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Zh Obshch Biol ; 72(3): 183-97, 2011.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21786661


Adaptive host manipulation hypothesis is usually supported by case studies on trophically transmitted heteroxenous endoparasites. Trematodes and cestodes are among efficient manipulators of fish, their common intermediate hosts. In this review paper, new data on modifications of host fish behavior caused by monoxenous ectoparasitic crustaceans are provided together with a review of effects caused by heteroxenous parasites. Differences in modifications of host behavior caused by heteroxenous and monoxenous parasites are discussed. Manipulation by heteroxenous parasites enhances availability of infected fish to predators--definitive hosts of the parasites. Fine-tuned synchronization of modified anti-predator behavior with a certain phase of the trematode Diplostomum spathaceum development in the eyes of fish, their second intermediate host, was shown. Modifications of behavior are habitat specific. When juvenile salmonids are in the open water, parasites impair their cooperative anti-predator behavior; in territorial bottom-dwelling salmonids, individual defense behavior such as sheltering is the main target of manipulation. It was shown that monoxenous ectoparasitic crustaceans Argulus spp. decreased motor activity, aggressiveness and increased shoal cohesiveness of infected fish. Such a behavior facilitates host and mate searching in these parasites, which often change their hosts, especially during reproduction. Reviewed experimental data suggest that heteroxenous parasites manipulate their host mainly through impaired defense behavior, e.g. impairing shoaling in fish. Alternatively, monoxenous parasites facilitate shoaling that is profitable for both parasites and hosts. Coordination of modified host behavior with the parasite life cycle, both temporal and spatial, is the most convincing criterion of the adaptive value of host manipulation.

Arguloida/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Cestoides/fisiologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Hyperotreti/fisiologia , Trematódeos/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Peixes/fisiologia , Coxeadura Animal/parasitologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional , Comportamento Predatório
Ecotoxicology ; 20(8): 2079-89, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21789673


Previous studies have indicated that tire tread particles are toxic to aquatic species, but few studies have evaluated the toxicity of such particles using sediment, the likely reservoir of tire wear particles in the environment. In this study, the acute toxicity of tire and road wear particles (TRWP) was assessed in Pseudokirchneriella subcapita, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas using a sediment elutriate (100, 500, 1000 or 10000 mg/l TRWP). Under standard test temperature conditions, no concentration response was observed and EC/LC(50) values were greater than 10,000 mg/l. Additional tests using D. magna were performed both with and without sediment in elutriates collected under heated conditions designed to promote the release of chemicals from the rubber matrix to understand what environmental factors may influence the toxicity of TRWP. Toxicity was only observed for elutriates generated from TRWP leached under high-temperature conditions and the lowest EC/LC(50) value was 5,000 mg/l. In an effort to identify potential toxic chemical constituent(s) in the heated leachates, toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies and chemical analysis of the leachate were conducted. The TIE coupled with chemical analysis (liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry [LC/MS/MS] and inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry [ICP/MS]) of the leachate identified zinc and aniline as candidate toxicants. However, based on the high EC/LC(50) values and the limited conditions under which toxicity was observed, TRWP should be considered a low risk to aquatic ecosystems under acute exposure scenarios.

Cyprinidae , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Hyperotreti , Borracha/toxicidade , Poluentes da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Exposição Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Temperatura , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda