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1.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 80(5): 460-463, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36453734

RESUMO

Background: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) deficiency is a rare cause of autosomal recessive infantile hypercalcemia due to vitamine D hypersensitivity. Case presentation: We report the case of a 2-year-old boy who presented with severe hypercalcemia-hypercalciuria and a bilateral nephrocalcinosis. Laboratory investigations detected a collapsed parathormone and a highly elevated 1α,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol along with an increased phosphate excretion (hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphaturia). An adapted management with two courses of palmidronic acid and an eviction of vitamin D and calcium allowed to stabilize him. A homozygous p.Leu409Ser pathogenic variant on CYP24A1 gene resulting in a collapsed 25-Hydroxyvitamin D24-hydroxylase activity was found. A normal development is possible with a meticulous clinical, biological and nutritional management and monitoring. Conclusions: Vitamin D hypersensitivity is challenging during childhood, especially due to the need to avoid vitamin D while requiring a close nutritional monitoring to maintain a normal growth. Biomarkers such as vitamin D metabolite ratio and 24,25(OH)2D3 along with ionized calcium and nutritional management can contribute to properly follow patients with vitamin D hypersensitivity.


Contexte: Le déficit en 25-hydroxyvitamine D 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) est une cause rare d'hypercalcémie infantile autosomique récessive due à une hypersensibilité à la vitamine D. Présentation du cas: Nous rapportons le cas d'un garçon de 2 ans qui a présenté une hypercalcémie-hypercalciurie sévère et une néphrocalcinose bilatérale. Les examens de laboratoire ont détecté une parathormone effondrée et un 1α,25-dihydroxycholécalciférol très élevé ainsi qu'une excrétion accrue de phosphate (hypophosphatémie et hyperphosphaturie). Une prise en charge adaptée avec deux cures d'acide palmidronique et une éviction de la vitamine D et du calcium a permis de le stabiliser. Un variant pathogène homozygote p.Leu409Ser sur le gène CYP24A1 entraînant un effondrement de l'activité de la 25-hydroxyvitamine D24-hydroxylase a été retrouvé. Un développement normal est possible avec une prise en charge et un suivi clinique, biologique et nutritionnel méticuleux. Conclusions: L'hypersensibilité à la vitamine D est un défi pendant l'enfance, notamment en raison de la nécessité d'éviter la vitamine D tout en exigeant un suivi nutritionnel étroit pour maintenir une croissance normale. Les biomarqueurs tels que le rapport des métabolites de la vitamine D et la 24,25(OH)2D3, ainsi que le calcium ionisé et la gestion nutritionnelle peuvent contribuer à un suivi adéquat des patients souffrant d'hypersensibilité à la vitamine D.


Assuntos
Hipercalcemia , Masculino , Lactente , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Hipercalcemia/complicações , Hipercalcemia/diagnóstico , Vitamina D3 24-Hidroxilase/genética , Cálcio , Vitamina D , Hipercalciúria
2.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 22(1): 324, 2022 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36536367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH) is a rare, inherited disorder of extracellular calcium sensing. It is clinically characterised by mild to moderate parathyroid hormone dependent hypercalcaemia, an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, and a normal to reduced urinary calcium excretion in spite of high serum calcium. CASE PRESENTATION: We report two cases of FHH in a family caused by a novel pathogenic missense variant in the CaSR gene, p. His41Arg. Case 1, describes a 17 year old female with no significant past medical history, admitted with acute appendicitis requiring laparoscopic appendectomy and reporting a six month history of polydipsia. Routine investigations were significant for hypercalcaemia, corrected calcium 3.19 mmol/L (2.21-2.52mmol/L), elevated parathyroid hormone of 84pg/ml (15-65pg/ml) and a low 24-hour urine calcium of 0.75mmol/24 (2.50-7.50mmol/24). She was initially managed with intravenous fluids and Zolendronic acid with temporary normalisation of calcium though ultimately required commencement of Cinacalcet 30 mg daily for persistent symptomatic hypercalcaemia. Genetic analysis was subsequently positive for the above variant. Case 2, a 50-year-old female, was referred to the endocrine outpatient clinic for the management of type 2 diabetes and reported a longstanding history of asymptomatic hypercalcaemia which had not been investigated previously. Investigation revealed hypercalcaemia; corrected calcium of 2.6 mmol/L (reference range: 2.21-2.52 mmol/L); PTH of 53.7ng/L (reference range: 15-65 ng/L) and an elevated 24-hour urine calcium of 10 mmol/24 (2.50-7.50 mmol/24hr) with positive genetic analysis and is managed conservatively. Despite sharing this novel mutation, these cases have different phenotypes and their natural history is yet to be determined. Two further relatives are currently undergoing investigation for hypercalcaemia and the family have been referred for genetic counselling. CONCLUSION: Accurate diagnosis of FHH and differentiation from classic primary hyperparathyroidism can be challenging, however it is essential to avoid unnecessary investigations and parathyroid surgery. Genetic analysis may be helpful in establishing a diagnosis of FHH in light of the biochemical heterogeneity in this population and overlap with other causes of hypercalcaemia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipercalcemia , Hiperparatireoidismo , Nefropatias , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercalcemia/diagnóstico , Cálcio , Hipercalciúria , Hormônio Paratireóideo , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/genética
3.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275972, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36227903

RESUMO

Kidney stone is one of the most frequent urinary tract diseases, affecting 10% of the population and displaying a high recurrence rate. Kidney stones are the result of salt supersaturation, including calcium and oxalate. We have previously identified Esophageal cancer-related gene 4 (Ecrg4) as being modulated by hypercalciuria. Ecrg4 was initially described as a tumor suppressor gene in the esophagus. Lately, it was shown to be involved as well in apoptosis, cell senescence, cell migration, inflammation and cell responsiveness to chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, nothing is known about ECRG4's function in the renal tissue and its relationship with calciuria. We hypothesized that the increased expression of Ecrg4 mRNA is triggered by hypercalciuria and might modulate intratubular calcium-oxalate precipitation. In this study, we have first (i) validated the increased Ecrg4 mRNA in several types of hypercalciuric mouse models, then (ii) described the Ecrg4 mRNA expression along the nephron and (iii) assessed ECRG4's putative role in calcium oxalate nephropathy. For this, Ecrg4 KO mice were challenged with a kidney stone-inducing diet, rich in calcium and oxalate precursor. Taken together, our study demonstrates that Ecrg4's expression is restricted mainly to the distal part of the nephron and that the Ecrg4 KO mice develop less signs of tubular obstruction and less calcium-oxalate deposits. This promotes Ecrg4 as a modulator of renal crystallization and may open the way to new therapeutic possibilities against calcium oxalate nephropathy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Cálculos Renais , Insuficiência Renal , Animais , Cálcio/urina , Oxalato de Cálcio/química , Cálcio na Dieta , Hipercalciúria , Cálculos Renais/epidemiologia , Camundongos , RNA Mensageiro/genética
4.
Urolithiasis ; 50(6): 685-690, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087116

RESUMO

The objective is to evaluate the effect of phytate supplements on calciuria in patients with urinary stones and elevated bone resorption. The secondary objective is to analyze the therapeutic effect of phytate based on measurements of serum markers of bone resorption. This is a controlled randomized study included patients according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, and randomized them into two groups. Patients in the phytate group received a 380 mg capsule of calcium-magnesium InsP6 (Salvat Laboratories®) every 24 h for 3 months and patients in the control group received no treatment. All included patients were male or female, 18-65 years old, had hypercalciuria (> 250 mg/24 h), had a ß-Crosslaps level greater than 0.4 ng/mL, and had bone densitometry results indicative of osteopenia or osteoporosis in the femur and/or spine. At study onset, calciuria was 321 ± 52 mg/24 h in the phytate group and 305 ± 57 mg/24 h in the control group (p > 0.05). At 3 months, calciuria was significantly lower in the phytate group than the control group (226 ± 45 mg/24 h vs. 304 ± 58 mg/24 h, p < 0.05). At study onset, the mean ß-CrossLaps level was 1.25 ± 0.72 ng/mL in the phytate group and 0.57 ± 0.13 ng/mL in the control group (p < 0.05). However, at 3 months, the ß-CrossLaps level was significantly lower in the phytate group than in the control group (0.57 ± 0.13 ng/mL vs. 0.77 ± 0.42 ng/mL, p < 0.05). Phytate reduced calciuria in patients with hypercalciuria secondary to bone resorption. The ß-CrossLaps assay was effective for evaluating the efficacy of phytate on hypercalciuria during follow-up.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , Cálculos Urinários , Urolitíase , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Hipercalciúria/complicações , Ácido Fítico/uso terapêutico , Projetos Piloto , Cálcio/urina , Magnésio , Reabsorção Óssea/complicações , Urolitíase/complicações , Cálculos Urinários/complicações , Biomarcadores
5.
Nefrología (Madrid) ; 42(5): 506-518, sept.-oct. 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-211248

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the effects of pharmacological interventions in patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Methods: We performed a search of multiple databases, trial registries, grey literature and conference proceedings up to October 2019. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that examined any pharmacological intervention for preventing complications of idiopathic hypercalciuria (given for at least four months and six of follow-up). The primary outcomes were stone-free patients, urinary symptoms and severe adverse events. Results: We included five RCTs (n=446 patients, all adults, 4 in individuals with kidney stones and 1 in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis). Diuretics were likely to increase the number of stone-free patients (RR 1.61, 95% CI 1.33–1.96, moderate quality of evidence (QoE)); 274 more stone-free patients/1000 patients treated (95% CI: 148–432) and produced a slight decrease in the stone formation rate (mean difference −0.18, 95% CI −0.30 to −0.06, low QoE); 180 fewer stones/year/1000 patients treated (95% CI: 300 r to 60). No data on urinary symptoms were reported. The association between diuretic use and severe adverse events was uncertain (RR 5.00, 95% CI 0.60–41.88, very low QoE); 4 more severe adverse events/1000 patients treated (95% CI: 0 fewer to 39 more). Conclusions: The addition of diuretics to a normal or modified diet probably reduces the number of stone recurrences and may decrease the stone formation rate. It is uncertain whether diuretics increase the occurrence of severe adverse events. There were no studies investigating other outcomes or in children. (AU)


