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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 671, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557981

RESUMO

Seaweed exploitation in mainland India was started in early 1970s for various applications. The checklist of seaweeds of mainland India was well documented during 2001. However, rich marine macroalgal diversity found in island ecosystems of Andaman and Nicobar Islands have not been explored until today due to inaccessibility to most remote and protected islands. Based on the literature available from 1965 to 2020, this study garnered a detailed checklist of seaweeds of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands with recent nomenclature. A total of 244 species under 100 genera are being reported herein, of which red algae showed the highest species diversity of 107 species under 58 genera, followed by 79 species of green algae under 23 genera and 58 species of brown algae under 19 genera. Recent studies revealed that Andaman and Nicobar Islands are rich in seaweeds diversity, and the species composition available in these islands is slightly different from mainland Indian coastal waters. Since the Andaman group of islands is located close to Thailand and other Asian countries, Andaman seaweed species diversity appears to resemble the seaweed species of the West coast of Thailand and other Asian countries. This checklist would serve as valuable baseline data for those who wish to pursue research on seaweed conservation, germplasm banking, and molecular taxonomy aspects as well as sustainable utilization of seaweeds for commercial cultivation, food, drug, and other value-added applications.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Alga Marinha , Lista de Checagem , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Índia , Ilhas , Tailândia
2.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(7): 581-586, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353424

RESUMO

Pathogens like bacteria and protozoa, which affect human and animal health worldwide, can be transmitted by vectors like ticks. To investigate the epidemiology and genetic diversity of bacteria and protozoans carried by ticks in Chengmai county of Hainan province, China, 285 adult hard ticks belonging to two species [ Rhipicephalus sanguineus ( sensu lato): 183, 64.21% and Rhipicephalus microplus: 102, 35.79%] from dogs, cattle, and goats were collected. Microbial families were identified in these ticks by amplifying the 18S rRNA, 16S rRNA ( rrs), citrate synthase ( gltA), and heat shock protein ( groEL) genes. Our data revealed the presence of four recognized species and two Candidatus spp. of Anaplasmataceae and Coxiellaceae. In sum, these data reveal an extensive diversity of Anaplasmataceae bacteria, Coxiellaceae bacteria, Babesiidae, and Hepatozoidae in ticks from Hainan Island, highlighting the need to understand the tick-borne pathogen infection in local animals and humans.


Assuntos
Anaplasmataceae/genética , Coccídios/genética , Coxiellaceae/genética , Insetos Vetores/microbiologia , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Piroplásmios/genética , Anaplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Chaperonina 60/genética , China , Citrato (si)-Sintase/genética , Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Coxiellaceae/isolamento & purificação , Ilhas , Filogenia , Piroplásmios/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
4.
Mar Environ Res ; 170: 105436, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340031

RESUMO

Non-indigenous species can become a problem for the ecosystem health, especially when their distribution grows to the detriment of native species. In this moment, they can become invasive species. In marine ecosystems, the maritime transport is the principal gate and corridor for the movement of alien species. The genetic identification, using barcoding tools, of different oyster species in ports of the remote French Polynesia islands and atolls, showed a significant increase of exotic versus native oyster species between 2011 and 2018. This supports the spread of exotic species with the maritime traffic as the main cause. Moreover, the 11% of inaccurate identification at species level obtained in this study shows the need to complete the genetic databases.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Ostreidae , Animais , Ecossistema , Ilhas , Ilhas do Pacífico , Polinésia
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 171: 112727, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340147

RESUMO

The study aims to investigate the source and concentration of PAH fractions in the reef sediments of the Vembar group of Islands, Gulf of Mannar, India. The concentration of PAHs ranged from 0.36 to 15.98 ng/g. The reef environment was less contaminated with low-molecular-weight PAH fractions. The accumulation of the LMW-PAH fraction was very less, whereas the HMW fraction was derived from pyrolytic sources. The level of low and high molecular weight PAHs was lower than the level of Effective Range Median (ERM) and Effective Range Low (ERL).The calculated total TEQ value ranged from ND to 10.24 ng/g in the reef sediments.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Índia , Ilhas , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Zoolog Sci ; 38(4): 311-316, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342951

