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1.
Food Microbiol ; 102: 103929, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809955

RESUMO

A mix base for ice cream (MBIC) is used to produce artisanal or industrial ice creams and desserts and consists of a mixture of different ingredients, including sugar, egg yolk, natural flavors, starch and milk proteins. MBICs, which have chemical-physical characteristics that include a pH of 5.61 and an activity water (Aw) less than or equal to 0.822, are packaged in tin boxes and stored at ambient temperature. Despite the low Aw, MBIC can support osmotolerant and osmophilic yeast growth. The aim of our work was to study the behavior of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, the main microorganisms responsible of MBIC spoilage, either in the vivo or in a model system in order to inhibit its growth by the selection of antimicrobial agents. Different osmotolerant yeasts belonging to the genus Zygosaccharomyces were isolated and identified from spoiled and unspoiled lots of MBICs. In particular, Z. rouxii was the predominant species responsible for the spoilage, which depended on the high temperature of storage (>20 °C) and was highlighted by the presence of alcohol, esters, acids and gas (CO2), which blew open the tin boxes. To stop spoilage, different antimicrobial compounds were tested: sulfur dioxide, sorbic and benzoic acids and ethanol. However, only 2% v/v ethanol was required to achieve the total inhibition of the Z. rouxii cocktails tested in this work. The use of other antimicrobials cannot be recommended because they were not able to stop yeast spoilage and changed the color and flavor of the products. Conversely, the use of ethanol is suggested because of its extreme effectiveness against osmotolerant yeasts, and the added amount was less than or equal to the taste threshold limit. The MBICs, treated with ethanol, were stable till the end of their shelf-life (6 months).


Assuntos
Etanol/farmacologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Sorvetes , Saccharomycetales , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Sorvetes/microbiologia
2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130536, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371279

RESUMO

The interfacial properties of pea protein isolate (NPP) were modified by pH12-shifting (BPP) and ultrasound treatment as a substitute for skimmed milk powder (SMP) in ice cream. The physicochemical properties and fat crystallization in emulsions before and after whipping were analyzed. Compared with SMP, the BPP emulsion displayed superior stability with small particle size and high viscosity. Fat clusters were observed in both SMP and BPP emulsions, which may promote the puncture and protrusion of fat crystals within droplets and lead to partial coalescence to allow air bubble entrapment. Aeration activity of BPP in cream was 1.5-fold that of NPP. Although the overrun value was smaller than SMP cream, the BPP cream retained the stable shape and had a slow melting rate due to its interactive dimensional network of fat. Ultrasound treatment was found to promote fat crystallization of emulsions, leading to the improved stability of final products.


Assuntos
Sorvetes , Proteínas de Ervilha , Cristalização , Emulsões , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e052938, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531223

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the perceptions of orthopaedic clinicians about consultations for people with persistent musculoskeletal low back pain (PMLBP) in which surgery is not recommended. Surgery is not recommended for the majority of PMLBP consulting in secondary care settings. SETTING: Secondary care sector in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 24 orthopaedic team clinicians from 17 different hospitals in the UK and Ireland. Interviews explored clinicians' perceptions of the challenges in consultations where surgery is not indicated. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Two meta-themes, Difficulties and Enablers, each consisting of several subthemes were identified. Difficulties included challenges around the choice of appropriate terminology and labels for PMLBP, managing patients' expectations, working with mentally vulnerable patients and explaining imaging findings. Enablers included early management of expectations, use of routine imaging, triaging, access to direct referral elsewhere, including other non-surgical practitioners in the team, training to improve communication skills and understanding of psychological issues. CONCLUSION: The findings highlight clinicians' perceived need for concordance in messages delivered across the care pathway and training of orthopaedic clinicians to deliver effective reassurance and address patients' needs in circumstances where surgery is not indicated.