Objetivo: Evaluar los efectos de intervenciones farmacológicas en pacientes con hipercalciuria idiopática. Métodos: Realizamos una búsqueda en múltiples bases de datos, registros de ensayos, literatura gris y actas de congresos hasta octubre de 2019. Incluimos ensayos clínicos aleatorizados y cuasialeatorizados que examinaban cualquier intervención farmacológica para prevenir las complicaciones de la hipercalciuria idiopática (mínimo 4 meses de intervención y 6 meses de seguimiento). Los outcomes primarios fueron pacientes libres de cálculos, síntomas urinarios y efectos adversos graves. Resultados: Incluimos 5 RCT (n=446 pacientes, todos adultos, 4 en individuos con cálculos renales y uno en mujeres posmenopáusicas con osteoporosis). Los diuréticos aumentaban probablemente el número de pacientes libres de cálculos (RR 1,61; IC 95%: 1,33 a 1,96, moderada calidad de evidencia [QoE]); 274 más pacientes libres de cálculos/1.000 pacientes tratados (IC 95%: 148 a 432) y producían una ligera disminución en la tasa de formación de cálculos (diferencia media −0,18; IC 95%: −0,30 a −0,06, baja QoE); 180 menos cálculos/año/1.000 pacientes tratados (IC 95%: 300 a 60). No se informaron datos sobre síntomas urinarios. La asociación entre el uso de diuréticos y los efectos adversos graves fue incierta (RR 5,00; IC 95%: 0,60 a 41,88, muy baja QoE); 4 efectos adversos severos más/1.000 pacientes tratados (IC 95%: 0 a 39). Conclusiones: Los diuréticos añadidos a una dieta normal o modificada probablemente reducen la aparición de cálculos y pueden disminuir su tasa de formación. Es incierto si los diuréticos incrementan la ocurrencia de efectos adversos graves. No se encontraron estudios que investigaran otros outcomes o realizados en niños. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Hipercalciúria/complicações , Hipercalciúria/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercalciúria/prevenção & controle , Diuréticos , Cálculos Renais
6.
Urolithiasis ; 50(5): 577-587, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994082

RESUMO

Hypercalciuria is the main risk factor for recurrent calcium urolithiasis. The goal of our study is to determinate how useful an oral calcium load test is for stone formers to classify different forms of hypercalciuria in pathogenetic categories defined as renal or absorptive according to the current knowledge. Between June 2013 and February 2016, a prospective study was carried out on 117 documented recurrent hypercalciuric stone formers undergoing an oral calcium load test modified from the original description by Pak. After 2 days of calcium-restricted diet, urine and blood were analyzed at baseline and 120 min after receiving orally 1 g of calcium. Total and ionized calcium, parathyroid hormone from serum and urine calcium and creatinine were assessed in order to divide patients in three groups as previously described: resorptive, absorptive, and renal hypercalciuria. This allowed the identification of 19, 39, 34 and 33 patients with normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism (NPHPT), renal hypercalciuria aka renal calcium leak (RCL), absorptive hypercalciuria (AH) and unidentified cause, respectively. Patients with NPHPT (who required parathyroidectomy) experienced a lower PTH decrease (41.41 ± 12.82 vs. 54.06 ± 13.84% p < 0.01), higher beta-crosslaps, as well as lower TmP/GFR and distal third radius bone mineral density. RCL resulted in increased fasting urine calcium-to-creatinine ratio (Uca/Cr), i.e., > 0.37 mmol/mmol), without hyperparathyroidism. AH was diagnosed by the presence of ΔUCa/Cr > 0.60 mmol/mmol between baseline and 120 min without any other anomaly. For all remaining patients, results were inconclusive due to the lack of sufficient increase in serum calcium or because the cause of lithogenesis could not be clearly identified. The oral calcium load test is useful in nearly 80% of patients by identifying the different forms of hypercalciuria causing urolithiasis and by guiding treatment, including parathyroid surgery.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Urolitíase , Cálcio/urina , Cálcio na Dieta , Creatinina/urina , Humanos , Hipercalciúria/complicações , Hipercalciúria/etiologia , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico , Cálculos Renais/etiologia , Cálculos Renais/urina , Estudos Prospectivos , Urolitíase/complicações
7.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 2278-2301, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35975961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A systematic review was commissioned to support an international expert group charged to update the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO)/World Health Organisation (WHO)'s vitamin D intake recommendations for children aged 0-4 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multiple electronic databases were searched to capture studies published from database inception to the 2nd week of June 2020 according to key questions formulated by the FAO/WHO. Relevant studies were summarised and synthesised by key questions and by health outcomes using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULTS: The 146 included studies examined the effects of different vitamin D intake levels on a variety of health outcomes (e.g. infectious disease, growth, neurodevelopment, rickets, and bone mineral density), and on outcomes for setting vitamin D upper limits (e.g. hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, and nephrocalcinosis). For most outcomes, the strength of evidence was low or very low. Evidence was rated moderate for the effect of daily vitamin D supplementation on raising serum 25(OH)D concentrations, and a random-effects meta-regression analysis of 28 randomised controlled trials (mostly in infants 0-12 months) showed that each 100 IU/d increase in vitamin D supplementation was associated with an average of 1.92 (95% CI 0.28, 3.56) nmol/L increase in achieved 25-hydroxy-vitaminn D (25[OH]D) concentration (n = 53 intervention arms; p = .022) with large residual heterogeneity (I2 = 99.39%). Evidence was very low on two of the upper limit outcomes - hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence report provided the expert group with a foundation and core set of data to begin their work to set vitamin D nutrient reference values. To move the field forward, future studies should use standardised 25(OH)D assay measurements and should examine the relationship between long-term vitamin D status and health outcomes.Key MessagesResults of a large complex systematic review suggest the current totality of evidence from trials and prospective observational studies do not reach sufficient certainty level to support a causal relationship between vitamin D intake and asthma, wheeze, eczema, infectious diseases, or rickets (most trials reported no rickets) in generally healthy infants and young children.In this systematic review, the only body of evidence that reached a moderate level of certainty was regarding the effect of daily vitamin D supplementation (vitamin D3 or D2 supplements to infants/children) on increasing serum 25(OH)D concentrations. However, currently there is no consensus on the definitions of vitamin D status, e.g. deficiency, insufficiency, sufficiency and toxicity, based on serum 25(OH)D concentrations.This systematic review provided an international expert group a foundation and core set of data through intake-response modelling to help set vitamin D nutrient reference values for infants and children up to 4 years of age.


