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1.
Dev Biol ; 488: 74-80, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35577031

RESUMO

We present a new transgenic Hydra vulgaris line expressing a distinct fluorescent protein in each of the three cell lineages of the adult polyp. Plasmid microinjection was used to generate a novel transgenic Hydra line expressing the yellow fluorescent protein YPet in the ectodermal epithelial cell lineage. Tissue grafting was then used to combine a YPet animal with a line that expresses DsRed2 in the endodermal epithelial lineage and eGFP in the interstitial cell (i-cell) lineage. The resulting triple-labeled ("tricolored") transgenic line provides, for the first time, a Hydra in which all three cell lineages can be imaged simultaneously in vivo. We show example confocal images of whole animals and individual cells to illustrate the imaging capabilities that this new line makes possible. We also used this line to carry out new studies of cell fate in the tentacles. Specifically, we evaluated the well-accepted notion that all tentacle cells are terminally differentiated and are displaced or migrate exclusively towards the distal end of the tentacle. We found that ectodermal and endodermal epithelial cells are displaced distally, as expected. In contrast, members of the i-cell lineage, which resembled neuronal precursors, could migrate out of a tentacle into the body column. This example illustrates how this tricolored transgenic line enables new in vivo studies of cell behaviors in Hydra.


Assuntos
Hydra , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Ectoderma/fisiologia , Células Epiteliais , Hydra/fisiologia
2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 24(19): 11442-11454, 2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522931

RESUMO

The procedure leading to the first HyDRA blind challenge for the prediction of water donor stretching vibrations in monohydrates of organic molecules is described. A training set of 10 monohydrates with experimentally known and published water donor vibrations is presented and a test set of 10 monohydrates with unknown or unpublished water donor vibrational wavenumbers is described together with relevant background literature. The rules for data submissions from computational chemistry groups are outlined and the planned publication procedure after the end of the blind challenge is discussed.


Assuntos
Hydra , Animais , Vibração , Água/química
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2450: 373-398, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35359319

RESUMO

The freshwater Hydra polyp is a versatile model to study whole-body regeneration from a developmental as well as a cellular point of view. The outstanding regenerative capacities of Hydra are based on its three populations of adult stem cells located in the central body column of the animal. There, these three populations, gastrodermal epithelial, epidermal epithelial, and interstitial, continuously cycle in homeostatic conditions, and their activity is locally regulated after mid-gastric bisection. Moreover, they present an unusual cycling behavior with a short G1 phase and a pausing in G2. This particular cell cycle has been studied for a long time with classical microscopic methods. We describe here two flow cytometry methods that provide accurate and reproducible quantitative data to monitor cell cycle regulation in homeostatic and regenerative contexts. We also present a cell sorting procedure based on flow cytometry, whereby stem cells expressing a fluorescent reporter protein in transgenic lines can be enriched for use in applications such as transcriptomic, proteomic, or cell cycle analysis.


Assuntos
Hydra , Animais , Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Proteômica , Células-Tronco
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2450: 619-633, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35359332

RESUMO

Cells of the freshwater cnidarian Hydra possess an exceptional regeneration ability. In small groups of these cells, organizer centers emerge spontaneously and instruct the patterning of the surrounding population into a new animal. This property makes them an excellent model system to study the general rules of self-organization. A small tissue fragment or a clump of randomly aggregated cells can form a hollow spheroid that is able to establish a body axis de novo. Interestingly, mechanical oscillations (inflation/deflation cycles of the spheroid) driven by osmosis accompany the successful establishment of axial polarity. Here we describe different approaches for generating Hydra tissue spheroids, along with imaging and image analysis techniques to investigate their mechanical behavior.


Assuntos
Hydra , Animais , Modelos Biológicos
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2450: 635-647, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35359333

RESUMO

In addition to its ability to regenerate any amputated body part, the Hydra freshwater polyp shows the amazing ability to regenerate as a full polyp after a complete dissociation of its tissues. The developmental processes at work in reaggregates undergoing whole-body regeneration can be investigated at the molecular level by RNA interference (RNAi). Here we provide a protocol that combines ß-catenin RNAi with reaggregation. This protocol serves as a basis to generate "RNAi-reaggregates," followed by the extraction of high-quality RNA for the precise quantification of gene expression by real-time PCR. This protocol is efficient, providing both a molecular signature, with the significant downregulation of ß-catenin and Wnt3, as well as a robust phenotype, the lack of axis formation, which is observed in all reaggregates.