Assuntos
Sorvetes , Dor Lombar , Ortopedia , Humanos , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Encaminhamento e Consulta
4.
J Frailty Aging ; 10(4): 350-356, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549250

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Unintentional weight loss (UIWL) is common among older adults but lacks standardized methods for its diagnosis and management. With a limited understanding on how geriatricians actually address UIWL, we conducted a survey to examine how they diagnose and manage it, and their opinions regarding the use of ice cream to address it. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: An international descriptive, cross-sectional, online survey conducted over a 16-week period in 2019 involving 1131 geriatricians in clinical practice across 51 countries. MEASUREMENTS: We collected information around respondent demographics, use of screening tools and diagnostic investigations, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches to address UIWL. RESULTS: 89.1% of respondents reported frequently seeing UIWL. The most common methods reportedly used to evaluate UIWL were performing a comprehensive history and physical examination (97.4%) and assessing for cognitive impairment (86.5%). 74.2% noted that they routinely prescribed oral nutritional supplements and 71.6% involved non-medical professional(s) to help manage UIWL. While 50.4% reported recommending ice cream to their patients with UIWL, only 30.6% reported being aware of other colleagues recommending it. Geriatricians in practice for 30+ years were significantly more likely to recommend ice cream (P < 0.05). A thematic analysis of qualitative responses identified that prescribing ice cream tended to align both with patient preferences and socio-economic realities. CONCLUSION: While a majority of geriatricians surveyed routinely prescribe ONS and involve others to manage UIWL, at least half are also recommending ice cream. A key practice amongst experienced geriatricians, the use of ice cream could be better acknowledged as a practical and cost-effective way to address UIWL.


Assuntos
Geriatras , Sorvetes , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Perda de Peso
5.
J Food Biochem ; 45(7): e13813, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096081

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of ice creams produced from blends of orange (Citrus sinensis) and shaddock (Citrus maxima) peels on the blood lipid profile, glycemic index, and antioxidant indices in the liver and heart of rats. Formulated ice cream was produced at a different proportion of citrus (orange and shaddock) blends and fed to rats for 28 days. The result showed that the formulated ice cream enriched with citrus peels blends caused a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level in the plasma and antioxidant status in the liver and heart homogenates, decreased the glycemic index, concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein in the plasma as against rats fed on plain and commercial ice creams. To conclude, the use of ice creams from blends of orange and shaddock peels could serve as a functional food for weight reduction, glycemic index, management of lipid-related diseases, and prevention of oxidative stress-related complications in the liver and heart. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The consumption of ice creams has increased in many parts of the world. However, there have been limited efforts aimed at improving the medicinal properties of frozen dairy products. Hence, these ice creams could be produced on a large scale under regulated condition since they have improved medicinal properties which would be a good option for preventing/combating degenerative conditions and their related complications.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Citrus , Sorvetes , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Índice Glicêmico , Ratos , Triglicerídeos
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 421, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128113

RESUMO

Ice cream is a popular frozen dairy product and a possible source of dietary minerals. However, ice cream may also contain toxic metals, which may cause several health implications. The current study aimed to determine the content of toxic elements in ice cream samples using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and to assess the health risks of consumers based on target cancer risk (TCR), target hazard quotient (THQ), and hazardous index (HI). The determined concentration (median, range) of all studied elements had shown a descending order of Al (9.36, 5.37-14.26) > Zn (5.94, 1.95-10.22) > Cu (1.73, 1.02-3.77) > Ni (0.95, 0.67-1.80) > Fe (0.79, 0.10-1.64) > Cr (0.43, 0.28-0.73) > Mn (0.42, 0.11-1.03) > Pb (0.34, 0.09-0.79) > Cd (0.08, 0.04-0.14) mg/kg (fresh weight). The values of THQ and HI (except 16% for children) were lower than the maximum threshold risk limit (TRL = 1.0), indicating no potential non-carcinogenic health effects might occur. Similarly, the TCR of Cr and Pb for both adults and children was within the permissible limit of 10-4-10-6, which suggested that the consumer would not experience potential lifetime carcinogenic health risks. However, the overall analyses revealed that the consumption of ice cream is almost safe for people, but the combined impact of all metals (HI) in some samples is a matter of health concern. Henceforth, regular monitoring of toxic metals in ice creams should be done to assure food safety and hygiene.


