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1.
Int J Pharm ; 630: 122456, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503850

RESUMO

Coated tablets introduce complexity to the dissolution process, even with readily soluble immediate release coating layers. Therefore, a more detailed understanding of the physical steps involved in the dissolution process can improve the efficiency of formulation and process design. The current study uses terahertz pulsed imaging to visualise the hydration process of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) tablet cores that were film coated with an immediate release coating formulation upon exposure to the dissolution medium. Film coated tablets that were prepared from three levels of core porosity (10%, 20% and 30%) and with coating thickness in the range of 30µm to 250µm were investigated. It was possible to resolve and quantify the distinct stages of wetting of the coating layer, swelling of the MCC particles at the core surface, and dissolution of the coating layer followed by the ingress of dissolution media into the tablet core. The liquid transport process through the coating layer was highly consistent and scalable. The penetration rate through the coating layer and the tablet core both strongly depended on coating thickness and core porosity.


Assuntos
Imagem Terahertz , Solubilidade , Imagem Terahertz/métodos , Comprimidos , Porosidade
2.
Appl Opt ; 61(20): 5831-5837, 2022 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36255819

RESUMO

To deal with a terahertz (THz) super-resolution (SR) algorithm based on a convolutional neural network (CNN) without standard training datasets, a complex "zero-shot" SR (CZSSR) reconstruction algorithm is proposed according to the internal image statistics with a five-layer complex CNN model. Instead of relying on pre-training, the proposed method is of sound self-adaptability. Compared with real ZSSR, the peak SNR of CZSSR rose by about 0.94 dB, MSE decreased by 0.042, and SSIM increased by about 40% for the SR result of the measured data. The results show that the CZSSR method can solve the low-resolution problem of a THz imaging system and the shortage of datasets in THz SR based on CNN. Therefore, this research is of great significance for application in the fields of medical imaging and non-destructive detection.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Imagem Terahertz , Redes Neurais de Computação , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
3.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(10)2022 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36290963

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is considered a promising noninvasive therapeutic strategy in biomedicine, especially by utilizing low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in visible and near-infrared spectra to trigger biological responses. The major challenge of PDT in applications is the complicated and time-consuming biological methodological measurements in identification of light formulas for different diseases. Here, we demonstrate a rapid and label-free identification method based on artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted terahertz imaging for efficient light formulas in LLLT of acute lung injury (ALI). The gray histogram of terahertz images is developed as the biophysical characteristics to identify the therapeutic effect. Label-free terahertz imaging is sequentially performed using rapid super-resolution imaging reconstruction and automatic identification algorithm based on a voting classifier. The results indicate that the therapeutic effect of LLLT with different light wavelengths and irradiation times for ALI can be identified using this method with a high accuracy of 91.22% in 33 s, which is more than 400 times faster than the biological methodology and more than 200 times faster than the scanning terahertz imaging technology. It may serve as a new tool for the development and application of PDT.


Assuntos
Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Fotoquimioterapia , Imagem Terahertz , Inteligência Artificial , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos
4.
Int J Pharm ; 625: 122100, 2022 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961418

RESUMO

Tablet as a traditional dosage form in pharmacy has the advantages of accurate dosage, ideal dissolution and bioavailability, convenient to carry and transport. The most concerned tablet quality attributes include active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) contents and polymorphic forms, components distribution, hardness, density, coating state, dissolution behavior, etc., which greatly affect the bioavailability and consistency of tablet final products. In the pharmaceutical industry, there are usually industry standard methods to analyze the tablet quality attributes. However, these methods are generally time-consuming and laborious, and lack a comprehensive understanding of the properties of tablets, such as spatial information. In recent years, spectral imaging technology makes up for the shortcomings of traditional tablet analysis methods because it provides non-contact and rich information in time and space. As a promising technology to replace the traditional tablet analysis methods, it has attracted more and more attention. The present paper briefly describes a series of spectral imaging techniques and their applications in tablet analysis. Finally, the possible application prospect of this technology and the deficiencies that need to be improved were also prospected.


