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1.
Primates ; 63(3): 237-243, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35325328

RESUMO

Understanding flexibility in the social structure and mating strategies of the world's last remaining population (35 individuals) of wild Hainan gibbons (Nomascus hainanus) is critical for developing effective management plans to aid in their population recovery. Three of the five remaining Hainan gibbon groups (A, B, and C) currently live in a social unit characterized by two or three adult males, two reproducing adult females, and offspring. A fourth group (D) contains one adult male, two adult females, and offspring, and Group E contains a single adult male-adult female pair with a young infant. In this study, we describe observations of copulations between multiple resident males and one of the two resident females in Group C. Group C is best described as a small multi-male/multi-female group. We found that this breeding female (F2) solicited copulations from two resident adult males (M1 and M2) on the same day, and also mated with each of these two males on different days. Resident males were not observed to interrupt the mating pair. Although factors such as a biased adult sex ratio, severe population disruption, and habitat degradation can help explain variation in group composition and mating strategies in Hainan gibbons, we argue that there exists considerable mating system variability across gibbon species, and that this variability offers important insights into male and female Hainan gibbon group structure and reproductive strategies.


Assuntos
Hylobatidae , Animais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Humanos , Hylobates , Masculino , Reprodução
2.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0259329, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192639

RESUMO

By identifying homogeneity in bone and soft tissue covariation patterns in living hominids, it is possible to produce facial approximation methods with interspecies compatibility. These methods may be useful for producing facial approximations of fossil hominids that are more realistic than currently possible. In this study, we conducted an interspecific comparison of the nasomaxillary region in chimpanzees and modern humans with the aim of producing a method for predicting the positions of the nasal tips of Plio-Pleistocene hominids. We addressed this aim by first collecting and performing regression analyses of linear and angular measurements of nasal cavity length and inclination in modern humans (Homo sapiens; n = 72) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes; n = 19), and then performing a set of out-of-group tests. The first test was performed on four subjects that belonged to the same genus as the training sample, i.e., Homo (n = 2) and Pan (n = 2), and the second test, which functioned as an interspecies compatibility test, was performed on Pan paniscus (n = 1), Gorilla gorilla (n = 3), Pongo pygmaeus (n = 1), Pongo abelli (n = 1), Symphalangus syndactylus (n = 3), and Papio hamadryas (n = 3). We identified statistically significant correlations in both humans and chimpanzees with slopes that displayed homogeneity of covariation. Prediction formulae combining these data were found to be compatible with humans and chimpanzees as well as all other African great apes, i.e., bonobos and gorillas. The main conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that our set of regression models for approximating the position of the nasal tip are homogenous among humans and African apes, and can thus be reasonably extended to ancestors leading to these clades.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Face/anatomia & histologia , Nariz/anatomia & histologia , Pan troglodytes/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Fósseis/história , Gorilla gorilla/anatomia & histologia , Gorilla gorilla/classificação , História Antiga , Humanos , Hylobatidae/anatomia & histologia , Hylobatidae/classificação , Masculino , Pan paniscus/anatomia & histologia , Pan paniscus/classificação , Papio hamadryas/anatomia & histologia , Papio hamadryas/classificação , Filogenia , Pongo abelii/anatomia & histologia , Pongo abelii/classificação , Pongo pygmaeus/anatomia & histologia , Pongo pygmaeus/classificação , Análise de Regressão
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22040, 2021 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764403

