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1.
PLoS Med ; 19(3): e1003929, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35271581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies in low- and middle-income regions suggest that child marriage (<18 years) is a risk factor for poor reproductive outcomes among women. However, in high-income-country contexts where childbearing before age 18 occurs predominantly outside marriage, it is unknown whether marriage is adversely associated with reproductive health among mothers below age 18. This study examined the joint associations of marriage and adolescent maternal age group (<18, 18-19, and 20-24 years) with reproductive, maternal, and infant health indicators in the United States. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Birth registrations with US resident mothers aged ≤24 years with complete information on marital status were drawn from the 2014 to 2019 Natality Public Use Files (n = 5,669,824). Odds ratios for the interaction between marital status and maternal age group were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for covariates such as maternal race/ethnicity and nativity status, federal program participation, and paternal age. Marriage prevalence was 3.6%, 13.2%, and 34.1% among births to mothers aged <18, 18-19, and 20-24 years, respectively. Age gradients in the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were present for most indicators, and many gradients differed by marital status. Among births to mothers aged <18 years, marriage was associated with greater adjusted odds of prior pregnancy termination (AOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.52-1.77, p < 0.001), repeat birth (AOR 2.84, 95% CI 2.68-3.00, p < 0.001), maternal smoking (AOR 1.24, 95% CI 1.15-1.35, p < 0.001), and infant morbidity (AOR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.14, p = 0.03), but weaker or reverse associations existed among births to older mothers. For all maternal age groups, marriage was associated with lower adjusted odds of late or no prenatal care initiation, sexually transmitted infection, and no breastfeeding at hospital discharge, but these beneficial associations were weaker among births to mothers aged <18 and 18-19 years. Limitations of the study include its cross-sectional nature and lack of information on marriage timing relative to prior pregnancy events. CONCLUSIONS: Marriage among mothers below age 18 is associated with both adverse and favorable reproductive, maternal, and infant health indicators. Heterogeneity exists in the relationship between marriage and reproductive health across adolescent maternal age groups, suggesting girl child marriages must be examined separately from marriages at older ages.


Assuntos
Ilegitimidade , Casamento , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Idade Materna , Gravidez , Saúde Reprodutiva , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
J Fam Psychol ; 36(4): 479-489, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35084880

RESUMO

This study examines the efficacy of a prenatal intervention designed to promote healthy coparenting relationships in families where low-income, unmarried mothers and fathers were expecting a first baby together. One hundred thirty-eight Black and mixed-race mother-father dyads participated. Coparent dyads were randomly assigned to either a treatment as usual (TAU) group, receiving referrals and navigation support to existing community services (control), or to TAU plus invitation to a series of six dyadic Focused Coparenting Consultation (FCC) sessions led by a male-female mentor team (intervention). Seventy-one percent of those prenatally assessed were later reassessed at 3 months postpartum. Both mothers and fathers contributed reports of coparenting, father engagement, physical and psychological intimate partner violence (IPV), and depressive symptoms. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated: (a) some evidence that mothers in the intervention group reported more positive coparenting communication at 3 months postpartum than did control group mothers; (b) mothers in the intervention group reported significantly more time spent by fathers with the child than did control group mothers; (c) parents in the intervention group had significant reductions in psychological IPV compared to parents in the control group; and (d) both mothers and fathers showed reductions in self-reported depression over time, with no differential impact of group. Findings suggest that the FCC intervention may produce modest but important benefits for unmarried, low-income Black coparents in the transition to parenthood. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Pessoa Solteira , Criança , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ilegitimidade , Lactente , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Gravidez
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444433

RESUMO

Unmarried mothers living in residential facilities (UMLFs) in Korea face complex and challenging physical, psychological, and socioeconomic issues. This study developed a physical and mental health promotion program using urban forests for UMLFs based on the transtheoretical model and evidence. We utilized an intervention mapping approach (IMA) and assessed the needs of UMLFs by analyzing previous quantitative studies. Moreover, we conducted a qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological study involving nine participants. Based on the needs assessment, important and changeable determinants were identified; further, the program performance and change objectives were classified to achieve the program goals and establish the intervention strategy. We found that physical activity using forests, self-reflection using metaphors, five-sense activities, achievement activities using natural objects, building interpersonal relationships in the forest, and designing future plans, are desirable methods for improving the health of UMLFs. The IMA was deemed appropriate for the systematic development of health promotion programs for UMLFs through clear links among change objectives, theoretical methods, and practice strategies. These results should be applied to future intervention studies.


Assuntos
Ilegitimidade , Modelo Transteórico , Florestas , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Instituições Residenciais
4.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247189, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606834

RESUMO

Childbirth outside marriage has several negative implications for the well-being of children, women, and families globally. In sub-Saharan Africa, however, the phenomenon appears to be under-studied. In this study, we examine the levels and socioeconomic correlates of nonmarital fertility in Ghana. Using pooled data from the 2003, 2008, and the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys, logistic regression models were used in determining significantly predictive factors of nonmarital fertility. The results show that nonmarital fertility levels have been on the rise over time without any sign of reduction (24.0%, 33.0%, and 40.0% for 2003, 2008, and 2014, respectively). Some socioeconomic characteristics are linked to nonmarital fertility levels with women without formal education, women from poor households, and self-employed women having significantly higher nonmarital fertility risks. Also, older unmarried women, women who have an early sexual debut, cohabiters, women with unmet need for family planning are all associated with considerably higher risks of nonmarital childbearing. A few significant regional disparities also exist, with the Central Region having higher whereas the Upper West Region has lower risks of nonmarital fertility compared to the Greater Accra Region. Childbirth outside marriage is a social concern among women in Ghana. The findings have possible implications for bridging socioeconomic disparities among unmarried women.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Escolaridade , Feminino , Gana , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Ilegitimidade , Renda , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Res Adolesc ; 31(1): 25-33, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091236

RESUMO

The identification of factors that counter youth's radicalization while promoting democratic activism is a timely social issue. This paper examines the association of psychological well-being (PWB) with violent radicalism and nonviolent activism, by focusing on the mediating role of both social disconnectedness (SD) and the perceived illegitimacy of the authorities (PIoA). Two mediation structural equation models (full vs. partial) were applied to data collected from 328 Italian adolescents (14-19 years). The results showed how SD and PIoA fully mediated the link of PWB with radicalism (negatively) and activism (positively). This model was further supported when compared with an alternative one proposing PWB as a mediator between SD and PIoA. The findings are discussed in light of the existing literature and provide potential implications for practice.


Assuntos
Processos Grupais , Ilegitimidade , Adolescente , Humanos
6.
Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 38: e0155, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288523

RESUMO

Os estudos sobre a escravidão vêm demonstrando que o acesso ao casamento entre os cativos estava longe de constituir a regra. Aliás, mesmo para a população livre, parte dos homens e das mulheres jamais teria a sua união formalizada. Aqui explora-se o universo minoritário dos matrimônios entre escravizados realizados na freguesia Nossa Senhora da Madre de Deus de Porto Alegre, Capitania-Província do Rio Grande de São Pedro, entre 1772 e 1850, como mote para discutir a questão dos regimes demográficos restritos, tema importante da pauta da demografia histórica brasileira. As fontes principais são os assentos paroquiais de casamentos, batismos e óbitos de escravizados, analisados a partir de uma perspectiva agregada − perfil dos nubentes, naturalidade, (i)legitimidade −, assim como por meio do estudo das senzalas de dois proprietários que permitiram o casamento de escravizados. Os resultados confirmam o acesso limitado dos escravizados ao casamento formalizado, bem como indicam o impacto do tráfico nos indicadores demográficos, sobretudo a queda muito significativa da fecundidade legítima, com a entrada de escravizados adultos, especialmente a partir da segunda década do século XIX. Por fim, são analisadas duas senzalas, para exemplificar políticas senhoriais que incentivavam o casamento e a reprodução endógena.


Studies on slavery have shown that access to marriage among captives was far from the norm. In fact, even for the free population, some men and women would never have their union formalized. Here we explore the minority universe of marriages between enslaved people held in the parish of Nossa Senhora da Madre de Deus in Porto Alegre, Captaincy-Province of Rio Grande de São Pedro, between 1772 and 1850, in order to discuss the issue of restricted demographic regimes, an important issue on the agenda of Brazilian Historical Demography. The main sources are parish records of marriages, baptisms, and deaths of enslaved people, analyzed from an aggregate perspective - profile of spouses, birthplace, (il)legitimacy - as well as through the study of some owners of captive couples who had their marriage recorded in the parish. The results confirm the limited access of slaves to formalized marriage. It also points to the impact of trafficking on demographic indicators, especially the significant drop in legitimate fertility, with the entry of adult slaves, especially as of the second decade of the 19th century. Finally, we analyzed two "senzalas", to exemplify slaveholder's policies which encouraged marriage and endogenous reproduction.