Assuntos
Farmácia , Imagem Terahertz , Controle de Qualidade , Comprimidos , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos , Imagem Terahertz/métodos
5.
J Microsc ; 288(3): 207-217, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792534

RESUMO

Biomedical imaging includes the use of a variety of techniques to study organs and tissues. Some of the possible imaging modalities are more spread at clinical level (CT, MRI, PET), while others, such as light and electron microscopy are preferred in life sciences research. The choice of the imaging modalities can be based on the capability to study functional aspects of an organism, the delivered radiation dose to the patient, and the achievable resolution. In the last few decades, spectroscopists and imaging scientists have been interested in the use of terahertz (THz) frequencies (30 µm to 3 mm wavelength) due to the low photon energy associated (E∼1 meV, not causing breaking of the molecular bonds but still interacting with some vibrational modes) and the high penetration depth that is achievable. THz has been already adopted in security, quality control and material sciences. However, the adoption of THz frequencies for biological and clinical imaging means to face, as a major limitation, the very scarce resolution associated with the use of such long wavelengths. To address this aspect and reconcile the benefit of minimal harmfulness for bioimaging with the achievable resolving power, many attempts have been made. This review summarises the state-of-the-art of THz imaging applications aimed at achieving super-resolution, describing how practical aspects of optics and quasi-optics may be treated to efficaciously implement the use of THz as a new low-dose and versatile modality in biomedical imaging and clinical research.


Assuntos
Microscopia , Imagem Terahertz , Humanos , Imagem Terahertz/métodos
6.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 281: 121586, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35853252

RESUMO

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is widely applied in the field of rapid nondestructive detection of grain owing to its low photon energy and high penetrating power. Nevertheless, terahertz imaging systems suffer from the problems of long image acquisition time and massive data processing. To mitigate these issues, this work presents an adaptive compressed sensing reconstruction algorithm for terahertz spectral images based on residual learning (ATResCS). The algorithm compresses the number of data samples, reducing the amount of data required for imaging and improving the imaging speed. Further, ATResCS reduces the time complexity by employing a convolutional neural network. The algorithm is validated by acquiring terahertz spectral image data via a THz-TDS system. ATResCS outperforms conventional algorithms regarding peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity, significantly reducing the reconstruction time and, thus, enabling real-time reconstruction. Specifically, at low sampling rates (0.1), ATResCS retains key spectral image information. The average PSNR is 0.96 - 1.015 dB higher than that of DR2-Net, reducing the average reconstruction time by 0.1 - 0.2 s. Experiments demonstrate that ATResCS has better reconfiguration capability and lower algorithm complexity, enabling high-quality and fast reconstruction of terahertz spectral images.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Imagem Terahertz , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Fótons , Razão Sinal-Ruído
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(9)2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35590925

RESUMO

Improving the longitudinal modes coupling in layered spherical structure contributes significantly to corneal terahertz sensing, which plays a crucial role in the early diagnosis of cornea dystrophies. Using a steel sphere to calibrate reflection from the cornea sample assists in enhancing the resolution of longitudinal modes. The requirement and challenges toward applying the calibration sphere are introduced and addressed. Six corneas with different properties are spotted to study the effect of perturbations in the calibration sphere in a frequency range from 100 GHz to 600 GHz. A particle-swarm optimization algorithm is employed to quantify corneal characteristics considering cases of accurately calibrated and perturbed calibrated scenarios. For the first case, the study is carried out with signal-to-noise values of 40 dB, 50 dB and 60 dB at waveguide bands WR-5.1, WR-3.4, and WR-2.2. As expected, better estimation is achieved in high-SNR cases. Furthermore, the lower waveguide band is revealed as the most proper band for the assessment of corneal features. For perturbed cases, the analysis is continued for the noise level of 60 dB in the three waveguide bands. Consequently, the error in the estimation of corneal properties rises significantly (around 30%).