Assuntos
Hipercalcemia , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Pré-Escolar , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Hipercalcemia/complicações , Hipercalciúria/complicações , Lactente , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Vitamina D , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Vitaminas
8.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 35(10): 1298-1301, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35952717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nephrocalcinosis is associated with conditions that cause hypercalcemia and the increased urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate, and/or oxalate. A monogenic etiology is found in almost 30% of childhood-onset nephrocalcinosis which is also a common manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism. We discuss a child with nephrocalcinosis and features mimicking primary hyperparathyroidism. CASE PRESENTATION: A 7-year-old girl presented with nephrocalcinosis. Hypercalciuria, hyperphosphaturia, mild hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia and elevated parathyroid hormone levels along with normal serum creatinine and absence of hypokalemic alkalosis suggested primary hyperparathyroidism. However, she was ultimately diagnosed with Bartter syndrome type 2 based on the presence of homozygous pathogenic variation in KCNJ1gene. CONCLUSIONS: This is the second reported case of late-onset Bartter syndrome type 2 without hypokalemic alkalosis. Patients with Bartter syndrome may present with high parathyroid hormone levels and hypercalcemia in addition to hypercalciuria. Thus, the present case suggests that the KCNJ1 gene should be included in genetic analysis even in older children with isolated nephrocalcinosis.


Assuntos
Alcalose , Síndrome de Bartter , Hipercalcemia , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário , Nefrocalcinose , Alcalose/complicações , Síndrome de Bartter/complicações , Síndrome de Bartter/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Bartter/genética , Cálcio , Criança , Creatinina , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercalcemia/etiologia , Hipercalcemia/genética , Hipercalciúria/complicações , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/complicações , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/diagnóstico , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/genética , Nefrocalcinose/etiologia , Nefrocalcinose/genética , Oxalatos , Hormônio Paratireóideo , Fosfatos
9.
J Bone Miner Res ; 37(10): 1926-1935, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35879818

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia type 1 (ADH1) is a rare form of hypoparathyroidism due to activating variants of the calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR). Inherited or de novo activating variants of the CASR alter the set point for extracellular calcium, resulting in inadequate parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion and inappropriate renal calcium excretion leading to hypocalcemia and hypercalciuria. Conventional therapy includes calcium and activated vitamin D, which can worsen hypercalciuria, resulting in renal complications. A systematic literature review, using published reports from 1994 to 2021, was conducted to catalog CASR variants, to define the ADH1 clinical spectrum, and to determine the effect of treatment on patients with ADH1. There were 113 unique CASR variants reported, with a general lack of genotype/phenotype correlation. Clinical data were available in 191 patients; 27% lacked symptoms, 32% had mild/moderate symptoms, and 41% had severe symptoms. Seizures, the most frequent clinical presentation, occurred in 39% of patients. In patients with blood and urine chemistries available at the time of diagnosis (n = 91), hypocalcemia (99%), hyperphosphatemia (59%), low PTH levels (57%), and hypercalciuria (34%) were observed. Blood calcium levels were significantly lower in patients with severe symptoms compared with asymptomatic patients (6.8 ± 0.7 versus 7.6 ± 0.7 mg/dL [mean ± SD]; p < 0.0001), and the age of presentation was significantly lower in severely symptomatic patients (9.1 ± 15.0 versus 19.3 ± 19.4 years; p < 0.01). Assessments for complications including nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, renal impairment, and brain calcifications in 57 patients on conventional therapy showed that 75% had at least one complication. Hypercalciuria was associated with nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, renal impairment, or brain calcifications (odds ratio [OR] = 9.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4-37.2; p < 0.01). In 27 patients with urine calcium measures before and after starting conventional therapy, the incidence of hypercalciuria increased by 91% (p < 0.05) after therapy initiation. ADH1 is a condition often associated with severe symptomatology at presentation with an increase in the risk of renal complications after initiation of conventional therapy. © 2022 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).