RESUMO

It is well known that gibbons emit a pattern of vocalizations, which is specific for species and sex. A previous study showed, however, that immature southern yellow-cheeked gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae) males produce only female-like great calls from 2.3 to 5.3 years of age in co-singing interactions with their mothers. To date, nothing is known about how the vocal repertoire of a male changes from the female-like call (great call) to the male call (staccato notes and multi-modulation phrase) during vocal ontogeny. The goal of this study was to describe the transition from the female-like great call to the male call and the ontogeny of the male call. We predicted that the transition from the female-like great call to the male-specific call and the development of the male call is a normal part of the aging proces. If this is the case, the following phenomena will occur: (a) female vocalization should no longer be produced with the mature form of the multi-modulation phrase and (b) all stages of the male vocalization should occur gradually as the young male ages. Young males regularly emit both female-like great calls and male-specific calls between the ages of 5.6 to 7.1 years. Once the young males reached 7.1 years of age, they emitted male calls exclusively, and they continued to do so until the end of the observation period (at 8.11 years of age). It was confirmed that the young males emitted only female-like great calls during periods when they produced non-mature forms of a multi-modulation phrase (Fm0,1-none or one frequency modulation in second notes). Furhermore, the decrease in the number of female-like great calls was attributed to the development of the mature form of the multi-modulation phrase (Fm2-two or more frequency modulation in second notes), which developed with age. We also confirmed that the multi-modulation phrase developed gradually, while the development of the staccato notes occurred in leaps. A multi-modulation phrase developed as the initial part of the male-specific call. It was evolved from a simpler to a more complex form as the maximum frequency and age of the young males increased. Staccato notes subsequently developed in certain young males. Possible explanations for such vocal ontogeny in young males are discussed in this work.


Assuntos
Hylobatidae/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal , Envelhecimento , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
5.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim ; 57(8): 786-794, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697781

RESUMO

Jolkinolide B (JB) is a bioactive diterpenoid, isolated from the root of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud, and has been reported to have anti-tumor and anti-inflammation function by regulation of cell migration, invasion, apoptosis, and cell cycle. We aimed to evaluate the effect of JB on laryngeal cancer cells. Human normal larynx epithelial (HBE) cells and cancer cell lines TU212, TU177, and Hep-2 were cultured; MTT assay was used to assess cell proliferation. LY294002 (a PI3K/Akt inhibitor) and IGF-1 (a PI3K/Akt activator) were employed to investigate the expression of PI3K/Akt pathway. Cell migration and invasion activities were detected by scratch wound healing and transwell assay, respectively. Flow cytometry assay was used to assess cell apoptosis. The expression levels of proteins were assessed by immunofluorescence and Western blotting assay. JB inhibited TU212, TU177, and Hep-2 cell viability with an IC50 value of 54.57 ± 0.53 µg/mL, 44.82 ± 0.32 µg/mL, and 49.63 ± 0.47 µg/mL, respectively. Compared with control group, the proliferation, migration, and invasion of cells significantly decreased after JB and LY294002 treatment, while cell apoptosis increased. In IGF-1 group, the results were opposite compared to the JB and LY294002 groups. Western blotting results showed that JB and LY294002 treatment significantly inhibited the levels of Bcl-2, p-PI3K, and p-Akt while the levels of Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and PTEN protein significantly increased. Our study suggested that JB exhibits an inhibition effect on laryngeal cancer cell growth in vitro.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Laríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromonas/farmacologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Hylobatidae , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/farmacologia , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
6.
Neurobiol Learn Mem ; 185: 107526, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562619

RESUMO

Heightened fear responding is characteristic of fear- and anxiety-related disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Neural plasticity in the amygdala is essential for both initial fear learning and fear expression, and strengthening of synaptic connections between the medial geniculate nucleus (MgN) and amygdala is critical for auditory fear learning. However, very little is known about what happens in the MgN-amygdala pathway during fear recall and extinction, in which conditional fear decreases with repeated presentations of the auditory stimulus alone. In the present study, we found that optogenetic inhibition of activity in the MgN-amygdala pathway during fear retrieval and extinction reduced expression of conditional fear. While this effect persisted for at least two weeks following pathway inhibition, it was specific to the context in which optogenetic inhibition occurred, linking MgN-BLA inhibition to facilitation of extinction-like processes. Reduced fear expression through inhibition of the MgN-amygdala pathway was further characterized by similar synaptic expression of GluA1 and GluA2 AMPA receptor subunits compared to what was seen in controls. Inhibition also decreased CREB phosphorylation in the amygdala, similar to what has been reported following auditory fear extinction. We then demonstrated that this effect was reduced by inhibition of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors. These results demonstrate a new and important role for the MgN-amygdala pathway in extinction-like processes, and show that suppressing activity in this pathway results in a persistent decrease in fear behavior.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Corpos Geniculados/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Condicionamento Clássico/efeitos dos fármacos , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Imunofluorescência , Hylobatidae , Masculino , Optogenética , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/fisiologia
7.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 92(4): 235-240, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521088