Assuntos
Sorvetes , Metais Pesados , Adulto , Bangladesh , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco
7.
Food Chem ; 362: 130196, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091165

RESUMO

This review examines the nutritional and functional aspects of some representatives of the Cactaceae family, as well as its technological potential in the most diverse industrial fields. The studied species are good sources of nutrients and phytochemicals of biological interest, such as phenolic compounds, carotenoids, betalains, phytosterols, tocopherols, etc. They also have shown great potential in preventing some diseases, including diabetes, obesity, cancer, and others. As to technological applications, the Cactaceae family can be explored in the production of food (e.g., cakes, yogurts, bread, ice cream, and juices), as natural dyes, sources of pectins, water treatment and in animal feed. In addition, they have great potential for many technological domains, including food chemistry, pharmacy, biotechnology, and many others.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Alimentos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Betalaínas/química , Betalaínas/farmacologia , Pão , Cactaceae/classificação , Corantes/química , Humanos , Sorvetes , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/farmacologia , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Iogurte
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(7): 7406-7414, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934866

RESUMO

Sheep dairy products containing prebiotic and probiotic ingredients may have health-promoting properties. Thus, this study evaluated the effects of sheep milk ice cream [conventional full-fat (CONV), full-fat enriched with probiotic (PROB, 100 mg % wt/wt of Lacticaseibacillus casei 01), or nonfat synbiotic (SYNB, Lacticaseibacillus casei 01 and inulin, 10% wt/wt)] on carcinogen-induced colonic crypt cytotoxicity and premalignant lesion development. Male Swiss mice received 2 doses of colon carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM, 15 mg/kg of body weight) at wk 3 and 4. Two weeks before and during AOM administrations (4 wk) mice were treated with CONV, PROB, or SYNB by gavage (10 mL/kg). Mice were euthanized at wk 4 or 25 (n = 5 or 10 mice/group, respectively). At wk 4, a significant reduction in micronucleated colonocytes was observed in PROB and SYNB groups, and a significant decrease in both p53 expression and apoptosis indexes in colonic crypts was observed in SYNB group. At wk 25, both PROB and SYNB interventions reduced the mean number of colonic premalignant lesions. However, only SYNB group showed lower incidence and number of high-grade premalignant lesions in the colonic mucosa. These findings indicate that PROB or SYNB sheep milk ice cream, especially SYNB intervention, can reduce chemically induced mouse colon carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Sorvetes , Doenças dos Roedores , Doenças dos Ovinos , Simbióticos , Animais , Carcinogênese , Carcinógenos/farmacologia , Colo , Neoplasias do Colo/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias do Colo/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo/veterinária , Sorvetes/análise , Masculino , Camundongos , Leite , Ovinos
9.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 24(1, cont.): e2404, jan-jun. 2021. graf
Artigo em Inglês | ID: biblio-1252766

RESUMO

Ice cream is susceptible to contamination by handling and bad hygiene conditions during both the storage process and the fractioning for sale, and once contaminated, it can cause diseases. The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the microbiological quality of ice cream sold in bulk, of pasty and soft types, offered for consuming. Thirty samples of pasty ice cream sold in bulk, and thirty samples of soft ice cream were analyzed through the counting of thermotolerant coliforms, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp., and searching for the presence of Salmonella spp. During the study, a total of ten (33%) samples of pasty ice cream and five (16%) samples of soft ice cream were found to be beyond the limits established by the Brazilian law. Salmonella spp. was found in four samples (6.7%). These results are an alert for the need of greater attention to the microbiological quality of ice cream in order to ensure the safety of its consumers.(AU)