Assuntos
Hipocalcemia , Hipoparatireoidismo , Nefrocalcinose , Nefrolitíase , Humanos , Hipercalciúria/genética , Hipercalciúria/tratamento farmacológico , Hipocalcemia/genética , Hipocalcemia/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/genética , Cálcio , Nefrocalcinose/genética , Hipoparatireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoparatireoidismo/genética , Hormônio Paratireóideo/uso terapêutico , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico
10.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 52(3): 494-498, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35777808

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH) is characterized by hypocalcemia and inappropriately low PTH concentrations. ADH type 2 (ADH2) is caused by a heterozygous gain-of-function mutation in GNA11 that encodes the subunit of G11, the principal G protein that transduces calcium-sensing receptor signaling in the parathyroid. Clinical features related to hypocalcemia in ADH2 range from asymptomatic to tetany and seizures. We report the clinical and molecular analysis of an infant with ADH2. Exome sequencing identified a de novo heterozygous missense variant, c. G548C (p. Arg183Pro) in GNA11. This is the youngest Korean case to be diagnosed with ADH 2. In addition, we summarized the literature related to eight mutations in GNA11 from 10 families.


Assuntos
Subunidades alfa de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP , Hipocalcemia , Hipoparatireoidismo , Subunidades alfa de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Subunidades alfa de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipercalciúria/genética , Hipercalciúria/metabolismo , Hipocalcemia/diagnóstico , Hipocalcemia/genética , Hipocalcemia/metabolismo , Hipoparatireoidismo/congênito , Hipoparatireoidismo/genética , Hipoparatireoidismo/metabolismo , Lactente
11.
J Int Med Res ; 50(7): 3000605221110489, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35818129

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia type 1 (ADH1) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by hypocalcemia with low parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and high urinary calcium. Its clinical presentation varies from mild asymptomatic to severe hypocalcemia. It is caused by gain-of-function mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR) which affect PTH secretion from the parathyroid gland and calcium resorption in the kidney. Here, we describe a case who presented with symptoms of recurrent seizure caused by hypocalcemia with a novel CASR variant. We comprehensively analyzed the phenotypic features of this presentation and reviewed the current literature to better understand clinical manifestations and the genetic spectrum.


Assuntos
Hipercalcemia , Hipocalcemia , Hipoparatireoidismo , Cálcio , Humanos , Hipercalciúria , Hipocalcemia/genética , Hipoparatireoidismo/congênito , Hipoparatireoidismo/genética , Mutação , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/genética
12.
Indian J Pediatr ; 89(12): 1243-1250, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35819704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate metabolic and genetic abnormalities in children with nephrolithiasis attending a referral center in North India. METHODS: The patients aged 1-18 y old with nephrolithiasis underwent biochemical evaluation and whole-exome sequencing. The authors evaluated for monogenic variants in 56 genes and compared allele frequency of 39 reported polymorphisms between patients and 1739 controls from the GenomeAsia 100 K database. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients, aged 9.1 ± 3.7 y were included. Stones were bilateral in 42.6%, familial in 33.3%, and recurrent in 25.9%. The most common metabolic abnormalities were hypercalciuria (35.2%), hyperoxaluria (24.1%), or both (11.1%), while xanthinuria (n = 3), cystinuria (n = 1), and hyperuricosuria (n = 1) were rare. Exome sequencing identified an etiology in 6 (11.1%) patients with pathogenic/likely pathogenic causative variants. Three variants in MOCOS and one in ATP7B were pathogenic; likely pathogenic variants included MOCOS (n = 2), AGXT, and SLC7A9 (n = 1, each). Causality was not attributed to two SLC34A1 likely pathogenic variants, due to lack of matching phenotype and dominant family history. Compared to controls, allele frequency of the polymorphism TRPV5 rs4252402 was significantly higher in familial stone disease (allele frequency 0.47 versus 0.53; OR 3.2, p = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The chief metabolic abnormalities were hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria. A monogenic etiology was identified in 11% with pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants using a gene panel for nephrolithiasis. Heterozygous missense variants in the sodium-phosphate cotransporter SLC34A1 were common and required evaluation for attributing pathogenicity. Rare polymorphisms in TRPV5 might increase the risk of familial stones. These findings suggest that a combination of metabolic and genetic evaluation is useful for determining the etiology of nephrolithiasis.


Assuntos
Hipercalciúria , Hiperoxalúria , Nefrolitíase , Humanos , Hipercalciúria/complicações , Hiperoxalúria/complicações , Índia , Nefrolitíase/genética , Fenótipo , Sulfurtransferases/genética , Criança
13.
J Bone Miner Res ; 37(8): 1580-1591, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689455