RESUMO

The Steller sea lion (SSL, Eumetopias jubatus) inhabits the North Pacific Ocean off both the North American and Asian coasts. The abundance of the species in Asia declined by more than half in the second part of the 20th century. Decline recurred in the second decade of the 21th century after a short period of restoration. In contrast with the total dynamics of SSL in Asia, the reproductive aggregation on Tuleny I. (Sea of Okhotsk) has been growing almost continuously since the beginning of its formation in the late 1980s. Long-term monitoring of SSL at Tuleny I. always covered only summer reproductive seasons. We surveyed Tuleny I. in October 2018, and counted 1058 non-pup sea lions and 396 pups. The majority of tagged animals encountered at the rookery were of local origin. About one-third of the summer non-pup sea lions' number could remain at the rookery until the middle of October, which coincides with the seasonal appearance of sea lions off the coast of Japan. The sex-age structure was characterized by total absence of adult males and reduced proportion of subadult males and juveniles. It contrasts with autumn behavior of SSLs in the rookery of the northern Sea of Okhotsk. We observed that 0.7% of the inspected sea lions were entangled in marine debris. The proportion of entangled animals is lower in comparison with that of the whole population of Tuleny I. due to reduction in the ratios of males and juveniles, which entangle in foreign objects more often than adult females.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Leões-Marinhos/fisiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Ilhas , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Federação Russa
7.
Acta Trop ; 223: 106083, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364896

RESUMO

Dirofilariosis by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens is endemic in dogs from countries of the Mediterranean basin. Both species may infect humans, with most of the infected patients remaining asymptomatic. Based on the recent description of the southernmost hyperendemic European focus of heartworm disease in dogs from the Pelagie archipelagos, we performed a serological and molecular survey in human population of that area. Human blood samples were collected in the islands of Linosa (n=101) and Lampedusa (n=296) and tested by ELISA and molecular test for the detection of D. immitis and D. repens. Samples were also screened for filarioid-associated endosymbionts, Wolbachia sp. The seroprevalence of D. immitis and D. repens was, respectively, 7.9% and 3.96% in Linosa, and 7.77% and 19.93% in Lampedusa. Out of 397 human blood samples tested molecularly, 4 scored positive (1%) for Dirofilaria spp. by qPCR (i.e., three for D. immitis and one for D. repens) and 6 (1.5%) for Wolbachia. Of the qPCR positive for Dirofilaria spp., only D. repens was amplified by cPCR and was positive for Wolbachia. In the phylogenetic analysis, the sequence of Wolbachia detected in D. repens positive samples clustered along with other C supergroup filarioids. Our results overlap with the recent prevalence data collected on dogs from the same area, where D. immitis is prevalent in Linosa and D. repens prevails in Lampedusa. Molecular detection of D. immitis in human blood is quite unusual considering that humans are dead-end hosts for dirofilarial infection and most of the human cases described so far in Europe were ascribed to D. repens. An integrative diagnostic approach using serum analysis and Wolbachia detection is also presented. In endemic areas for canine dirofilarioses humans are exposed to the infection, suggesting the importance of One Health approach in diagnosing, treating and controlling this zoonotic parasitosis.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilaria repens , Dirofilariose , Zoonoses , Animais , Dirofilaria immitis/genética , Dirofilaria repens/genética , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Ilhas , Itália , Filogenia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/parasitologia
8.
Acta Trop ; 223: 106085, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389326

RESUMO

Soft ticks (Acari: Argasidae) are the second major family of the blood feeding metastriates and vectors of a number of viral and bacterial pathogens for both humans and animals. Despite the growing effort on tick surveillance and studies worldwide, there is still limited information on the soft tick distribution in the island nations of Southeast Asia, especially species that are medically and veterinarily important. With the aim to provide an overview of the current status of knowledge on soft tick distribution in the island nations of Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippines and Timor-Leste), this article reviews the species of soft ticks (Acari: Argasidae) and their associated hosts and pathogens, with the addition of a pictorial summary and list of tick species discovered in this region. The most prevalent soft tick genus is Carios, and the host species most associated with findings of soft ticks in this region are bats, particularly of the Pteropodidae and Vespertilionidae families. Furthermore, the only known pathogen originating from soft ticks in the island nations of Southeast Asia was the Keterah virus, which was isolated from Argas pusillus tick in Malaysia.


Assuntos
Carrapatos , Animais , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ilhas , Malásia , Carrapatos/classificação , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/virologia
10.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 114(10): 1709-1719, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357485

RESUMO

Dokdo islands in Republic of Korea, is not suited to survive plant because strong wind, low organic content and high salinity. Nevertheless, 64 taxa of plants have a symbiotic relationship with microbe. The Metabacillus elymi KUDC1714T was isolated from the rhizosphere of Elymus tsukushiensis collected from Dokdo Islands. This bacterial strain was Gram-stain positive, non-motile, non-spore forming, aerobic and rod-shape bacteria with 0.4-0.5 × 2.5-3.0 µm in size. Colonies were smooth, yellowish-white circular and 2.0-3.0 mm in diameter. KUDC1714T was capable of growing at 10-45 °C (optimum, 30 °C), pH 7-11 (optimum, pH 8) and 0-8.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1.0-2.0%). Flagella were not observed by transmission electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analyses, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, showed that KUDC1714T belonged to the genus Metabacillus formed a phyletic lineage within the genus Metabacillus of the family Bacillaceae. The strain KUDC1714T was most closely related to Metabacillus sediminilitoris DSL-17 T (98.2%), Metabacillus litoralis SW-211 T (98.2%) and Metabacillus halosaccharovorans E33T (97.7%) based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization using genome-to-genome distance calculator were analysed at 25.8% and 23.5% in strain KUDC1714T and Metabacillus sediminilitoris DSL-17 T, and strain KUDC1714T and Metabacillus litoralis SW-211 T, respectively. Strain KUDC1714T and its closet type strain were all below cut-off point of the average nucleotide identity and average amino acid identity values. The genome contains 5197 CDSs, 3 rRNAs, 118 tRNAs, 5 ncRNAs. The genomic DNA G + C content was 34.8 mol%. Its polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and its major fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:0. The strain KUDC1714T contained menaquinone-7 as major isoprenoid quinone. Based on its genetic data, physiological and biochemical characteristics, strain KUDC1714T should be considered a novel species of the genus Metabacillus, for which we propose the name Metabacillus elymi sp. nov. the type strain is KUDC1714T (= KCTC 33222 T, = DSM 27608 T).


Assuntos
Elymus , Rizosfera , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ilhas , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Microbiologia do Solo
11.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 32(3): 1236-1264, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34421028

RESUMO

In recent years, there have been significant efforts to examine the organization and performance of health systems. This study's main purpose is to compare health systems and analyze the health status of the citizens of Comoros, Mauritius, and Seychelles, with the intention of providing policy recommendations for Comoros. Peer-reviewed studies and reports published by non-governmental organizations and international agencies were systematically collected through large database searches, filtered through methodological inclusion criteria, and organized into the World Health Organization (WHO) building blocks framework. The literature review demonstrates that health outcomes have dramatically improved over the past decades in Mauritius and Seychelles but not in Comoros. As of 2015, Mauritius and Seychelles were among the few African countries to have achieved almost all the Millennium Development Goals, whereas Comoros still struggles to reduce child mortality and improve maternal health. In contrast, the total health expenditure of the three island states, as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP), seemed similar over the studied time period.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Criança , Comores , Humanos , Oceano Índico , Ilhas , Maurício , Seicheles/epidemiologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270398