Os sorvetes são suscetíveis à contaminação pela manipulação e más condições higiênicas durante o processamento, armazenamento e do fracionamento para venda, uma vez contaminados podem causar doenças. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica de sorvetes, vendidos a granel, pastosos e expressos, oferecidos para consumo. Trinta amostras de sorvete pastoso, vendido a granel, e trinta amostras de sorvete expresso foram analisadas realizando-se contagem de coliformes termotolerantes, Staphylococcus spp. coagulase-positiva e pesquisando-se a presença de Salmonella spp. Foram detectadas dez (33%) amostras de sorvete pastoso e cinco (16%) amostras de sorvete expresso fora dos limites estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira. Salmonella spp. foi encontrado em quatro amostras (6,7%). Esses resultados alertam para a necessidade de uma maior atenção à qualidade microbiológica dos sorvetes, a fim de garantir a segurança do consumidor.(AU)


Los helados son susceptibles a la contaminación por manipulación y malas condiciones higiénicas durante el procesamiento, almacenamiento y fraccionamiento para venta, una vez contaminados pueden causar enfermedades. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido evaluar la calidad microbiológica de helados vendidos a granel, pastosos y suaves, ofrecidos para el consumo. Se analizaron treinta muestras de helados pastosos vendidos a granel, y treinta muestras de helados suaves, realizándose el conteo de coliformes termotolerantes, Staphylococcus spp. coagulase positiva e investigándose la presencia de Salmonella spp. Se detectaron diez (33%) muestras de helado pastoso y cinco (16%) muestras de helado blando fuera de los límites establecidos por la legislación brasileña. Salmonella spp. se encontró en cuatro muestras (6,7%). Esos resultados destacan la necesidad de una mayor atención a la calidad microbiológica de los helados, con el fin de garantizar la seguridad del consumidor.(AU)


Assuntos
Salmonella , Staphylococcus , Gestão da Qualidade , Coliformes , Sorvetes/microbiologia , Higiene , Coagulase/análise
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(3): 2843-2854, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461820

RESUMO

The effect of high-pressure-jet (HPJ) processing (0-500 MPa) on low-fat (6% fat) ice cream was studied by evaluating physiochemical properties before freezing, during dynamic freezing, and after hardening. An HPJ treatment ≥400 MPa decreased the density, increased the apparent size of colloidal particles, and altered rheological behavior (increased non-Newtonian behavior and consistency coefficients) of low-fat ice cream mix before freezing. During dynamic freezing, the particle size and consistency coefficient decreased but remained higher in 400 MPa-treated samples vs. non-HPJ-treated controls at the conclusion of freezing. The resulting ice creams (400 and 500 MPa-treated) had similar hardness values (3,372 ± 25 and 3,825 ± 14 g) and increased melting rates (2.91 ± 0.13 and 2.61 ± 0.31 g/min) compared with a control sample containing polysorbate 80 (3,887 ± 2 and 1.62 ± 0.25 g/min). Visualization of ice cream samples using transmission electron microscopy provided evidence of casein micelle and fat droplet disruption by HPJ treatment ≥400 MPa. In the 400 MPa-treated samples, a unique microstructure consisting of dispersed protein congregated around coalesced fat globules likely contributed to the altered physiochemical properties of this ice cream. High-pressure-jet processing can alter the microstructure, rheological properties, and hardness of a low-fat ice cream, and further modification of the formulation and processing parameters may allow the development of products with enhanced properties.


Assuntos
Sorvetes , Animais , Caseínas , Manipulação de Alimentos , Congelamento , Sorvetes/análise , Cinética , Viscosidade
12.
Food Chem ; 344: 128640, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229157

RESUMO

Acacia mearnsii gum is not commercially exploited, being characterized as residue from A. mearnsii cultivation. This work investigated the A. mearnsii gum polysaccharide composition, its cytotoxicity and the technological effect as a stabilizer in ice cream. A. mearnsii gum showed a similar chemical structure to commercial gum Arabic and did not decrease the viability and proliferation of fibroblast cells (Balb/3T3) and hepatocarcinoma (HepG2). Rheological tests showed that the ice cream stabilized by the A. mearnsii gum had a more structured system (more interactions between the mixture components) and the same melting characteristics as the ice cream samples made with commercial gum Arabic. The results showed that A. mearnsii gum, which is actually an agro-industrial residue from tannin production for industry, is a potential stabilizing gum for the food industry, contributing to the economic development of the exploitation chain of A. mearnsii products and by-products.