Assuntos
Imagem Terahertz , Algoritmos , Calibragem , Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Refração Ocular
8.
Int J Pharm ; 619: 121703, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35351529

RESUMO

Dissolution of pharmaceutical tablets is a complex process, especially for coated tablets where layered structures form an additional barrier for liquid transport into the porous tablet matrix. A better understanding of the role of the coating structure in the mass transport processes that govern drug release, starting with the wetting of the coating layer by the dissolution medium, can benefit the formulation design and optimisation of the production. For this study, terahertz pulsed imaging was used to investigate how dissolution medium can penetrate coated tablets. In order to focus on the fundamental process, the model system for this proof-of-principle study consisted of tablet cores made from pure microcrystalline cellulose compacted to a defined porosity coated with Opadry II, a PVA-based immediate release coating blend. The coating was applied to a single side of flat-faced tablets using vacuum compression moulding. It was possible to resolve the hydration of the coating layer and the subsequent liquid ingress into the dry tablet core. The analysis revealed a discontinuity in density at the interface between coating and core, where coating polymer could enter the pore space at the immediate surface of the tablet cores during the coating process. This structure affected the liquid transport of the dissolution medium into the core. We found evidence for the formation of a gel layer upon hydration of the coating polymer. The porosity of the tablet core impacted the quality of coating and thus affected its dissolution performance (r =  0.6932 for the effective liquid penetration rate RPeff and the core porosity). This study established a methodology and can facilitate a more in-depth understanding of the role of coating on tablet dissolution.


Assuntos
Imagem Terahertz , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Polímeros/química , Porosidade , Solubilidade , Comprimidos/química , Comprimidos com Revestimento Entérico , Imagem Terahertz/métodos
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5096, 2022 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332207

RESUMO

We present an automatic classification strategy for early and accurate assessment of burn injuries using terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopic imaging. Burn injuries of different severity grades, representing superficial partial-thickness (SPT), deep partial-thickness (DPT), and full-thickness (FT) wounds, were created by a standardized porcine scald model. THz spectroscopic imaging was performed using our new fiber-coupled Portable HAndheld Spectral Reflection Scanner, incorporating a telecentric beam steering configuration and an f-[Formula: see text] scanning lens. ASynchronous Optical Sampling in a dual-fiber-laser THz spectrometer with 100 MHz repetition rate enabled high-speed spectroscopic measurements. Given twenty-four different samples composed of ten scald and ten contact burns and four healthy samples, supervised machine learning algorithms using THz-TDS spectra achieved areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of 0.88, 0.93, and 0.93 when differentiating between SPT, DPT, and FT burns, respectively, as determined by independent histological assessments. These results show the potential utility of our new broadband THz PHASR Scanner for early and accurate triage of burn injuries.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Imagem Terahertz , Espectroscopia Terahertz , Algoritmos , Animais , Queimaduras/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado , Suínos
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3429, 2022 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35236894

RESUMO

The presence of a corrosion layer on lead art and archæological objects can severely impede the interpretation of inscriptions, thus hampering our overall understanding of the object and its context. While the oxidation of lead that dominates corrosion may be chemically reversible via reduction, potentially providing some access to inscriptions otherwise obscured by time, corrosion damage is overall neither entirely reversible nor is the reduction process in all cases easy or feasible to carry out. In this study, by taking advantage of the unique penetration ability of terahertz radiation and the abundant frequency bands covered by a single-cycle terahertz pulse, we perform nondestructive terahertz multispectral imaging to look under the corrosion on a sixteenth century lead funerary cross (croix d'absolution) from Remiremont in Lorraine, France. The multispectral images obtained from various terahertz frequency bands are fed into a judiciously designed post-processing chain for image restoration and enhancement, thus allowing us for the first time to read obscured inscriptions that might have otherwise been lost. Our approach, which brings together in a new way the THz properties of the constituent materials and advanced signal- and image-processing techniques, opens up new perspectives for multi-resolution analysis at terahertz frequencies as a technique in archæometry and will ultimately provide unprecedented information for digital acquisition and documentation, character extraction, classification, and recognition in archæological studies.