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive, aerobic, orange-pigmented, rod-shaped and non-motile bacterium designated strain MMS17-SY002T was isolated from island soil. The isolate grew at 20-37 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimum, pH 7) and in the presence of 0.5-4.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2.0 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain MMS17-SY002T was mostly related to the genus Muriicola of the family Flavobacteriaceae and had highest sequence similarity of 96.82 % to Muriicola marianensis A6B8T and Muriicola jejuensis EM44T, but formed a distinct phylogenetic line within the genus. Chemotaxonomic analyses showed that menaquinone 6 was the predominant isoprenoid quinone, the major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 1 G and iso-C15 : 0, and the diagnostic polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The genomic DNA G+C content was 42.4 mol%. Strain MMS17-SY002T could be distinguished from related species by the combination of trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, acid phosphatase, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, α-galactosidase, ß-galactosidase and ß-glucosidase activities. The orthologous average nucleotide identity between the genomes of strain MMS17-SY002T and M. jejuensis and that between the strain and M. marianensis A6B8T were 73.26 and 73.33%, respectively, thus confirming the separation of the strain from related species at species level. Based on the phenotypic, phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and genomic characterization, MMS17-SY002T should be recognized as a novel species of the genus Muriicola, for which the name Muriicola soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MMS17-SY002T (=KCTC 62790T=JCM 32370T).


Assuntos
Flavobacteriaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Ilhas , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
13.
Phytochemistry ; 190: 112886, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325242

RESUMO

As demand for pepper is rising to unprecedented levels, gaps in our knowledge are underlined by our inability to reliably distinguish the different species, in particular in the south-western Indian Ocean; this hampers the possibility of developing their economic potential and protect them efficiently. The aim of this study was to characterise two species of Piper (piperaceae) from Madagascar and one from Réunion Island via a multidisciplinary approach combining botany, genetics and chemistry and to propose authentication keys. Morphometric analyses were carried out on 22 quantitative and qualitative descriptors of the leaf and infructescence. Genetic analyses were conducted through DNA extraction, amplification by PCR and sequencing. Chemical analyses used spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods to determine concentrations in piperine and essential oil and describe the chemotypes of the sampled individuals. Our tri-disciplinary approach showed that the three peppers studied are very different from Piper nigrum L. Réunionese Piper borbonense and M3 Malagasy pepper clearly differ from the M1 Malagasy morphotype. Piper borbonense and M3 pepper appear to be closely related; a distinction could possibly be made at the variety (var.) or form (fa.) level on the basis of morphometry and according to piperine content for chemistry.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Piper nigrum , Piper , Oceano Índico , Ilhas
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 171: 112722, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274853

RESUMO

The world's subantarctic islands are rare, ecologically distinct ecosystems with geographical and climahemistic challenges for undertaking emergency response. Their remoteness has somewhat protected them and their flora and fauna from environmental pollution threats and impacts. However, with increasing tourism, fishing, oil and gas exploration and shipping routes, the risk of accidents and petroleum spills has exponentially increased. This review explores the uniqueness of New Zealand's (NZ) subantarctic islands, their oil spill threats and the legislation protecting them. Then using this background information; use the NZ subantarctic islands as examples to understand oiled wildlife response options for subantarctic islands. There are obvious logistical constraints on ability to respond in these remote areas. However, with planning, including preparation of specialised plans, equipment and readiness of skilled response personnel; the conservation outcomes for these ecologically significant, isolated areas, is greater preparedness and protection with the increased ability to respond effectively.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Poluição por Petróleo , Animais , Ecossistema , Ilhas , Nova Zelândia
15.
Oecologia ; 197(2): 339-352, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309704

RESUMO

Sexual segregation, the differential space, habitat or resource use by males and females, can have profound implications for conservation, as one sex may be more vulnerable to environmental and anthropogenic stressors. The drivers of sexual segregation, such as sex differences in body size, breeding constraints, and social behaviour, have been well studied in adults but are poorly understood in immature animals. To determine whether sexual segregation occurs in juvenile Antarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus gazella, and investigate the underlying drivers, we deployed Global Location Sensors on 26 males and 19 females of 1-3 years of age at Bird Island, South Georgia. Sexual segregation occurred in foraging distribution, primarily in latitude, with females foraging closer to South Georgia and the Polar Front, and males foraging further south near the Antarctic Peninsula. This segregation was particularly evident in Feb-Apr and May-Nov, and males spent more time hauled out than females in May-Nov. Although juveniles have no immediate reproductive commitments, reproductive selection pressures are still likely to operate and drive sex differences in body size, risk-taking, and social roles. These factors, coupled with prey distribution, likely contributed to sexual segregation in juvenile Antarctic fur seals. Consequently, male and female juveniles may compete with different fisheries and respond differently to environmental change, highlighting the importance of considering sex and age groups in species conservation efforts.


Assuntos
Otárias , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Ecossistema , Feminino , Ilhas , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
16.
J Vet Sci ; 22(4): e48, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a swine enteropathogenic coronavirus that has devastated the swine industry in South Korea over the last 30 years. The lack of an effective method to control the endemics has led to a surge in PEDV recurrences in affected farms throughout the country. OBJECTIVES: In the first step toward establishing systematic monitoring of and active control measures over the swine populations, we constructed an assessment model that evaluates the status of (1) biosecurity, (2) herd immunity, and (3) virus circulation in each of the PEDV-infected farms. METHODS: A total of 13 farrow-to-finish pig farms with a history of acute PEDV infection on Jeju Island were chosen for this study. The potential risk of the recurrence in these farms was estimated through on-site data collection and laboratory examination. RESULTS: Overall, the data indicated that a considerable number of the PEDV-infected farms had lax biosecurity, achieved incomplete protective immunity in the sows despite multi-dose vaccination, and served as incubators of the circulating virus; thus, they face an increased risk of recurrent outbreaks. Intriguingly, our results suggest that after an outbreak, a farm requires proactive tasks, including reinforcing biosecurity, conducting serological and virus monitoring to check the sows' immunity and to identify the animals exposed to PEDV, and improving the vaccination scheme and disinfection practices if needed. CONCLUSIONS: The present study highlights the significance of coordinated PEDV management in infected farms to reduce the risk of recurrence and further contribute towards the national eradication of PEDV.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Fazendas , Imunidade Coletiva , Ilhas/epidemiologia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/imunologia , Recidiva , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Suínos
17.
Zootaxa ; 4975(1): 193197, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186569

RESUMO

The Lepidoptera fauna of the island of Flores (Lesser Sunda Archipelago, Indonesia) shares a large proportion of endemic species, which may reach 80100% in several groups (Zolotuhin Witt 2005; Nässig et al. 2009; Zolotuhin 2009; Nässig Bouyer 2010; Yakovlev 2015; Spitsyn Potapov 2020; Spitsyn Bolotov 2020). A plethora of new species was described from this island during the last 15 years, e.g. the tiger moth Spilarctia mikeli Bolotov, Kondakov Spitsyn, 2018 (Zolotuhin Witt 2005; Yakovlev 2006; Spitsyn Bolotov 2020a, b, c). This species was described based on a single female specimen collected in West Flores (Bolotov et al. 2018). In the present paper, we describe the male of Spilarctia mikeli for the first time, and illustrate variability of marking patterns of both the male and the female of this species.