RESUMO

Here we examine the patterns of reproductive hormones (progesterone and estrone-3 glucuronide, or E1G) in one female hoolock gibbon (Hoolock leuconedys) housed at the Gibbon Conservation Center, throughout the maturation period. Three hundred forty-five fecal samples were collected from the individual over a 5-year period (2012-2017) beginning at the age of 6 years and ending at the age of 11. The average measured progesterone concentration increased from 19.572 ± 1.706 ng/g feces in 2012 to 107.922 ± 12.094 ng/g feces in 2016/17 (p < 0.00001). The average measured estrogen value increased from 1.234 ± 0.063 ng/g feces in 2012 to 2.783 ± 0.274 ng/g feces in 2016/17 (p < 0.00001). This was accompanied by the emergence of a clear hormonal cycling pattern in the 2016/17 samples that was absent in all earlier samples. These data are consistent with the known sexual maturation period for other gibbon species, which typically occurs between the ages of 6 and 8 but shows some variation. To our knowledge, this is the first hormonal study and first data on cycle length for a hoolock gibbon.


Assuntos
Hylobates , Hylobatidae , Animais , Fezes , Feminino
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15427, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326409

RESUMO

The present study aimed at predicting the potential habitat of Western Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) in the upper Brahmaputra River Valley, Assam, India, and identifying priority conservation areas for the species, taking canopy cover into account. We used the maximum entropy algorithm for the prediction of the potential habitat of the gibbon using its current distribution with 19 environmental parameters as primary predictors. Spatio-temporal analyses of the habitat were carried out using satellite-based remote sensing and GIS techniques for two decades (1998-2018) along with Terra Modis Vegetation Continuous Field product to examine land use land cover (LULC), habitat fragmentation, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and tree cover percentage of the study area. To identify the conservation priority area, we applied a cost-effective decision-making analysis using systematic conservation prioritization in R programming. The model predicted an area of 6025 km2 under high potential habitat, a major part of which was found to overlap with dense forest (80%), followed by moderately open forest (74%) and open forest (66%). The LULC change matrix showed a reduction of forest area in the predicted high potential habitat during the study period, while agricultural class showed an increasing trend. The fragmentation analysis indicated that the number of patches and patch density increased from 2008 to 2018 in the 'very dense' and 'dense' canopy regions of the gibbon habitat. Based on the conservation priority analysis, a 640 km2 area has been proposed to conserve a minimum of 10% of gibbon habitat. The current analysis revealed that in the upper Brahmaputra Valley most areas under dense forest and dense canopy have remained intact over the last two decades, at least within the high potential habitat zone of gibbons independent of the degree of area change in forest, agriculture and plantation.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Florestas , Hylobatidae/fisiologia , Agricultura , Algoritmos , Animais , Mudança Climática , Índia , Rios , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Árvores
9.
Zoology (Jena) ; 146: 125846, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813250

RESUMO

Feathers regenerate through proliferation of cells derived from follicle stem cells. Immunoloblotting for telomerase in chick embryonic and juvenile feathers shows immunopositive bands around 100 kDa, 75 and 60 kDa only in embryonic feathers, indicating fragmentation of the protein due to physiological processing or artifacts derived from protein extraction. Immunolabeling for telomerase is present in the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells of the collar epithelium and bulge located in the follicle, and in sparse cells of the dermal papilla. PCNA-immunolabeling indicates that the collar and dermal papilla contain numerous proliferating cells, including the ramogenic zone where barb ridges are formed. Ultrastructural labeling indicates that a telomerase-like protein or its fragment is localized in nucleoli and in sparse nuclear clumps, likely representing Cajal bodies. The cytoplasm shows sparse immune-gold particles, also associated to mitochondria and sparse keratin filaments. An intense labeling is present in some areas of condensing chromosomes in dividing cells. Since telomerase positive cells are also seen in suprabasal layers of the collar epithelium and in the ramogenic zone, it is suggested that they represent dividing cells, most likely transit amplifying cells that give rise to the corneocytes of feathers. The significance of telomerase localization in chromatin is unknown.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Plumas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Imuno-Histoquímica , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Embrião de Galinha , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Hylobatidae , Microscopia/veterinária
10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(5): 6406-6419, 2021 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658395

RESUMO

Cereblon (CRBN) is a substrate receptor of the cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL) complex that mediates the ubiquitination of several substrates. In this study, CRBN knockout (KO) mice exhibited decreased levels of stratum corneum hydration (SCH) and collagen I expression with an elevated protein level of matrix metalloprotease 1 (MMP1). The absence of cereblon in the skin of CRBN KO mice mimics the damage caused by narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB). The primary CRBN deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) undergo G2/M-arrested premature senescence via protein signaling of p38 MAPK and its dependent p53/p21pathway. The absence of CRBN induced the markers of cellular senescence, such as the senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF), SA-ß-Gal staining, and p21 upregulation while the ectopic expression of CRBN reversed the phenotypes of SA-ß-Gal staining and p21 upregulation. Reversion of the decreased protein level of collagen I was demonstrated after the reintroduction of the CRBN gene back into CRBN KO MEFs, validating the promising role of CRBN as a potential regulator for the function of the skin barrier and its cellular homeostasis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/fisiologia , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Pele/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Imunofluorescência , Hylobatidae , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Pele/patologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele
11.
Primates ; 62(2): 331-342, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534009

RESUMO

Understanding how niche differences evolve in ecologically similar species and how these differences are maintained is a fundamental question in ecology. We studied resource partitioning and niche overlap between the hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) and other frugivorous vertebrates from April 2016 to January 2018 in Satchari National Park, Sylhet, Bangladesh. We examined the differences in their diet, niche breadth, niche overlap, and characterization of patch use. We recorded feeding events of gibbons and other frugivorous vertebrates using ad libitum sampling. Gibbons consumed 76 plant species including 32 non-fig fruits and 14 figs. Twenty-one competing frugivorous vertebrate species shared 10-70% of their food species with hoolocks. Competition for fruits was intense among gibbons, macaques, and hornbills, as fruits comprised more than 50% of their diet. The niche breadth of the gibbons varied across seasons. It was lowest during the rainy season (BA = 0.39) when fruits were more readily available, and highest in winter (BA = 0.58) when gibbons were less selective due to food scarcity. The niche overlap was highest between gibbons and northern pig-tailed macaques (Ojk = 0.70), followed by gibbons and hornbills (Ojk = 0.68). Feeding heights and substrate used varied significantly between gibbons and competitors. Gibbons may minimize competition by specializing on various food resources and using different forest patches.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar , Hylobatidae/fisiologia , Animais , Bangladesh , Aves , Frutas , Hylobates , Macaca , Estações do Ano
12.
J Fish Dis ; 44(7): 913-921, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634875

RESUMO

Koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) caused by the koi herpesvirus (KHV) is difficult to diagnose in live fish, presenting a challenge to the koi industry. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method cannot be widely used to detect KHV because few commercial anti-KHV antibody exists. Here, we developed an anti-ORF132 polyclonal antibody and confirmed its reactivity via indirect immunofluorescence assay and Western blotting. A double-antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA) was established to detect KHV, monoclonal antibody 1B71B4 against ORF92 was used as the capture antibody, and the detection antibody was the polyclonal antibody against the truncated ORF132. The lowest limit was 1.56 ng/ml KHV. Furthermore, the DAS-ELISA reacted with KHV isolates, while no cross-reactions occurred with carp oedema virus, spring viraemia of carp virus, frog virus 3 and grass carp reovirus. Two hundred koi serum samples from Guangdong, China, were used in the DAS-ELISA test, and the positive rate of the koi sera was 13%. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the DAS-ELISA relative to the traditional PCR method were 66.7% and 97.6%, respectively. Our findings may be useful for diagnosing and preventing KHVD in koi and common carp.


Assuntos
Carpas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/diagnóstico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Hylobatidae , Masculino , Coelhos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Primates ; 62(1): 63-75, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720108

RESUMO

Sleeping tree selection and related behaviours of a family group and a solitary female siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus) were investigated over a 5-month period in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. We performed all day follows, sleeping tree surveys and forest plot enumerations in the field. We tested whether: (1) physical characteristics of sleeping trees and the surrounding trees, together with siamang behaviours, supported selection based on predation risk and access requirements; (2) the preferences of a solitary siamang were similar to those of a family group; and (3) sleeping site locations within home ranges were indicative of home range defence, scramble competition with other groups or other species, or food requirements. Our data showed that (1) sleeping trees were tall, emergent trees with some, albeit low, connectivity to the neighbouring canopy, and that they were surrounded by other tall trees. Siamangs showed early entry into and departure from sleeping trees, and slept at the ends of branches. These results indicate that the siamangs' choice of sleeping trees and related behaviours were strongly driven by predator avoidance. The observed regular reuse of sleeping sites, however, did not support anti-predation theory. (2) The solitary female displayed selection criteria for sleeping trees that were similar to those of the family group, but she slept more frequently in smaller trees than the latter. (3) Siamangs selected sleeping trees to avoid neighbouring groups, monopolise resources (competition), and to be near their last feeding tree. Our findings indicate selectivity in the siamangs' use of sleeping trees, with only a few trees in the study site being used for this purpose. Any reduction in the availability of such trees might make otherwise suitable habitat unsuitable for these highly arboreal small apes.


Assuntos
Hylobatidae/fisiologia , Sono , Árvores , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Indonésia , Masculino , Comportamento Predatório
14.
Primates ; 62(1): 5-10, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098481

RESUMO

The effects of social separation, including vocalization, have been studied for a very long time in non-human primates under laboratory conditions. As part of the long-term research on the vocal behaviour of Nomascus gibbons in zoos, this study provides the first record of calls of the southern yellow-cheeked gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae) in response to involuntary separation. Our study revealed that calls were also emitted by an infant (aged 1 year 8 months), and that the acoustic structure of the infant's calls was similar to that of older individuals' calls. Separation-induced calls seem to have a shorter developmental convergence than vocalizations with a stable pattern (which are specific for species and sex). The acoustic structure of the calls reported here comprised simple syllables, and differed from the sex- and species-specific vocal patterns of this species. Our findings demonstrate a novel paradigm in this genus, and provide evidence of the ability of gibbons to express distress when socially separated.


Assuntos
Hylobatidae/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Vocalização Animal , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino
15.
Am J Primatol ; 83(1): e23227, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347652

RESUMO

Parietal external surface disruption routinely referred to as porotic hyperostosis, and orbital alterations (cribra orbitalia), have been attributed to anemia-related bone marrow hyperplasia in humans. A recent study in humans identified that they were actually vascular in nature. Skeletons were examined and epi-illumination surface microscopy was performed on the parietal region and orbit of 156 Hominidae and 123 Hylobotidae to assess if these phenomena were trans-phylogenetic. Trans-cortical channels were recognized on the basis of visualized ectocranial surface defects penetrating the parietal; cribra orbitalia, by alteration of the normally smooth orbital roof appearance. Trans-cortical parietal channels, ranging in size from 20 to 100 µm, are rare in Gorilla and Pan troglodytes and absent in Pan paniscus. They are universally present in adult Pongo abeli and in Hylobatidae, independent of species. Cribra orbitalia was common in Hylobotidae, Pongo pygmaeus and P. abelii, less prevalent in adult P. troglodytes, and not recognized in any Gorilla gorilla or P. paniscus examined. The proliferative form predominated, with the exception of Hylobates concolor and muelleri, in which uncalcified vascular grooves predominated. No correlation was observed between the presence of either trans-cortical channels or cribra orbitalia and fractures, osteoarthritis, or inflammatory arthritis. Parietal alterations observed in apes are trans-cortical channels, analogous to those observed in humans, and do not represent porosity. Similarly, cribra orbitalia in apes is confirmed as vascular in nature. The proliferative form apparently represents calcification of blood vessel walls, indistinguishable from observations in humans. Predominant presence in adults rather than in juveniles suggests that both forms are acquired rather than developmental in derivation. Sex and bone alteration/disease-independence suggests that mechanical, endocrine, and inflammatory phenomena do not contribute to the development of either. Further, independent occurrence of trans-cortical channels and cribra orbitalia suggests that they do not have a shared etiology.


Assuntos
Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Hylobatidae/anatomia & histologia , Órbita/anatomia & histologia , Osso Parietal/anatomia & histologia , Anemia/complicações , Animais , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/etiologia , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/patologia , Feminino , Hominidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hylobatidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Órbita/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Órbita/patologia , Osso Parietal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Osso Parietal/patologia , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15176, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060683

RESUMO

All gibbon species (Primates: Hylobatidae) are facing high extinction risk due to habitat loss and hunting. The Hainan gibbon Nomascus hainanus is the world's most critically endangered primate, and one of the priority conservation actions identified is to establish artificial canopy corridors to reconnect fragmented forests. The effectiveness of artificial canopy bridge as a conservation tool for wild gibbons has not been widely tested, and the results are rarely published. We constructed the first canopy bridge for Hainan gibbon in 2015 to facilitate passage at a natural landslide; mountaineering-grade ropes were tied to sturdy trees with the help of professional tree climbers and a camera trap was installed to monitor wildlife usage. Hainan gibbon started using the rope bridge after 176 days, and usage frequency increased with time. All members in the gibbon group crossed the 15.8 m rope bridge except adult male. Climbing was the predominant locomotor mode followed by brachiation. This study highlights the use and value of rope bridges to connect forest gaps for wild gibbons living in fragmented forests. While restoring natural forest corridors should be a priority conservation intervention, artificial canopy bridges may be a useful short-term solution.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Hylobatidae , Envelhecimento , Animais , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Movimento , Árvores
17.
Am J Primatol ; 82(12): e23198, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986271

RESUMO

Effective conservation demands more accurate and reliable methods of survey and monitoring of populations. Surveys of gibbon populations have relied mostly on mapping of groups in "listening areas" using acoustical point-count data. Traditional methods of estimating density in have usually used counts of gibbon groups within fixed-radius areas or areas bounded by terrain barriers to sound transmission, and have not accounted for possible decline in detectability with distance. In this study we sampled the eastern hoolock gibbon (Hoolock leucogenys) population in Htamanthi Wildlife Sanctuary (WS), Myanmar, using two methods: the traditional point-count method with fixed-radius listening areas, and a newer method using point-transect Distance analysis from a sample point established in the center of each listening point array. The basic data were obtained by triangulating on singing groups from four LPs for 4 days, in 10 randomly selected sample areas within the sanctuary. The point transect method gave an average density of 3.13 groups km-2 , higher than the estimates of group density within fixed-radius areas without correction for detectability. A new method of analysis of singing probability per day (p[1]) gave an estimate of 0.547. Htamanthi WS is an important conservation area containing an estimated 7000 (95% confidence interval: 5000-10,000) hoolock groups. Surveys at Htamanthi WS and locations in the Hukaung Valley suggest that the extensive evergreen forests in northern Myanmar have the capacity to support 2-4 (average about 3) groups of hoolock gibbons per km2 , but most forests in its range have yet to be surveyed.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Hylobatidae/fisiologia , Acústica , Mianmar , Densidade Demográfica
18.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20201655, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900315