RESUMO

Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) represents an FGF23-independent disease caused by biallelic variants in the solute carrier family 34-member 3 (SLC34A3) gene. HHRH is characterized by chronic hypophosphatemia and an increased risk for nephrocalcinosis and rickets/osteomalacia, muscular weakness, and secondary limb deformity. Biochemical changes, but no relevant skeletal changes, have been reported for heterozygous SLC34A3 carriers. Therefore, we assessed the characteristics of individuals with biallelic and monoallelic SLC34A3 variants. In 8 index patients and 5 family members, genetic analysis was performed using a custom gene panel. The skeletal assessment comprised biochemical parameters, areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and bone microarchitecture. Pathogenic SLC34A3 variants were revealed in 7 of 13 individuals (2 homozygous, 5 heterozygous), whereas 3 of 13 carried monoallelic variants of unknown significance. Whereas both homozygous individuals had nephrocalcinosis, only one displayed a skeletal phenotype consistent with HHRH. Reduced to low-normal phosphate levels, decreased tubular reabsorption of phosphate (TRP), and high-normal to elevated values of 1,25-OH2 -D3 accompanied by normal cFGF23 levels were revealed independently of mutational status. Interestingly, individuals with nephrocalcinosis showed significantly increased calcium excretion and 1,25-OH2 -D3 levels but normal phosphate reabsorption. Furthermore, aBMD Z-score <-2.0 was revealed in 4 of 8 heterozygous carriers, and HR-pQCT analysis showed a moderate decrease in structural parameters. Our findings highlight the clinical relevance also of monoallelic SLC34A3 variants, including their potential skeletal impairment. Calcium excretion and 1,25-OH2 -D3 levels, but not TRP, were associated with nephrocalcinosis. Future studies should investigate the effects of distinct SLC34A3 variants and optimize treatment and monitoring regimens to prevent nephrocalcinosis and skeletal deterioration. © 2022 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).


Assuntos
Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar , Nefrocalcinose , Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/complicações , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/diagnóstico por imagem , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/genética , Humanos , Hipercalciúria/complicações , Hipercalciúria/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercalciúria/genética , Nefrocalcinose/genética , Fosfatos , Proteínas Cotransportadoras de Sódio-Fosfato Tipo IIc/genética
14.
Iran J Kidney Dis ; 16(3): 209-213, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714216

RESUMO

Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by renal magnesium wasting, hypercalciuria and eventually kidney failure which mostly affects children and young aged adults. Mutation of genes of claudin-16 and claudin-19 are involved in the pathogenesis of this disorder, which leads to renal magnesium and calcium wasting. A 35-year-old man with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) was referred to our clinic due to bilateral nephrocalcinosis, detected by ultrasonographic study, for further evaluation. Detailed investigations revealed that his siblings had also similar presentations of hypomagnesemia, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Sanger sequencing showed a novel mutation (c.338G > A: p.C113Y) at the second exon of the CLDN16 gene. The patient underwent kidney transplantation and his siblings received only medical treatment. In young patients with ESKD and concomitant nephrocalcinosis, especially where there is a family history of CKD/ESKD, genetic evaluation is strongly recommended.  DOI: 10.52547/ijkd.6845.


Assuntos
Claudinas , Falência Renal Crônica , Nefrocalcinose , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Criança , Claudinas/genética , Humanos , Hipercalciúria/complicações , Hipercalciúria/diagnóstico , Hipercalciúria/genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/genética , Magnésio , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Nefrocalcinose/complicações , Nefrocalcinose/genética , Nefrocalcinose/terapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações
15.
Trials ; 23(1): 499, 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypercalciuria is one of the most frequent metabolic disorders associated with nephrolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis possibly leading to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and bone complications in adults. Orphan diseases with different underlying primary pathophysiology share inappropriately increased 1,25(OH)2D levels and hypercalciuria, e.g., hypersensitivity to vitamin D and renal phosphate wasting. Their management is challenging, typically based on hyperhydration and dietary advice. The antifungal azoles are known to inhibit the 1α-hydroxylase and therefore decrease 1,25(OH)2D levels; they are commonly used, with well described pharmacokinetic and tolerability data. Fluconazole has been successfully reported to reduce calciuria in patients with CYP24A1 or SLC34A3 mutations, with no safety warnings. Thus, based on these case reports, we hypothesize that fluconazole is effective to decrease and normalize calciuria in patients with hypercalciuria and increased 1,25(OH)2D levels. METHODS: The FLUCOLITH trial is a prospective, interventional, randomized in parallel groups (1:1), placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. A total of 60 patients (10-60 years) with nephrolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis history, hypercalciuria (> 0.1 mmol/kg/day), increased 1,25(OH)2D levels (> 150 pmol/L), and 25-OH-D levels >20 nmol/L will be included. Inclusions will be performed only from mid-September to the beginning of February to avoid bias due to sunlight-induced vitamin D synthesis. The primary endpoint will be the proportion of patients with normalization of 24-h calciuria between baseline and 16 weeks, or with a relative decrease of at least 30% of 24-h calciuria in patients who still display at W16 a 24-h hypercalciuria. DISCUSSION: The current challenge is to propose an efficient treatment to patients with hypercalciuria and increased 1,25(OH)2D levels in order to prevent later complications and notably CKD that can ultimately lead to end-stage renal disease. Based on improvement of knowledge in phosphate/calcium metabolism, pathophysiology and genetics, the "off-label" use of fluconazole was recently reported to be useful in hypercalciuric patients with increased 1,25(OH)2D levels. Thus, the FLUCOLITH study is a unique opportunity to develop a new indication of a well-known and not expensive drug in orphan renal diseases, the ultimate objective being the secondary prevention of CKD worsening in these patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04495608 . Registered on July 23, 2020.