Assuntos
Mariposas/classificação , Animais , Feminino , Indonésia , Ilhas , Masculino
18.
Zootaxa ; 4974(2): 267306, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186857

RESUMO

Taxonomic analysis of the subfamily Neopleustinae Bousfield Hendrycks, 1994, is performed. Cladistic analysis of morphological relationships within the genera Hendrycksopleustes gen. nov., Neopleustes Stebbing, 1906, and Shoemakeroides Hendrycks Bousfield, 2004, is performed. A new genus Hendrycksopleustes gen. nov. is described. A review of the subfamily Neopleustinae from the shelf of Sakhalin Island and adjacent water area, based on all literature and own data, is provided. Based on new material, a new species Hendrycksopleustes neimanii sp. nov. is described from the shelf of Sakhalin Island. Status of the species Neopleustes euacanthus (G. Sars, 1877) is restored. New subspecies Neopleustes boecki pacifica ssp. nov. and Neopleustes pulchellus asiaticus ssp. nov. are described from the shelf of Sakhalin Island. Keys to the amphipod genera of the subfamily Neopleustinae and to the world species of the genera Neopleustes and Shoemakeroides are provided.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/classificação , Animais , Ilhas , Federação Russa
19.
Zootaxa ; 4975(3): 544560, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187031

RESUMO

Brachytrupes megacephalus (Lefebvre, 1827) is of significant biogeographic importance. It occurs in Sicily and on some of the circum-Sicilian and Pelagian islands, as well as in the Maltese Islands, Sardinia and the Maghreb (notably but not exclusively, in Algeria and Tunisia, where it maintains populations in both coastal and desert regions). Within European territory, it occurs solely in Italy and Malta, where it is protected under the EU Habitats Directive and the Bern Convention. In northern Africa, the species is regarded as a polyphagous pest, particularly in Saharan locations. The present work is based on field observations, mostly from the Maltese Islands, that span more than three decades; it provides insights on spatial distribution, population trends and behaviour. In examining the relationship between the species' frequency during its mating season and weather conditions, results suggest a weak yet statistically significant correlation between mating strategies and ambient meteorological conditions. Moreover, patch occupancy in spring and autumn varied considerably within a specified area of study, primarily due to competitive mating strategies employed in spring, with an occupancy ratio of approximately 1:6. To-date, the species is known from 13 locations, one in Gozo and 12 in Malta, of which some constitute the Ahrax promontory metapopulation. Connectivity between the Ahrax subpopulation cluster is discussed in the light of habitat and topographical characteristics. Contrasting findings on variances in behaviour between Maltese populations and other populations in Sicily and the Maghreb are discussed. Discernible behavioural disparities include the length of excavated tunnels during spring and summer/autumn seasons in the different geographical locations, attraction to artificial sources of light, and the degree of damage to crops across geographic regions.


Assuntos
Gryllidae/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Ecossistema , Ilhas , Malta , Estações do Ano
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 169: 112548, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091246

RESUMO

The present work has studied the incidence and type of micro (1-5 mm), meso (5-25 mm) and macroplastics (>25 mm) that have reached Arenas Blancas beach, located in the north coast of El Hierro island, in the Canary Islands (Spain), from October 2019 to May 2020 (13 sampling dates with 3 sampling points each). Taking into consideration the three studied plastic debris fractions (macro, meso and microplastics), a total of 9206 items were found, which had a total weight of 1169.7 g and a concentration of 891.3 ± 91.5 items/m2 (118.3 ± 17.8 g/m2 and 2.3 ± 0.4 g/L). Regarding their colour, most of them were transparent/white/clear, especially in the microplastic fraction in which they accounted for a 68% of the total. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy of meso and microplastic fractions indicated that most of the particles were either polypropylene and polyethylene followed by polystyrene in a much lower amount. In general, the total amount of plastic debris that arrives to the beach by the persistent oceanic current pattern linked to the easternmost branch of the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre is comparable to those of the most contaminated beaches of the Canary Islands archipelago, suggesting that a new hotspot of plastic debris arrival has been found.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Praias , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ilhas , Espanha , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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