Assuntos
Hydra , Animais , Hydra/genética , Hydra/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , beta Catenina/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo
6.
Bioessays ; 44(5): e2100233, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35261041

RESUMO

The microbiome of human hair follicles (HFs) has emerged as an important player in different HF and skin pathologies, yet awaits in-depth exploration. This raises questions regarding the tightly linked interactions between host environment, nutrient dependency of host-associated microbes, microbial metabolism, microbe-microbe interactions and host immunity. The use of simple model systems facilitates addressing generally important questions and testing overarching, therapeutically relevant principles that likely transcend obvious interspecies differences. Here, we evaluate the potential of the freshwater polyp Hydra, to dissect fundamental principles of microbiome regulation by the host, that is the human HF. In particular, we focus on therapeutically targetable host-microbiome interactions, such as nutrient dependency, microbial interactions and host defence. Offering a new lens into the study of HF - microbiota interactions, we argue that general principles of how Hydra manages its microbiota can inform the development of novel, microbiome-targeting therapeutic interventions in human skin disease.


Assuntos
Hydra , Microbiota , Animais , Biologia , Folículo Piloso , Humanos , Hydra/fisiologia , Interações Microbianas , Microbiota/fisiologia
7.
Tob Control ; 31(2): 142-145, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35241578

RESUMO

The South Asian region occupies a unique place in global tobacco control because of a broad spectrum of widely used tobacco products and the consequent mix of local and transnational tobacco industries. Cigarette use is especially high among males in many countries, while bidis are widely used in India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, and are very inexpensive. Smokeless tobacco use is a global problem, but the bulk of use is in South Asia and there is emerging promotion of newly developed tobacco and nicotine products across the region. With the transnational cigarette industry contributing a significant amount in taxes, the bidi industry employing millions of workers and many farmers engaged in tobacco farming, the industry is powerful and exploits this when countering proposed advancements in tobacco control policy. Despite industry interference and major challenges, this region has achieved remarkable successes in tobacco control, including large pictorial warnings that cover up to 80%-90% of the pack in some countries, stringent rules on depiction of tobacco in movies, bans on advertising and promotion, and smoke-free public places. Key challenges include increasing the tax component of retail prices and reducing tax concessions, regulating newly developed products and countering the aggressive tactics of the tobacco industry. Strategies to advance tobacco control in the region may also include standardised packaging of tobacco products, sustained mass media campaigns to warn the population of the harms of tobacco use and promote use of available cost-covered cessation services, and supply-side measures such as vendor licensing.


Assuntos
Hydra , Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Impostos , Tabaco
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227876

RESUMO

Emerging pollutants (EPs) are causative for teratogenic and reproductive effects. EPs are detected in all the environmental matrices at higher levels. A suitable model for aquatic toxicity assessment is Hydra, because of morphological, behavioral, reproductive (sexual and asexual), and biochemical changes. Many researchers have used Hydra for toxicity assessment of organic chemicals (BPA), heavy metals, pharmaceuticals, nanomaterials and microplastics. Various Hydra species were used for environmental toxicity studies; however H. magnipapillata was predominantly used due to the availability of its genome and proteome sequences. Teratogenic and reproductive changes in Hydra are species specific. Teratogenic effects were studied using sterozoom dissecting microscope, acridine orange (AO) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DPAI) staining. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by EPs had been understood by the Dichlorodihydrofluorescein Diacetate (DCFDA) staining and comet assay. Multiple advanced techniques would aid to understand the effects at molecular level, such as real-time PCR, rapid amplification of cDNA end- PCR. EPs modulated the major antioxidant enzyme levels, therefore, defense mechanism was affected by the higher generation of reactive oxygen species. Genome sequencing helps to know the mode of action of pollutants, role of enzymes in detoxification, defense genes and stress responsive genes. Molecular techniques were used to obtain the information for evolutionary changes of genes and modulation of gene expression by EPs.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Hydra , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Modelos Animais , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
9.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(2)2022 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35205404

RESUMO

The emergence and stabilization of a body axis is a major step in animal morphogenesis, determining the symmetry of the body plan as well as its polarity. To advance our understanding of the emergence of body axis polarity, we study regenerating Hydra. Axis polarity is strongly memorized in Hydra regeneration even in small tissue segments. What type of processes confer this memory? To gain insight into the emerging polarity, we utilize frustrating initial conditions by studying regenerating tissue strips which fold into hollow spheroids by adhering their distal ends of opposite original polarities. Despite the convoluted folding process and the tissue rearrangements during regeneration, these tissue strips develop in a reproducible manner, preserving the original polarity and yielding an ordered body plan. These observations suggest that the integration of mechanical and biochemical processes supported by their mutual feedback attracts the tissue dynamics towards a well-defined developmental trajectory biased by weak inherited cues from the parent animal. Hydra thus provide an example of dynamic canalization in which the dynamic rules are instilled, but, in contrast to the classical picture, the detailed developmental trajectory does not unfold in a programmatic manner.


Assuntos
Hydra , Animais , Hydra/genética , Morfogênese/genética , Regeneração/genética
10.
J Biochem ; 171(1): 41-51, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523686

RESUMO

Thioredoxins, small disulphide-containing redox proteins, play an important role in the regulation of cellular thiol redox balance through their disulfide reductase activity. In this study, we have identified, cloned, purified and characterized thioredoxin 1 (HvTrx1) from the Cnidarian Hydra vulgaris Ind-Pune. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that HvTrx1 contains an evolutionarily conserved catalytic active site Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys and shows a closer phylogenetic relationship with vertebrate Trx1. Optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity of purified HvTrx1 was found to be pH 7.0 and 25°C, respectively. Enzyme activity decreased significantly at acidic or alkaline pH as well as at higher temperatures. HvTrx1 was found to be expressed ubiquitously in whole mount in situ hybridization. Treatment of Hydra with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a highly reactive oxidizing agent, led to a significant increase in gene expression and enzyme activity of Trx1. Further experiments using PX12, an inhibitor of Trx1, indicated that Trx1 plays an important role in regeneration in Hydra. Finally, by using growth assay in Escherichia coli and wound healing assay in human colon cancer cells, we demonstrate that HvTrx1 is functionally active in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic heterologous systems.


Assuntos
Cnidários , Hydra , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Cnidários/metabolismo , Humanos , Hydra/genética , Hydra/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Índia , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Tiorredoxinas/genética , Tiorredoxinas/metabolismo
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149923, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487898

RESUMO

While it is often assumed that oncogenic processes in metazoans can influence species interactions, empirical evidence is lacking. Here, we use the cnidarian Hydra oligactis to experimentally explore the consequences of tumor associated phenotypic alterations for its predation ability, relationship with commensal ciliates and vulnerability to predators. Unexpectedly, hydra's predation ability was higher in tumorous polyps compared to non-tumorous ones. Commensal ciliates colonized preferentially tumorous hydras than non-tumorous ones, and had a higher replication rate on the former. Finally, in a choice experiment, tumorous hydras were preferentially eaten by a fish predator. This study, for the first time, provides evidence that neoplastic growth has the potential, through effect(s) on host phenotype, to alter biotic interactions within ecosystems and should thus be taken into account by ecologists.


Assuntos
Cnidários , Hydra , Neoplasias , Animais , Ecossistema , Água Doce
12.
Genome Biol Evol ; 13(12)2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34877597

RESUMO

The cnidarian model organism Hydra has long been studied for its remarkable ability to regenerate its head, which is controlled by a head organizer located near the hypostome. The canonical Wnt pathway plays a central role in head organizer function during regeneration and during bud formation, which is the asexual mode of reproduction in Hydra. However, it is unclear how shared the developmental programs of head organizer genesis are in budding and regeneration. Time-series analysis of gene expression changes during head regeneration and budding revealed a set of 298 differentially expressed genes during the 48-h head regeneration and 72-h budding time courses. In order to understand the regulatory elements controlling Hydra head regeneration, we first identified 27,137 open-chromatin elements that are open in one or more sections of the organism body or regenerating tissue. We used histone modification ChIP-seq to identify 9,998 candidate proximal promoter and 3,018 candidate enhancer-like regions respectively. We show that a subset of these regulatory elements is dynamically remodeled during head regeneration and identify a set of transcription factor motifs that are enriched in the enhancer regions activated during head regeneration. Our results show that Hydra displays complex gene regulatory structures of developmentally dynamic enhancers, which suggests that the evolution of complex developmental enhancers predates the split of cnidarians and bilaterians.