Assuntos
Acacia/química , Sorvetes , Gomas Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/análise , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Goma Arábica/química , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Gomas Vegetais/análise , Gomas Vegetais/toxicidade , Polissacarídeos/química , Reologia
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(9): 3693-3706, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, a face-centered central composite design was applied to optimize pulsed electric field parameters (voltage: 1, 4, 7 kV cm-1 ; pulse number: 10, 65, 120) for the extraction of natural saponins from Chubak root. Data analysis showed that increasing the voltage from 1 to 4 kV cm-1 and pulse number from 10 to 65 increased foaming ability (FA) and emulsion stability, and decreased foam density (FD), foam stability (FS) and lightness, due to the improved extraction of saponins. RESULTS: Whereas, an opposite trend was observed for FA, FD and FS on increasing the voltage from 4 to 7 kV cm-1 as a result of more impurities being extracted. Furthermore, the Chubak root extract (CRE) (0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 g kg-1 ) obtained under the optimized conditions (voltage of 6.4 kV cm-1 and pulse number of 80) was used in ice cream formulation because of its ability to reduce surface tension. Based on the results, the samples containing higher amounts of CRE showed higher viscosity, consistency coefficient, overrun, melting resistance and creaminess, as well as lower values of flow behavior index, hardness, adhesiveness, coarseness and coldness. This could be related to the increased water retention, improved whipping ability, greater fat destabilization and smaller ice crystals. Although more bitterness was perceived as a result of an increase in the level of CRE, it had no negative effect on the overall acceptance assessed by trained sensory panelists. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study briefly support the conclusion that CRE has a very high potential for use as a foaming, emulsifying and stabilizing agent to improve the quality of ice cream. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Caryophyllales/química , Aditivos Alimentares/isolamento & purificação , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Sorvetes/análise , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Tensoativos/isolamento & purificação , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Congelamento , Dureza , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Tensoativos/química , Paladar , Viscosidade
14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 254: 117415, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357899

RESUMO

Grapefruit peel nanofibrillated cellulose (GNFC) was used as fat substitute in ice cream. GNFC was characterized by TEM, SEM, and XRD. The effects of GNFC on textural profiles, rheological properties, melting resistance, sensory properties, microstructure, and gross energy (GE) of ice cream were investigated. The results showed that GNFC was short rod-shaped crystal. Ice cream added with GNFC exhibited elastic-dominated behavior and better textural properties. The sensory evaluation score reached the highest level with desirable three-dimensional network structure at 0.4 % GNFC addition. GE of ice cream significantly decreased with reducing fat with maximal reduction rate of 17.90 %. Furthermore, the results of in vitro simulated digestion showed that GNFC addition and fat reduction significantly inhibited fat digestibility of ice cream due to coalescence of fat droplets on GNFC. This study provides new sustainable perspectives for the application of GNFC prepared from agricultural waste as fat substitute in food products.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Citrus paradisi/química , Substitutos da Gordura/química , Sorvetes , Nanofibras/química , Nanopartículas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Celulose/farmacologia , Óxidos N-Cíclicos/química , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Elasticidade , Substitutos da Gordura/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Congelamento , Suco Gástrico/química , Suco Gástrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Leucina/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Reologia/métodos , Paladar
15.
Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment ; 19(4): 425-433, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whipped cream is one of the dairy emulsions commonly used as a topping for desserts and cake decorations. Several stabilizers were used to obtain whipped creams of a good quality and with a stable topping. This research study aimed to evaluate the organoleptic, textural, and whipping properties of whipped cream prepared using different stabilizer blends. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 0.04% of different stabilizers, including carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), κ-carrageenan (KC), or KC blended (in the ratio of 3:1) with cremodan se 30 (C30), 80 (C80) or 216 (C 216), were used in preparing the whipped cream samples. The whipping properties (whipping time, overrun, and foam stability), viscosity, texture, and organoleptic properties were evaluated. RESULTS: The obtained findings revealed that using a KC+C80 blend led to the lowest whipping time (76 s) and the highest overrun (120%). Also, pronounced changes obtained by using these stabilizers and the more suitable viscosity were obtained by using a KC+C80 blend. Moreover, using a KC+C80 blend led to higher values of hardness (4.38 N) and cohesiveness (0.53) and lower values of springiness (4.65 mm), chewiness (5.60 mJ), and adhesiveness (8.66 mJ). The data obtained demonstrated that all whipped the cream samples were organoleptically accepted, and the whipped cream prepared with a KC+C80 blend had the highest score of flavor, texture, appearance, and overall acceptability. CONCLUSION: It could be concluded that using a KC+C80 stabilizer blend improved the whipping and texture properties, viscosity, and organoleptic properties of whipped cream.


Assuntos
Carboximetilcelulose Sódica , Carragenina , Laticínios/análise , Emulsões/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Humanos , Sorvetes , Sensação , Viscosidade
16.
Food Res Int ; 137: 109602, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233200

RESUMO

C-phycocyanin (C-PC) is a protein with bioactive properties, which is found mainly in cyanobacteria and that is used as a natural food dye. Even though it is extensively studied, few authors have reported C-PC's colour stability and antioxidant activity when applied to food matrices. Therefore, the aim of this research was to evaluate the colour stability over time and the antioxidant capacity of a food grade C-PC extract applied to milk-based ice creams. The C-PC-added ice creams showed insignificant colour loss during 182 d. Regarding antioxidant activity, the C-PC-added ice creams presented low ABTS●+ and peroxyl radicals scavenging capacities before in vitro simulated digestion. However, after in vitro digestion, the ice creams with C-PC extract addition showed antioxidant capacities of 134.63 ± 15.68 and 1425.19 ± 54.93 µmolTE.g-1 by the ORAC and ABTS methods, values 2- and 13-fold higher than the achieved by the controls, respectively. Thus, the results demonstrate that C-PC extract can be applied as a stable blue dye in ice creams and highlight the increased antioxidant activity of the C-PC-added products after in vitro simulated digestion, which can encourage the formulation of food products that attract consumers' attention for both their colour and biological activities.


Assuntos
Sorvetes , Ficocianina , Antioxidantes , Cor , Digestão
17.
J Food Sci ; 85(11): 3885-3898, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063351

RESUMO

Although the ice phase greatly influences the properties of ice cream, other structural components also affect its rheological behavior, particularly after melting. In this study, mix viscosity (serum phase viscosity), extent of fat destabilization (FD), and overrun were manipulated to produce different microstructures. The effects of these structural components were evaluated on the rheological properties of the ice creams and melted ice creams. In oscillatory thermorheometry, mix viscosity and then overrun, influenced G' and tanδ below -10 °C. When ice phase decreased (between -10 and -2.7 °C), mix viscosity had reduced effects, but continued to strongly affect G' and tanδ, followed by FD, and with lower effects from overrun. When the ice phase was completely melted at 0 °C, FD had most influence on G' and tanδ, followed by overrun, and with lower effects from mix viscosity. In creep/recovery test, six-element model described well creep behavior of melted ice cream at 0 °C. Viscous behavior at lower shear rate (η0 0 °C) was most influenced by mix viscosity, followed by FD, and lower overrun effects. In stress growth measurement, transient behavior, represented by σY 0 °C, of melted matrix at 0 °C was most influenced by FD, followed by mix viscosity, with lower overrun effects. In flow ramp measurement, Hysteresis Area was most affected by mix viscosity, followed by overrun, and with lower FD effects. Moreover, correlation between Hyst 0 °C and tanδ Peak suggested that structure formation affected the magnitude of tanδ Peak. These results document the importance of microstructure on properties of melted ice cream. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The understanding of how structural components, such as mix viscosity, fat destabilization, and overrun, affect the ice cream matrix can help manufacturers to control its rheological behavior. The influence of these structural components on the G', tanδ, η0 0 °C , σY 0 °C , and Hyst 0 °C can be also used to understand the structural rearrangements that occur in meltdown tests and sensory analyses for future studies. Therefore, elucidation of these mechanisms on the rheological properties can directly assist in quality control and new product development in the ice cream industry.