Los estudios sobre la esclavitud han demostrado que el acceso al matrimonio entre los cautivos estaba lejos de ser la regla. De hecho, incluso para la población libre, gran parte de hombres y mujeres nunca formalizarían su unión. Aquí, el universo minoritario de los matrimonios entre esclavos realizados en la parroquia de Nossa Senhora da Madre de Deus en Porto Alegre, Capitanía-Provincia de Rio Grande de São Pedro, entre 1772 y 1850, se explora como lema para discutir el tema de regímenes demográficos restringidos, de importancia en la agenda de la Demografía histórica brasileña. Las principales fuentes son los registros parroquiales de matrimonios, bautismos y muertes de esclavos, analizados desde una perspectiva agregada —perfil del prometido, lugar de nacimiento, (i)legitimidad—, así como a través del estudio de dos senzalas de propietarios que permitieron el matrimonio de esclavizados. Los resultados confirman el acceso limitado de los esclavos al matrimonio formalizado. También señala el impacto del tráfico en los indicadores demográficos, especialmente la muy significativa caída de la fecundidad legítima, con la entrada de esclavos adultos, especialmente a partir de la segunda década del siglo XIX. Finalmente, analizamos dos barrios de esclavos para ejemplificar las políticas señoriales que fomentaron el matrimonio y la reproducción endógena.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Casamento , Demografia , Escravização , Reprodução , Ilegitimidade , Registros , Fertilidade , Pessoas Escravizadas
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22095, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328522

RESUMO

Chamaecyparis taiwanensis is an endemic plant suffering illegal logging in Taiwan for its high economic value. Lack of direct evidence to correlate stump and timber remains a hurdle for law enforcement. In this report, 23 polymorphic Genomic Simple Sequence Repeat (gSSR) and 12 Expressed Sequence Tag (EST)-SSR markers were developed and their transferability was assessed. The individual identification system built from selected non-linkage 30 SSR markers has a combined probability of identity as 5.596 × 10-12 equivalents to identifying an individual in a population of up to 18 million C. taiwanensis with 99.99% confidence level. We also applied the system in an actual criminal case by selecting 19 of these markers to correlate illegally felled timbers and victim trees. Our data demonstrate that molecular signals from three timbers hit with three victim trees with confidence level more than 99.99%. This is the first example of successfully applying SSR in C. taiwanensis as a court evidence for law enforcement. The identification system adapted advanced molecular technology and exhibits its great potential for natural resource management on C. taiwanensis.


Assuntos
Chamaecyparis/genética , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Chamaecyparis/classificação , Chamaecyparis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Humanos , Ilegitimidade , Aplicação da Lei , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Taiwan
8.
Stud Fam Plann ; 51(3): 273-291, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944963

RESUMO

In China, premarital sexual and reproductive behavior is seldom considered and poorly understood. Increases in premarital pregnancy are thought to not only illuminate a decoupling of marriage and sexual/reproductive behavior but also serve as a key feature of family change in East Asia. This study assesses change across cohorts in the likelihood of premarital pregnancy and the extent to which change differs by educational attainment. Drawing on the 2017 China Fertility Survey, we apply a discrete-time, competing-risk survival analysis to a nationally representative sample of 221,990 women born between 1960 and 1999. Women born in the 1980s and 1990s are more likely than those born in the 1960s and 1970s to experience a pregnancy prior to first marriage. This cohort trend is driven by increases in premarital pregnancy among women with a high school education or less. The less educated women and their college counterparts increasingly diverge in the likelihood of experiencing a premarital pregnancy. The diverging patterns of premarital pregnancy underscore the urgency to shift the focus of China's family planning programs from fertility control to reproductive health, with an emphasis on providing information and services to disadvantaged unmarried individuals.


