocating analysis of curve data which contains more information. To conclude, hip and knee angle curve data during OLHD landings can reliably be evaluated, while moment curves necessitate careful consideration.


Assuntos
Humulus , Tornozelo , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Articulação do Quadril , Humanos , Cinética , Articulação do Joelho , Perna (Membro) , Movimento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 201: 114107, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984828

RESUMO

Bitter acids are a class of prenylated phloroglucinol derivatives present in Humulus lupulus L., known for their multiple healthy properties, nevertheless, research regarding their metabolism and stability is lacking. This study was aimed to elucidate the metabolic stability of hop α- and ß-acids and characterize I and II phase metabolites in vitro and in vivo. For this purpose, an ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method was developed and validated. Mice liver microsomes were used to assess metabolic stability; in vitro t1/2 and clearance values were calculated, showing a moderate metabolism for α-acids (avgt1/2: 120.01 min, avgCLint 11.96 µL/min/mg), while ß-acids were metabolized faster (avgt1/2: 103.01 min, avgCLint: 13.83 µL/min/mg). I and II phase metabolites were characterized both in in vitro, and in vivo, in mouse plasma and urine after oral administration. A combined full scan/data dependent/precursor ion list-triggered neutral loss (FS/dd-MS2/PIL-tNL) strategy was used to detect unknown and expected metabolites. As a result, 33 compounds were detected, including novel metabolites, such as 9 potential oxidized metabolites of humulones (M6-M14), and 10 glucuronide conjugates of α-acids, comprising 7 glucuronide derivatives of oxidized phase I metabolites (M26-M32). The proposed method extends the current knowledge regarding metabolization of hop α- and ß-acids and could be applied for the comprehension of the metabolic fate of this class of compounds in different species, as well as for in vivo pharmacokinetic studies.


Assuntos
Humulus , Ácidos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais
15.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 22(7): 755-768, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942461

RESUMO

Pseudoperonospora humuli is an obligate biotrophic oomycete that causes downy mildew, one of the most devastating diseases of cultivated hop, Humulus lupulus. Downy mildew occurs in all production areas of the crop in the Northern Hemisphere and Argentina. The pathogen overwinters in hop crowns and roots, and causes considerable crop loss. Downy mildew is managed by sanitation practices, planting of resistant cultivars, and fungicide applications. However, the scarcity of sources of host resistance and fungicide resistance in pathogen populations complicates disease management. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the symptoms of the disease, life cycle, virulence factors, and management of hop downy mildew, including various forecasting systems available in the world. Additionally, recent developments in genomics and effector discovery, and the future prospects of using such resources in successful disease management are also discussed. TAXONOMY: Class: Oomycota; Order: Peronosporales; Family: Peronosporaceae; Genus: Pseudoperonospora; Species: Pseudoperonospora humuli. DISEASE SYMPTOMS: The disease is characterized by systemically infected chlorotic shoots called "spikes". Leaf symptoms and signs include angular chlorotic lesions and profuse sporulation on the abaxial side of the leaf. Under severe disease pressure, dark brown discolouration or lesions are observed on cones. Infected crowns have brown to black streaks when cut open. Cultivars highly susceptible to crown rot may die at this phase of the disease cycle without producing shoots. However, foliar symptoms may not be present on plants with systemically infected root systems. INFECTION PROCESS: Pathogen mycelium overwinters in buds and crowns, and emerges on infected shoots in spring. Profuse sporulation occurs on infected tissues and sporangia are released and dispersed by air currents. Under favourable conditions, sporangia germinate and produce biflagellate zoospores that infect healthy tissue, thus perpetuating the infection cycle. Though oospores are produced in infected tissues, their role in the infection cycle is not defined. CONTROL: Downy mildew on hop is managed by a combination of sanitation practices and timely fungicide applications. Forecasting systems are used to time fungicide applications for successful management of the disease. USEFUL WEBSITES: https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/hop-downy-mildew (North Carolina State University disease factsheet), https://www.canr.msu.edu/resources/michigan-hop-management-guide (Michigan Hop Management Guide), http://uspest.org/risk/models (Oregon State University Integrated Plant Protection Center degree-day model for hop downy mildew), https://www.usahops.org/cabinet/data/Field-Guide.pdf (Field Guide for Integrated Pest Management in Hops).