RESUMO

The fossil record of 'lesser apes' (i.e. hylobatids = gibbons and siamangs) is virtually non-existent before the latest Miocene of East Asia. However, molecular data strongly and consistently suggest that hylobatids should be present by approximately 20 Ma; thus, there are large temporal, geographical, and morphological gaps between early fossil apes in Africa and the earliest fossil hylobatids in China. Here, we describe a new approximately 12.5-13.8 Ma fossil ape from the Lower Siwaliks of Ramnagar, India, that fills in these long-standing gaps with implications for hylobatid origins. This ape represents the first new hominoid species discovered at Ramnagar in nearly a century, the first new Siwalik ape taxon in more than 30 years, and likely extends the hylobatid fossil record by approximately 5 Myr, providing a minimum age for hylobatid dispersal coeval to that of great apes. The presence of crown hylobatid molar features in the new species indicates an adaptive shift to a more frugivorous diet during the Middle Miocene, consistent with other proposed adaptations to frugivory (e.g. uricase gene silencing) during this time period as well.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Hylobatidae , Animais , Índia , Filogenia , Primatas
19.
Am J Primatol ; 82(9): e23169, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608108

RESUMO

Population size and distribution data for wildlife species play an important role in conservation and management, especially for endangered species. However, scientists seriously lack data on the population status of many species. The northern yellow-cheeked gibbon (Nomascus annamensis) is found in southern Lao PDR, central Vietnam, and northeastern Cambodia. The population of the species has significantly declined due to hunting, habitat loss, and the wildlife trade. To examine the population size and distribution of N. annamensis, we conducted a field survey in Song Thanh Nature Reserve, Quang Nam Province, central Vietnam from February to April 2019 using the audio point count method. We combined Distance Sampling and Ecological Niche Modeling to estimate the population of the gibbons. Results showed that the total suitable area for the gibbons was about 302.32 km2 , with the two most important variables of the habitat model being the distance-to-villages and forest type. We detected 36 gibbon groups through field surveys and estimated 443 (95% CI, 278-707) gibbon groups in Song Thanh Nature Reserve. Our results indicate that the gibbon population in Song Thanh Nature Reserve is the largest known population of N. annamensis in Vietnam. In addition, our study was the first to combine species distribution modeling with distance sampling to estimate gibbon density and population size. This approach might be useful in surveying and monitoring gibbon populations because it takes imperfect detection probability into account in estimating gibbon population density while estimating the area of potential habitat using environmental variables.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Hylobatidae , Densidade Demográfica , Ecossistema , Florestas , Modelos Teóricos , Vietnã
20.
Am J Primatol ; 82(9): e23171, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632969

RESUMO

All gibbon species (Family: Hylobatidae) are considered threatened with extinction and recognized on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species. Because gibbons are one of the most threatened families of primates, monitoring their status is now critically important. Long-term monitoring programs applying occupancy approaches, in addition to assessing occurrence probability, improves understanding of other population parameters such as site extinction or colonization probabilities, which elucidate temporal and spatial changes and are therefore important for guiding conservation efforts. In this study, we used multiple season occupancy models to monitor occurrence, extinction, and colonization probabilities for northern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon Nomascus annamensis in three adjacent protected areas in the Central Annamites mountain range, Vietnam. We collected data at 30 listening posts in 2012, 2014, and 2016 using the auditory point count method. Occurrence probabilities were highest in 2012 (0.74, confidence interval [CI]: 0.56-0.87) but slightly lower in 2014 (0.66, CI: 0.51-0.79) and 2016 (0.67, CI: 0.49-0.81). Extinction probabilities during the 2012-2014 and 2014-2016 intervals were 0.26 (0.14-0.44) and 0.25 (0.12-0.44), respectively. Colonization probabilities during 2012-2014 were 0.44 (0.19-0.73) and between 2014 and 2016 was 0.51 (0.26-0.75). Although local site extinctions have occurred, high recolonization probability helped to replenish the unoccupied sites and kept the occurrence probability stable. Long-term monitoring programs which use occurrence probability alone might not fully reveal the true dynamics of gibbon populations. We strongly recommend including multiple season occupancy models to monitor occurrence, extinction, and colonization probabilities in long-term gibbon monitoring programs.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Hylobatidae/fisiologia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Extinção Biológica , Vietnã
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