Assuntos
Nefrocalcinose , Nefrolitíase , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Fluconazol/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipercalciúria/diagnóstico , Hipercalciúria/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercalciúria/etiologia , Fosfatos , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Vitamina D/metabolismo
16.
Br J Haematol ; 198(5): 903-911, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35768889

RESUMO

Regular transfusion and chelation therapy produces increased life expectancy in thalassaemic patients who may develop new complications. Since few data are available regarding hypercalciuria in ß-thalassaemia major (TM), the aim of our study was to evaluate its prevalence, risk factors and clinical consequences. We enrolled 176 adult TM patients followed at the Center of Thalassemia of Ferrara. Hypercalciuria was defined by a calciuria of 4 mg/kg/day or more in a 24-h urine sample. Anamnestic, biochemical and radiological data were collected. Hypercalciuria prevalence was reported in 69.3% of patients (females 52.5%). Hypercalciuric (HC) patients used deferasirox (DFX) more often than normocalciuric (NC) patients (47.5% vs 29.6%; p < 0.05). In HC subjects plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) (24.1 ± 10.4 vs 30.1 ± 13.2 pg/ml) and phosphate levels (3.6 ± 0.5 vs 3.8 ± 0.7 mg/dl) were lower, whereas serum calcium (9.6 ± 0.4 vs 9.4 ± 0.4 mg/dl) and urinary 24-h phosphaturia (0.9 ± 0.4 vs 0.6 ± 0.3 g/day) were higher as compared to NC patients (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). Supplementation with oral calcium and cholecalciferol was similar between the groups. A higher rate of kidney stones was present in HC (14.8%) versus NC patients (3.7%) (p < 0.05). Hypercalciuria is a frequent complication in adequately treated adult TM patients. Hypercalciuria prevalence is increased in DFX users whereas haemoglobin level or calcium supplements play no role. A significant proportion of HC patients developed kidney stones.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Talassemia beta , Adulto , Cálcio , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercalciúria/epidemiologia , Hipercalciúria/etiologia , Hipercalciúria/urina , Cálculos Renais/urina , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Talassemia beta/complicações , Talassemia beta/tratamento farmacológico
17.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 182, 2022 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35549682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dent disease is an X-linked disorder characterized by low molecular weight proteinuria (LMWP), hypercalciuria, nephrolithiasis and chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is caused by mutations in the chloride voltage-gated channel 5 (CLCN5) gene (Dent disease-1), or in the OCRL gene (Dent disease-2). It is associated with chronic metabolic acidosis; however metabolic alkalosis has rarely been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a family with Dent-2 disease and a Bartter-like phenotype. The main clinical problems observed in the proband included a) primary phosphaturia leading to osteomalacia and stunted growth; b) elevated serum calcitriol levels, leading to hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis; c) severe salt wasting causing hypotension, hyperaldosteronism, hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis; d) partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus attributed to hypercalcemia, hypokalemia and nephrocalcinosis; e) albuminuria, LMWP. Phosphorous repletion resulted in abrupt cessation of hypercalciuria and significant improvement of hypophosphatemia, physical stamina and bone histology. Years later, he presented progressive CKD with nephrotic range proteinuria attributed to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Targeted genetic analysis for several phosphaturic diseases was unsuccessful. Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) revealed a c.1893C > A variant (Asp631Glu) in the OCRL gene which was co-segregated with the disease in male family members. CONCLUSIONS: We present the clinical characteristics of the Asp631Glu mutation in the OCRL gene, presenting as Dent-2 disease with Bartter-like features. Phosphorous repletion resulted in significant improvement of all clinical features except for progressive CKD. Angiotensin blockade improved proteinuria and stabilized kidney function for several years.


Assuntos
Alcalose , Doença de Dent , Hipercalcemia , Hipopotassemia , Cálculos Renais , Nefrocalcinose , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Doença de Dent/complicações , Doença de Dent/diagnóstico , Doença de Dent/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercalcemia/genética , Hipercalciúria/complicações , Hipercalciúria/genética , Hipopotassemia/complicações , Hipopotassemia/genética , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Nefrocalcinose/complicações , Nefrocalcinose/genética , Fenótipo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Proteinúria/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações
18.
Ann Endocrinol (Paris) ; 83(4): 237-243, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598638