Assuntos
Humulus/parasitologia , Oomicetos/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Resistência à Doença , Fungicidas Industriais , Humulus/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle
16.
New Phytol ; 231(4): 1599-1611, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978992

RESUMO

We recently described, in Cannabis sativa, the oldest sex chromosome system documented so far in plants (12-28 Myr old). Based on the estimated age, we predicted that it should be shared by its sister genus Humulus, which is known also to possess XY chromosomes. Here, we used transcriptome sequencing of an F1 family of H. lupulus to identify and study the sex chromosomes in this species using the probabilistic method SEX-DETector. We identified 265 sex-linked genes in H. lupulus, which preferentially mapped to the C. sativa X chromosome. Using phylogenies of sex-linked genes, we showed that a region of the sex chromosomes had already stopped recombining in an ancestor of both species. Furthermore, as in C. sativa, Y-linked gene expression reduction is correlated to the position on the X chromosome, and highly Y degenerated genes showed dosage compensation. We report, for the first time in Angiosperms, a sex chromosome system that is shared by two different genera. Thus, recombination suppression started at least 21-25 Myr ago, and then (either gradually or step-wise) spread to a large part of the sex chromosomes (c. 70%), leading to a degenerated Y chromosome.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Humulus , Cannabis/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Humulus/genética , Filogenia , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética
17.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(11): 4343-4356, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021813

RESUMO

Diversified members of hop bitter acids (α- and ß-acids) have been found in hop (Humulus lupulus). Mixtures of hop bitter acids have been traditionally applied in brewing and food industries as bitterness flavors or food additives. Recent studies have discovered novel applications of hop bitter acids and their derivatives in medicinal and pharmaceutical fields. The increasing demands of purified hop bitter acid promoted biosynthesis efforts for the heterologous biosynthesis of objective hop bitter acids by engineered microbial factories. In this study, the updated information of hop bitter acids and their representative application in brewing, food, and medicine fields are reviewed. We also speculate future trends on the development of robust microbial cell factories and biotechnologies for the biosynthesis of hop bitter acids. KEY POINTS: • Structures and applications of hop bitter acids are summarized in this study. • Biosynthesis of hop bitter acids remains challenging. • We discuss potential strategies in the microbial production of hop bitter acids.


Assuntos
Humulus , Ácidos
18.
J Med Food ; 24(5): 497-504, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009019

RESUMO

Previously, we reported that the administration of a mixture of Humulus japonicus (MH) increased the longitudinal bone growth rate in Sprague Dawley rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of the dietary administration of MH on longitudinal bone growth in growth hormone (GH)-deficient hypophysectomized male and female rats to determine whether the effect of MH was similar to that of GH. We measured the nose-to-anus and nose-to-tail length gain, femur and tibia lengths, growth plate zones, and expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) after the dietary administration of MH or the injection of GH into hypophysectomized rats for 4 weeks. Results demonstrated that the dietary administration of MH had no effect on longitudinal bone growth, whereas the injection of GH increased the nose-to-tail length gain and femur and tibia lengths in hypophysectomized rats. In addition, MH did not affect the growth plate, bone mineralization, and expression of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3. These findings indicate that MH does not exert a GH-like effect and that the effects of MH and GH on longitudinal bone growth involve different pathways.


Assuntos
Humulus , Animais , Desenvolvimento Ósseo , Feminino , Hormônio do Crescimento , Hipofisectomia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
Biomolecules ; 11(3)2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801280

RESUMO

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the epidermis. New biological drugs were developed for the systemic treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis. However, products for the topical treatment of mild psoriasis are still required. Here, we examined the effect of natural compounds on psoriasis-like keratinocytes in vitro and ex vivo. Psoriasis-like keratinocytes were generated by treating human primary keratinocytes with the psoriasis-associated cytokines IL-17A, TNF-α and IL-22. Initially, 10 botanical extracts from Ayurvedic Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine, Northern American traditional medicine and Occidental Monastic Medicine were investigated using BrdU assays and IL-6 and IL-8 ELISAs. Curcuma amada, Humulus lupulus and Hypericum perforatum turned out to be the most effective plant extracts. In vitro, the plant extracts inhibited the expression of anti-microbial peptides (ß-defensin 2), the hyperproliferation marker keratin 17, the glucose transporter 1 and downregulated the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and pSTAT3. In an ex vivo psoriasis model, Humulus lupulus displayed the most prominent anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effect. In conclusion, among the plant extracts investigated, Humulus lupulus showed the most promising anti-psoriatic effect. It is an interesting candidate for topical psoriasis treatment that should be further studied in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Queratinócitos/patologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Psoríase/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcuma/química , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Humulus/química , Hypericum/química , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Biológicos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Psoríase/genética
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9017, 2021 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907286

RESUMO

Three different cultivars of Humulus lupulus L. were subjected to a regime of internode touch and bending under greenhouse conditions. Experiments were performed to assess intraspecific variability in plant mechanosensing, flower quality, and yield to quantify the thigmomorphogenic impact on plant compactness and flowering performance. Touching and/or touching plus bending the plant shoot internodes located in the apical meristem zone decreased internode elongation and increased width. The growth responses were due partly to touching and/or touching plus bending perturbation, 25.6% and 28% respectively. Growth of new tissue within the local apical portion of the bine continued to remain mechanosensitive. The number of nodes and female flowers produced was unaffected by either type of mechanical stress. The study provides evidence that thigmomorphogenic cues can be used as a hop crop management tool to increase bine compactness and increase node density per unit area. The findings have broad implications for hop production; production can more readily take place in a confined greenhouse space with the aid of mechanical stimulation to control plant growth without sacrificing yield or flower quality.


Assuntos
Humulus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mecanotransdução Celular , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Manejo de Espécimes
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