Assuntos
Sorvetes/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Bovinos , Congelamento , Fenômenos Físicos , Reologia , Viscosidade
18.
J Immunol Res ; 2020: 2635230, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029537

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of recombinant probiotic bacteria as a candidate for oral vaccine with the potential of treating allergy to Amaranthus retroflexus pollens. The main gene of this allergen, Ama r 2, was cloned into the food grade plasmid pNZ7025 and then was electrotransformed into the food grade Lactococcus lactis NZ1330. No expression was observed in the primary structure due to the distance between the ribosome binding site and the start codon. Therefore, the vector structure was corrected using the site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) technique. The cell extract of this strain was used for assessing the expression of the recombinant allergen in western blot analysis, and the existence of this protein with a molecular weight of 14.2 kDa was confirmed. To evaluate the efficacy of this strain in the treatment of allergies as an oral vaccine, probiotic ice cream was prepared. After the sensitization of mice, the treatment was performed by oral immunotherapy for 4 weeks, 4 to 5 times per week. 20 µl of functional ice cream with 1012 CFU/ml of r-L. lactis NZ1330 significantly reduced the serum IgE level. The levels of IFN-γ and TGF-ß cytokines increased in the 20 µl ice cream treatment group as well as 40 µg/ml pure allergen compared with the PBS-treated group, and IL-4 cytokine levels decreased compared with the PBS-treated group. Overall, 20 µl ice cream with 1012 CFU/ml of the recombinant bacteria resulted in the best performance in terms of improving allergies to Th1 and Treg responses.


Assuntos
Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/terapia , Sorvetes , Lactococcus lactis/imunologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Alérgenos/genética , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos/imunologia , Antígenos de Plantas/genética , Antígenos de Plantas/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Clonagem Molecular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Gênica , Ordem dos Genes , Hipersensibilidade/metabolismo , Imunização , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Lactococcus lactis/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Plasmídeos/genética , Pólen/genética , Pólen/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/terapia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(11): 10022-10035, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896416

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ricotta whey (RW), cheese whey (CW), and butter whey (BUW) as replacers of whole milk (WM) at different ratios (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0) in the physicochemical and sensory qualities of ice cream. All formulations, including a commercial sample used as reference, were analyzed for nutritional composition, energy value, pH, titratable acidity (TA), melting behavior, desorption index, instrumental color properties, instrumental hardness, and consumer sensory testing. Overall, the addition of RW, CW, and BUW increased the moisture content, TA, melting rate, and redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values but decreased the pH, lightness (L*) value, energy value, levels of ash, protein, lipid, and carbohydrate. As exception, CW did not influence the TA, and BUW resulted in lower lipid reduction and in lower hardness changes, and it did not affect the content of ash, protein, and a* and b* values of ice creams. Any ice cream formulation had dietary fibers and a desorption index. Ricotta whey and CW at all ratios and BUW at 25% did not affect overall liking compared with the commercial sample, whereas purchase intention was only decreased by the addition of BUW from 50 to 100%. Ricotta whey at 75 and 100% decreased melting velocity and creaminess, and BUW at 50, 75, and 100% increased hardness, TA, and cream flavor but decreased creaminess, which contributed negatively to overall liking. Therefore, the evaluated dairy by-products, especially RW and CW, have great potential for replacing milk in ice creams.


Assuntos
Queijo/análise , Sorvetes/normas , Substitutos do Leite/química , Soro do Leite/química , Carboidratos/análise , Fenômenos Químicos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Laticínios/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lipídeos/análise , Proteínas/análise , Paladar
20.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 68(10): 2066, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971610

Assuntos
Sorvetes , Humanos
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