Assuntos
Hydra , Animais , Padronização Corporal/genética , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Hydra/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt
13.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 4(9): 7254-7265, 2021 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746680

RESUMO

Exposure to microcystins (MCs) in humans and animals commonly occurs through the consumption of drinking water and food contaminated with cyanobacteria. Although studies have focused on developing water filtration treatments for MCs using activated carbon, dietary sorbents to reduce the bioavailability of MCs from the stomach and intestines have not been reported. To address this need, edible calcium and sodium montmorillonite clays were characterized for their ability to bind MC containing leucine and arginine (MC-LR) under conditions simulating the gastrointestinal tract and compared with a medical-grade activated carbon. Results of in vitro adsorption isotherms and thermodynamics showed that binding plots for MC-LR on montmorillonites fit the Langmuir model with high binding capacity, affinity, Gibbs free energy, and enthalpy. The in silico results from molecular modeling predicted that the major binding mechanisms involved electrostatics and hydrogen bonds, and that interlayers were important binding sites. The safety and detoxification efficacy of the sorbents against MC-LR were validated in a battery of living organisms, including Hydra vulgaris, Lemna minor, and Caenorhabditis elegans. The inclusion of 0.05% and 0.1% montmorillonite clays in hydra media significantly reduced MC-LR toxicity and protected hydra by 60-80%, whereas only slight protection was shown with the heat-collapsed clay. In the Lemna minor assay, montmorillonites significantly enhanced the growth of lemna, as supported by the increase in frond number, surface area, chlorophyll content, and growth rate, as well as the decrease in inhibition rate. Similar results were shown in the C. elegans assay, where montmorillonite clays reduced MC-LR effects on body length and brood size. All 3 bioassays confirmed dose-dependent protection from MC-LR, validated the in vitro and in silico findings, and suggested that edible montmorillonites are safe and efficacious binders for MC-LR. Moreover, their inclusion in diets during algal blooming seasons could protect vulnerable populations of humans and animals.


Assuntos
Bentonita , Hydra , Adsorção , Animais , Bentonita/química , Caenorhabditis elegans , Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Argila/química , Microcistinas/química
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20627, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663887

RESUMO

Cnidarians are characterized by the possession of stinging organelles, called nematocysts, which they use for prey capture and defense. Nematocyst discharge is controlled by a mechanosensory apparatus with analogies to vertebrate hair cells. Members of the transient receptor potential (TRPN) ion channel family are supposed to be involved in the transduction of the mechanical stimulus. A small molecule screen was performed to identify compounds that affect nematocyst discharge in Hydra. We identified several [2.2]paracyclophanes that cause inhibition of nematocyst discharge in the low micro-molar range. Further structure-activity analyses within the compound class of [2.2]paracyclophanes showed common features that are required for the inhibitory activity of the [2.2]paracyclophane core motif. This study demonstrates that Hydra can serve as a model for small molecule screens targeting the mechanosensory apparatus in native tissues.


Assuntos
Hydra/imunologia , Nematocisto/efeitos dos fármacos , Nematocisto/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Cnidários , Hydra/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Canais de Potencial de Receptor Transitório/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Potencial de Receptor Transitório/fisiologia
15.
mBio ; 12(5): e0184721, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579574

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are short and generally positively charged peptides found in a wide variety of life forms from microorganisms to humans. Their wide range of activity against pathogens, including Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and enveloped viruses makes them a fundamental component of innate immunity. Marra et al. (A. Marra, M. A. Hanson, S. Kondo, B. Erkosar, B. Lemaitre, mBio 12:e0082421, 2021, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00824-21) use the analytical potential of Drosophila to show that AMPs and lysozymes play a direct role in controlling the composition and abundance of the beneficial gut microbiome. By comparing mutant and wild-type flies, they demonstrated that the specific loss of AMPs and lysozyme production results in changes in microbiome abundance and composition. Furthermore, they established that AMPs and lysozyme are particularly essential in aging flies. Studies of early emerging metazoans, other invertebrates, and humans support the view of an ancestral function of AMPs in controlling microbial colonization.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/imunologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila , Fungos , Humanos , Hydra , Imunidade Inata , Muramidase , Imunidade Vegetal , Simbiose , Vírus
16.
J Cell Sci ; 134(15)2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346482

RESUMO

In Hydra, Notch inhibition causes defects in head patterning and prevents differentiation of proliferating nematocyte progenitor cells into mature nematocytes. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which the Notch pathway regulates these processes, we performed RNA-seq and identified genes that are differentially regulated in response to 48 h of treating the animals with the Notch inhibitor DAPT. To identify candidate direct regulators of Notch signalling, we profiled gene expression changes that occur during subsequent restoration of Notch activity and performed promoter analyses to identify RBPJ transcription factor-binding sites in the regulatory regions of Notch-responsive genes. Interrogating the available single-cell sequencing data set revealed the gene expression patterns of Notch-regulated Hydra genes. Through these analyses, a comprehensive picture of the molecular pathways regulated by Notch signalling in head patterning and in interstitial cell differentiation in Hydra emerged. As prime candidates for direct Notch target genes, in addition to Hydra (Hy)Hes, we suggest Sp5 and HyAlx. They rapidly recovered their expression levels after DAPT removal and possess Notch-responsive RBPJ transcription factor-binding sites in their regulatory regions.