RESUMO

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a hypercalcemic hormone acting on kidneys, bone and intestine. PTH promotes calcium release from the bone, renal calcium reabsorption and phosphate excretion, and conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3. Hyperparathyroidism consists in PTH elevation, which may be adapted (secondary hyperparathyroidism) or non-adapted to calcemia levels (primary hyperparathyroidism, familial hypercalcemia/hypocalciuria, tertiary hyperparathyroidism). Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) features hypercalcemia and elevated or inappropriate PTH elevation. PHP may be revealed by biological abnormalities such as hypercalcemia and can be accompanied by renal complications (hypercalciuria, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis) and/or osteoporosis. However, it can also be normocalcemic and calcium loading will be necessary to diagnosis it. The differential diagnosis of PHP is familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH), a dominant autosomal disease implicating a calcium sensing receptor-inactivating mutation. It impairs parathyroid cell sensitivity to calcemia elevation and thus induces excessive PTH stimulation, leading to hypercalcemia. Secondary HP (SHP) consists in PTH elevation secondary to a stimulus that needs to be corrected. 25 OHvitD deficiency, kidney failure, renal hypercalciuria, malabsorption and some drugs can induce SHP. Tertiary HP (THP) consists in autonomous PTH secretion by the parathyroid glands after prolonged stimulation under SHP, of whatever cause. This parathyroid autonomy results from the polyclonal hyperplasia observed in SHP progressing toward monoclonal nodular proliferation, leading to nodular hyperplasia or parathyroid adenoma (or, exceptionally, carcinoma), with reduced expression of CaSR and vitamin D receptor. In patients under dialysis, the frontier between SHP and THP is a matter of debate. This review will focus on the pathophysiology of calcium, diagnosis, and management of hyperparathyroidism.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea , Hipercalcemia , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário , Cálcio/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Hipercalcemia/diagnóstico , Hipercalcemia/etiologia , Hipercalciúria , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/complicações , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/diagnóstico , Hiperplasia , Hormônio Paratireóideo , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/genética
19.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 111(3): 229-241, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35567607

RESUMO

Childhood and adolescent primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a very rare disease. Data on its molecular genetics are scarce. We performed a retrospective analysis (January 2000-January 2021) to determine the deleterious germline variants and genotype-phenotype correlations in children and adolescents < 20 years diagnosed with PHPT from a single referral center. Clinical features, biochemistry, imaging, management, and genetics (clinical exome analyzed for 11 PHPT and 7 pancreatitis-associated genes, MLPA for CDC73) were recorded. Thirty-six patients (20 males; median age 17 years) were classified into those with familial and/or syndromic (F/S) or apparently sporadic (AS) presentation. Sixteen (44.4%) harbored pathogenic/likely pathogenic germline variants in PHPT-associated genes. The genetic yield in F/S group was 90% (MEN1:8/10; CDC73:1/10), and AS group was 26.9% (CDC73:4/26; CASR:3/26). F/S group had frequent asymptomatic presentation (60% vs none; P < 0.001), lower serum PTH (237.5 vs 1369.1 pg/mL; P = 0.001), and maximum parathyroid dimension (0.9 vs 2.2 cm; P = 0.01) than AS group. Among the AS group, renal involvement was higher in those with molecular diagnoses (71.4% vs 10.5%; P = 0.01). All those with novel CASR variants (including one homozygous) had hypercalciuria and histology-proven parathyroid adenoma/carcinoma. A missense CTRC VUS occurred in one patient with chronic pancreatitis. In summary, Asian Indian children and adolescents with PHPT have high genetic yield, even with apparently sporadic presentation. The phenotypic spectrum of CASR variants is expanded to include childhood/adolescent PHPT with hypercalciuria and single gland neoplasia. The proposed roles for renal involvement to predict molecular diagnosis among those with apparently sporadic presentation require further elucidation.


Assuntos
Hiperparatireoidismo Primário , Neoplasias das Paratireoides , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Hipercalciúria , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/genética , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/patologia , Masculino , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/genética , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
20.
Arch Osteoporos ; 17(1): 74, 2022 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513519

RESUMO

Eldecalcitol (ELD) is a new oral analog of the active form of vitamin D with anti-resorptive properties. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy and safety of ELD in osteoporosis. Compared with alfacalcidol, ELD significantly lowered vertebral facture risk, increased bone mineral density, but also had a higher risk of hypercalciuria. PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of eldecalcitol (ELD) in osteoporosis by examining fracture rates, bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, and adverse events as outcomes. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched up to July 20, 2020, to identify eligible randomized controlled trials. The odds ratio (OR) or weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval was calculated by the random-effects model. RESULTS: ELD significantly increased lumbar BMD (WMD: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.60, 4.00; P < 0.001, 2 studies involved), total hip BMD (WMD: 2.11; 95% CI: 0.68, 3.55; P = 0.004, 2 studies involved), and femoral neck BMD (WMD: 1.78; 95% CI: 0.76, 2.79; P = 0.001, 1 study involved) compared with alfacalcidol. Moreover, ELD caused a significantly lower rate of vertebral fracture (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29-0.95; P = 0.034, 2 studies involved) than alfacalcidol, but did not lower the rate of non-vertebral facture (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.06-3.05; P = 0.405, 2 studies involved) compared with alfacalcidol. ELD significantly reduced the percentage change in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (WMD: - 15.40; 95% CI: - 20.30, - 10.60; P < 0.001, 1 study involved) and serum type I collagen C-telopeptide (WMD: - 38.50; 95% CI: - 50.00, - 27.10; P < 0.001, 1 study involved) as compared with alfacalcidol. ELD was also associated with higher risk of hypercalciuria compared with alfacalcidol (OR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.22, 2.20; P = 0.001, 2 studies involved). CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review indicated that ELD was superior than alfacalcidol for improving vertebral fracture risk and BMD. Further large-scale trials should be conducted to verify the long-term effects and safety of ELD in osteoporosis. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020147518.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea , Osteoporose , Vitamina D , Densidade Óssea , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipercalciúria/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina D/efeitos adversos , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados
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