Assuntos
Ilegitimidade/tendências , Adulto , China , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Ilegitimidade/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 82: 94-103, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773070

RESUMO

In natural kind debates, Boyd's famous Homeostatic Property Cluster theory (HPC) is often misconstrued in two ways: Not only is it thought to make for a normative standard for natural kinds, but also to require the homeostatic mechanisms underlying nomological property clusters to be uniform. My argument for the illegitimacy of both overgeneralizations, both on systematic as well as exegetical grounds, is based on the misconstrued view's failure to account for functional kinds in science. I illustrate the combination of these two misconstruals with recent entries into the natural kind debate about emotions. Finally, I examine and reject Stich's "Kornblith-Devitt method" as a potential justification of these misconstruals.


Assuntos
Cognição , Emoções , Dissidências e Disputas , Homeostase , Ilegitimidade
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1085, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the association between family-related life events (cohabitation/marriage and becoming a parent) and change in physical activity. METHODS: Longitudinal data (n = 8045) from the 1970 British Cohort Study (30 and 34 years) were included. Life events (beginning cohabitation/marriage and becoming a parent) were reported and coded: 0 no, 1 yes, for each event occurring between 30 and 34 years. Participants reported frequency of participation in leisure-time physical activity at 30 and 34 years (Likert scale: mean change calculated ranging between - 4 and 4). Linear regression models were used to examine the association between life events and physical activity change (comparing individuals experiencing events between 30 and 34 years versus never experiencing the event - excluding participants that experienced previous events - with a final analysis sample of n = 3833 in parenthood analysis; n = 1137 in cohabitation analysis). Interaction terms were used to analyse combined parenthood and cohabitation status. Analyses were adjusted for level of education achieved, ethnicity, country of origin and other life events. ANCOVA was used to examine associations between change in physical activity and child age. RESULTS: Compared to remaining without children, becoming a parent was associated with a greater reduction in physical activity among men [ß:-0.234(95%CI:-0.396 to - 0.072)] but not women [0.126(- 0.048;0.301)]. No associations were found between cohabitation and physical activity. Men who became fathers both while cohabitating [- 0.201(- 0.383;-0.020)] and without cohabiting [- 0.937(- 1.623;-0.250)] experienced greater physical activity declines than those remaining single and without children; the decline was greatest among non-cohabiting fathers. These associations did not differ by child age. CONCLUSIONS: Parenthood appears to differentially impact physical activity for men and women; this association also differs by cohabitation status. Parenthood appears to be most detrimental to physical activity levels among men. Interventions for physical activity could target new or soon-to-be parents, especially fathers. Further analyses with device-measured physical activity data would be valuable to advance understanding of these associations.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Características da Família , Pai/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Ilegitimidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido
11.
Hum Nat ; 31(2): 141-154, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548757

RESUMO

Life history theory predicts that exposure to high mortality in early childhood leads to faster and riskier reproductive strategies. Individuals who grew up in a high mortality regime will not overly wait until they find a suitable partner and form a stable union because premature death would prevent them from reproducing. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine whether women who experienced sibling death during early childhood (0-5 years) reproduced earlier and were at an increased risk of giving birth to an illegitimate child, with illegitimacy serving as a proxy for risky sexual behavior. Furthermore, we investigate whether giving birth out of wedlock is influenced by individual mortality experience or by more promiscuous sexual behavior that is clustered in certain families. Models are fitted on pedigree data from the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Krummhörn population in Germany. The results show a relationship between sibling death in early childhood and the risk of reproducing out of wedlock, and reproductive timing. The risk of giving birth out of wedlock is linked to individual mortality experience rather than to family-level effects. In contrast, adjustments in connubial reproductive timing are influenced more by family-level effects than by individual mortality experience.


Assuntos
Morte , Ilegitimidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Ilegitimidade/história , Casamento/história , Mortalidade , Linhagem , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Comportamento Sexual/história , Irmãos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Child Abuse Negl ; 107: 104560, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in understanding the contributions of fathers to child and family psychosocial conditions. However, fatherhood has been largely unexplored in relation to children born of conflict-related sexual violence. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to explore the realities and perspectives of children born of rape during the 1994 Rwandan genocide and in particular, their views on fatherhood and their biological fathers (who were perpetrators of sexual violence). PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: The sample included 60 youth (29 females/31 males), aged 20/21 years old. Participants were recruited through professional networks in three regions of Rwanda. Youth participants were aware of the circumstances of their birth. METHODS: In-depth qualitative interviews and focus group discussions were used to garner youth's perspectives and experiences. Inductive forms of data analysis were used whereby through careful reading and coding of transcripts the researchers identified key themes that were emerging from the data. RESULTS: Youth participants reported ambivalent and often conflictual feelings towards their father, tension-filled relationships with their mother, and maltreatment perpetrated by step-fathers. Despite their absence, fathers held a significant, vital and symbolic role in participants' perceptions of themselves, sense of identity, and family belonging. CONCLUSIONS: Children born of rape live with the intergenerational legacy of sexual violence in a context of father absence, strained family relationships, and community stigma. Specific father-related challenges need to be addressed when planning family, community and social policies and programs for children and youth in post-conflict societies.


Assuntos
Genocídio , Ilegitimidade , Estupro , Conflitos Armados , Criança , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Ruanda , Estigma Social , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 169, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to compare the quality of life (QOL) of single mothers with that of married mothers and to identify the sociodemographic and psychological factors affecting single mothers' QOL. We identified the factors that were similar and different between single and married mothers. METHODS: We analyzed survey data obtained from 195 single mothers and 357 married mothers living in an urban community in South Korea. The QOL was assessed with the World Health Organization Quality of Life-abbreviated form (WHOQOL-BREF). All participants completed the following self-report questionnaires: the Global Assessment of Recent Stress, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, the Scale for Suicide Ideation, the Korean version of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and the WHOQOL-BREF. These self-rating scales were used as continuous variables. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the association of quality of life with the sociodemographic and psychological factors for single and married mothers. RESULTS: Single mothers showed lower QOL than married mothers. Older age, high income and education level, and professional job status were positively correlated with the QOL of single mothers. Residential instability, higher stress levels, depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and alcohol-related problems were negatively associated with the QOL of single mothers. Multiple regression analysis suggested that residential instability (public rental housing: ß = - 10.779, p <  0.001; Jeonse rental housing: ß = - 0.324, p = 0.01) and alcohol-related problems (ß = - 0.522, p <  0.001) were independent factors affecting lower QOL, whereas professional job status (ß = 8.452, p = 0.037) was independently associated with higher QOL in single mothers. However, these factors were not associated with the QOL of married mothers. Higher education level was independently associated with higher QOL in both groups (ß = 3.149, p <  0.033 in single mothers, ß = 12.052, p <  0.001 in married mothers). CONCLUSIONS: Higher education level was associated with higher QOL in both groups. Unlike in married mothers, type of residence and occupation (related to the economic level) had a significant impact on QOL in single mothers. Alcohol-related problems were significantly correlated to QOL in single mothers compared to married mothers.


Assuntos
Mães , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ilegitimidade , Mães/psicologia , República da Coreia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 185, 2020 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A considerable number of previous studies have examined the trends, correlates, and consequences of premarital childbearing among adolescents and young women in Africa. However, very little is known about whether and how soon single mothers have another premarital birth in sub-Saharan African countries. This study examines the timing of a second premarital birth among single mothers and assesses how it may differ across key socio-demographic variables. METHODS: We pooled recent Demographic and Health Surveys from 25 sub-Saharan African countries to create a database of 57, 219 single mothers aged 15-49 years. Cumulative incidence graphs and Fine and Gray's competing risk models were used to delineate the timing of a second premarital birth and its socio-demographic correlates. RESULTS: More than one-third of single mothers in 16 countries have had a second premarital birth in their reproductive life. We also observed that more than 15% of the single mothers in Angola, Benin, the Republic of Chad, Liberia, Namibia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and Uganda, have had another premarital birth three years after the first. The incidence of a second premarital birth was significantly lower among women with secondary or higher education, compared to women with less than secondary education (p < 0.05) in most countries. Residence in an urban area compared to rural, was also significantly associated with a low incidence of second premarital birth in 10 countries (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate a rapid progression to having a second premarital birth in some sub-Sahara African countries, particularly among socio-economically disadvantaged women. The findings suggest the need for tailored interventions for improving the quality of life of single mothers, to reduce the associated burden and consequences of having a premarital birth.


Assuntos
Intervalo entre Nascimentos/etnologia , Intervalo entre Nascimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ilegitimidade , Mães , Pais Solteiros , Pessoa Solteira , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 15(1): 1716620, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975645

RESUMO

Purpose: Using Schlossberg's Transition Theory, this study explored the lived experiences of pregnant adolescents and adolescent mothers coping strategies during their transition to motherhood.Methods: Based on a phenomenological perspective, this qualitative study used in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) to answer the research aim. The process of data gathering included 8 FGDs and 12 IDIs held with adolescent mothers and pregnant adolescents. Audio recordings were transcribed and imported into MAXQDA 2018 for analysis.Results: Applying the interpretative phenomenologial analysis (IPA), four key themes emerged. This included: news of pregnancy; adolescent motherhood; social support and coping strategies. The findings display female adolescents' expressions of some of the negative aspects of motherhood they have been confronted with that have affected their lives. The dominant societal challenges posited by the adolescents included coping with economic and financial constraints, opting for unsafe abortion to reduce stigma associated with unplanned pregnancy, and managing the extra responsibility of taking care of the baby and the challenge of going back to school after delivery.Conclusion: There is the need to build social capital among community members regarding their support to improve the psychosocial well-being of adolescents during early motherhood.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez na Adolescência/psicologia , Teoria Psicológica , Adolescente , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Gana , Humanos , Ilegitimidade/psicologia , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada/psicologia , Estigma Social , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
16.
Fam Process ; 59(2): 789-806, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012095

RESUMO

Fragile families are defined as those that include unmarried or romantically unstable parents who have children and are socioeconomically disadvantaged. Mothers in fragile families may experience risk factors that lead to increased depressive symptoms that inhibit their ability to bounce back after stressful events. Risk factors for poorer maternal mental health may include declines in father involvement and a lack of coparenting support. This study examined the connected nature of coparenting and father involvement over time among continuously unmarried mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. A bidirectional latent growth curve analysis demonstrated that early father involvement was associated with a more gradual decline in coparenting support over the child's first 5 years, while early coparenting support also predicted a slower decline in father involvement over time. Steeper declines in coparenting support and father involvement over time were linked with more maternal depression and lower maternal life satisfaction when their child was nine. Results demonstrate a clear need for targeted intervention with both parents in fragile families to promote involved fathering behavior and enhance coparental relationships.


Las familias frágiles se definen como aquellas formadas por padres inestables solteros o románticamente inestables que tienen hijos y son desfavorecidos socioeconómicamente (Carlson & McLanahan, 2010). Las madres de las familias frágiles pueden sufrir factores de riesgo conducentes a mayores síntomas depresivos que inhiben su capacidad de recuperarse después de situaciones estresantes (Kalil & Ryan, 2010). Entre los factores de riesgo de deterioro de la salud mental materna se encuentran la disminución de la participación del padre y la falta de apoyo en la cocrianza. Este estudio analizó la índole asociada de la cocrianza y la participación del padre con el paso del tiempo entre las madres continuamente solteras del estudio sobre las "Familias Frágiles y el Bienestar de los Niños" (Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study). Un análisis bidireccional de la curva de crecimiento latente demostró que la participación inicial del padre estuvo asociada con una disminución más gradual del apoyo en la cocrianza durante los primeros cinco años del niño, mientras que el apoyo inicial en la cocrianza también predijo una disminución más lenta de la participación del padre con el paso del tiempo. Las disminuciones más pronunciadas del apoyo en la cocrianza y de la participación del padre con el paso del tiempo estuvieron ligadas a una mayor depresión materna y a una menor satisfacción materna con la vida cuando su hijo tenía nueve años. Los resultados demuestran una clara necesidad de una intervención orientada a ambos padres de las familias frágiles a fin de promover una conducta participativa del padre y mejorar las relaciones de cocrianza.


Assuntos
Pai/psicologia , Ilegitimidade/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Paterno/psicologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Relações Pai-Filho , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Saúde Materna , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Tempo , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia
17.
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol ; 41(1): 69-73, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552758

RESUMO

Purpose: The decision to have a child might be postponed by the lack of partner, and elective egg freezing (EEF) can afford single women more time to find a suitable companion to reach the desired family structure. Alternatively, some women decide to have a child on their own thorough in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intrauterine insemination (IUI) with donor sperm. This study investigates the motivations and personal characteristics of single women undergoing IVF/IUI or EEF.Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional study including 281 heterosexual single women who underwent either IVF/IUI with donor sperm for solo motherhood (208) or EEF (73) in 2015 at a large fertility center. An anonymous electronic survey was sent after starting the treatment.Results: The most common reason for not having fulfilled the motherhood desire was lack of partner (72.4% IVF/IUI and 65.9% EEF). We found that women undergoing IVF/IUI report a longer motherhood desire, >10 years (71.3% vs. 54.3%), live closer to their families (75.5% vs. 56.5%), and perceive a stronger family support than women undergoing EEF (85.4% vs. 68.8%). Finally, 100% of EEF obviously knew about the possibility of IVF/IUI with donor sperm, while 59.9% of IVF/IUI knew about EEF.Conclusion: Our results underscore the relevance of family ties in the decision to undergo IVF/IUI as single women. Moreover, these women might not be fully informed about social freezing as an option to postpone motherhood. Health professionals should be aware of these differences when counseling single women on fertility choices.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/ética , Fertilização In Vitro , Ilegitimidade , Pais Solteiros/psicologia , Adulto , Características da Família , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Fertilização In Vitro/psicologia , Humanos , Ilegitimidade/ética , Ilegitimidade/psicologia , Motivação , Distância Psicológica , Aconselhamento Sexual/métodos , Doadores de Tecidos
18.
J Fam Psychol ; 34(3): 279-290, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613117

RESUMO

An increasing number of couples in the United States are entering their first marriage having already had a child together, raising important questions about whether and how these couples' marriages differ from newlywed couples who enter marriage without children. The current study used 5 waves of data collected over the first 4.5 years of marriage from a sample of ethnically diverse, first-married newlywed couples living with low incomes to examine the effects of premarital parenthood on couples' self-reported satisfaction, observed communication, and marital dissolution over time. Among couples who entered marriage with a shared biological child (premarital parents), satisfaction levels were lower and communication was less effective, less positive, and more negative than couples entering marriage without children. Rates of change in marital functioning did not differ between groups, but the rate of marital dissolution was twice as high among premarital parents (19.1%) relative to couples who were not parents at the start of marriage (9.5%). These between-groups differences remained robust after controlling for several demographic differences (race, age, education, household income, work status, relationship length, premarital cohabitation), and initial differences in communication did not account for between-groups differences in marital satisfaction or dissolution. Together, these findings indicate that newlywed marriage unfolds in similar ways for low-income couples with and without children at the start of marriage, but couples raising children at the time of marriage have greater vulnerability to marital distress and dissolution. Further research is needed to characterize this risk and how interventions can offset it. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Divórcio/psicologia , Ilegitimidade/psicologia , Casamento/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Cônjuges/psicologia , Adulto , Comunicação , Divórcio/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Ilegitimidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pobreza/psicologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
19.
Med Leg J ; 87(3): 127-129, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179834

RESUMO

In Nepal, it is considered sinful for a woman to have sexual intercourse before marriage while the male is exonerated. The female will be branded a loose character outcast by family and society. Only a small percentage of women who feel the other way and stand mentally strong or who have family support come out to seek justice. Despite the stringent law, the loopholes in the justice mechanism re-victimise female victims. We report a case where a young unmarried pregnant woman who gave birth alone was charged with infanticide.


Assuntos
Ilegitimidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Infanticídio/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Humanos , Ilegitimidade/psicologia , Recém-Nascido , Infanticídio/psicologia , Masculino , Nepal , Sexismo/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Demography ; 56(2): 427-450, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834488

RESUMO

The rapid growth in cohabitation over the past quarter-century necessitates studies of changes in the stability and outcomes of cohabitation. We utilized data from the 1988 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the most recent NSFG data from 2011-2013 to examine the outcomes of two comparable cohorts of first premarital cohabiting women (1983-1988 and 2006-2013). Our results showed that cohabitations formed between 2006 and 2013 lasted longer-18 months, on average-than those formed in the mid-1980s, which lasted for an average of 12 months. We found that the lengthening of cohabitation over time cuts across sociodemographic characteristics-race/ethnicity, education, and motherhood status-and resulted mostly from the declining rate of transitioning to marriage. We found some support for the diverging destinies perspective in that disparities in the outcomes of cohabitation by education and by cohabiting birth have widened over time. Our analyses showed that changes in the outcomes of first premarital cohabiting unions over the past three decades were not due to compositional shifts in cohabitors. These results demonstrate the evolving dynamics of cohabitation over a 30-year window.


Assuntos
Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa Solteira/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Ilegitimidade , Masculino , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
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