Assuntos
Hydra , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hydra/genética , Hydra/metabolismo , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária , Receptores Notch/genética , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4795, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373460

RESUMO

Chemogenetic and optogenetic tools have transformed the field of neuroscience by facilitating the examination and manipulation of existing circuits. Yet, the field lacks tools that enable rational rewiring of circuits via the creation or modification of synaptic relationships. Here we report the development of HySyn, a system designed to reconnect neural circuits in vivo by reconstituting synthetic modulatory neurotransmission. We demonstrate that genetically targeted expression of the two HySyn components, a Hydra-derived neuropeptide and its receptor, creates de novo neuromodulatory transmission in a mammalian neuronal tissue culture model and functionally rewires a behavioral circuit in vivo in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. HySyn can interface with existing optogenetic, chemogenetic and pharmacological approaches to functionally probe synaptic transmission, dissect neuropeptide signaling, or achieve targeted modulation of specific neural circuits and behaviors.


Assuntos
Neurônios/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica/genética , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Cálcio , Expressão Gênica , Técnicas Genéticas , Hydra/genética , Hydra/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neuropeptídeos , Optogenética , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Curr Biol ; 31(17): 3784-3796.e3, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297913

RESUMO

Although much is known about how the structure of the nervous system develops, it is still unclear how its functional modularity arises. A dream experiment would be to observe the entire development of a nervous system, correlating the emergence of functional units with their associated behaviors. This is possible in the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris, which, after its complete dissociation into individual cells, can reassemble itself back together into a normal animal. We used calcium imaging to monitor the complete neuronal activity of dissociated Hydra as they reaggregated over several days. Initially uncoordinated neuronal activity became synchronized into coactive neuronal ensembles. These local modules then synchronized with others, building larger functional ensembles that eventually extended throughout the entire reaggregate, generating neuronal rhythms similar to those of intact animals. Global synchronization was not due to neurite outgrowth but to strengthening of functional connections between ensembles. We conclude that Hydra's nervous system achieves its functional reassembly through the hierarchical modularity of neuronal ensembles. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Assuntos
Hydra , Animais , Cálcio , Hydra/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso , Neurônios/fisiologia
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2366: 67-91, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236633

RESUMO

Extensive genomic and transcriptomic sequencing over the past decade has revealed NF-κB signaling pathway homologs in organisms basal to insects, for example, in members of the phyla Cnidaria (e.g., sea anemones, corals, hydra, jellyfish) and Porifera (sponges), and in several single-celled protists (e.g., Capsaspora owczarzaki, some choanoflagellates). Therefore, methods are required to study the function of NF-κB and its pathway members in early branching organisms, many of which do not have histories as model organisms. Here, we describe a combination of cellular, molecular, and biochemical techniques that have been used for studying NF-κB, and related pathway proteins, in some of these basal organisms. These methods are useful for studying the evolution of NF-κB signaling, and may be adaptable to the study of NF-κB in other non-model organisms.


Assuntos
Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Genômica , Hydra/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Filogenia , Anêmonas-do-Mar
20.
Elife ; 102021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328079

RESUMO

Hydra vulgaris is an emerging model organism for neuroscience due to its small size, transparency, genetic tractability, and regenerative nervous system; however, fundamental properties of its sensorimotor behaviors remain unknown. Here, we use microfluidic devices combined with fluorescent calcium imaging and surgical resectioning to study how the diffuse nervous system coordinates Hydra's mechanosensory response. Mechanical stimuli cause animals to contract, and we find this response relies on at least two distinct networks of neurons in the oral and aboral regions of the animal. Different activity patterns arise in these networks depending on whether the animal is contracting spontaneously or contracting in response to mechanical stimulation. Together, these findings improve our understanding of how Hydra's diffuse nervous system coordinates sensorimotor behaviors. These insights help reveal how sensory information is processed in an animal with a diffuse, radially symmetric neural architecture unlike the dense, bilaterally symmetric nervous systems found in most model organisms.


Assuntos
Hydra/fisiologia , Mecanotransdução Celular/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Imagem Óptica
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