Assuntos
Imagem Terahertz , Arqueologia , França , Imagem Terahertz/métodos , Radiação Terahertz
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3110, 2022 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35210481

RESUMO

Diabetic foot syndrome, a long term consequence of Diabetes Mellitus, is the most common cause of non-traumatic amputations. Around 8% of the world population suffers from diabetes, 15% of diabetic patients present a diabetic foot ulcer which leads to amputation in 2.5% of the cases. There is no objective method for the early diagnosis and prevention of the syndrome and its consequences. We test terahertz imaging, which is capable of mapping the cutaneous hydration, for the evaluation of the diabetic foot deterioration as an early diagnostic test as well as ulcers prevention and tracking tool. Furthermore, the analysis of our terahertz measurements combined with neurological and vascular assessment of the patients indicates that the dehydration is mainly related to the peripheral neuropathy without a significant vascular cause.


Assuntos
Pé Diabético/diagnóstico por imagem , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Imagem Terahertz/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Pé Diabético/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico , Fatores de Risco , Pele/metabolismo
12.
Chin J Integr Med ; 28(4): 366-373, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35023062

RESUMO

The rapid development of terahertz technology promotes the realization of various terahertz imaging systems. Terahertz technology features terahertz waves as good non-invasive illumination sources due to their high spectral resolution, penetration and safety. The terahertz imaging technique (TIT) has gradually been extended from the biomedical field to the field of Chinese medicine (CM), and it has become a powerful tool for seeking scientific evidence for CM theories with the use of modern science and technology. This paper reviews the current application of TITs in the field of CM research, and most importantly offers novel proposals for the application of TITs in CM research from the perspective of CM syndrome objectification and acupuncture research and cites existing reports as reference to the feasibility of these new proposals.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Moxibustão , Imagem Terahertz , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
13.
Trends Biotechnol ; 40(7): 816-830, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012774

RESUMO

Terahertz (THz) radiation has attracted considerable attention in medical imaging owing to its nonionizing and spectral fingerprinting characteristics. To date, most studies have focused on in vitro and ex vivo objects with water-removing pretreatment because the water in vivo excessively absorbs the THz waves, which causes deterioration of the image quality. In this review, we discuss how THz medical imaging can be used for a living body. The development of imaging contrast agents has been particularly useful to this end. In addition, we also introduce progress in novel THz imaging methods that could be more suitable for in vivo applications. Based on our discussions, we chart a developmental roadmap to take THz medical imaging from in vitro to in vivo.


Assuntos
Imagem Terahertz , Imagem Terahertz/métodos , Água
14.
J Biophotonics ; 15(1): e202100245, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553838

RESUMO

Continuous-wave terahertz reflection imaging is a potential tool for biological tissues. Based on our home-made continuous-wave terahertz reflection imaging system, the effect of both polarization mode and reflection window on the imaging performance is studied theoretically and experimentally, showing good agreement. By taking obtaining sample information and image contrast into consideration, p-polarized terahertz waves are recommended. Moreover, considering the sample boundary identification and the image contrast, selection criteria for reflection window are proposed. This work will help to improve the performance of continuous-wave terahertz reflection imaging and accelerate the THz imaging in biological application.


Assuntos
Imagem Terahertz
15.
Appl Opt ; 61(35): 10345-10351, 2022 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607092

RESUMO

Algorithmic mechanisms are used to improve terahertz (THz) image quality, which is critical to a biological sample analysis. A complete mechanism for the super-resolution reconstruction and evaluation of THz biological sample images was constructed in this study. With eucalyptus leaves as an example, the THz spectral region screening technique was adopted to select the characteristic frequencies for imaging, and the THz single-frequency images were reconstructed with the single-image super-resolution image reconstruction technique. The THz super-resolution reconstructed images without ideal reference were evaluated after the introduction of three no-reference image evaluation criteria considering the diversity and complexity of organisms. The results show that the THz image reconstruction mechanism proposed in this study led to an increase in resolution and a decrease in noise. At the same time, the imaging quality of biological samples was considerably improved, and the detailed information was enriched. These provide a reference for a THz imaging analysis of leaves and other biological samples.


Assuntos
Imagem Terahertz , Imagem Terahertz/métodos
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640784

RESUMO

Terahertz (THz) imaging has the potential to detect breast tumors during breast-conserving surgery accurately. Over the past decade, many research groups have extensively studied THz imaging and spectroscopy techniques for identifying breast tumors. This manuscript presents the recent development of THz imaging techniques for breast cancer detection. The dielectric properties of breast tissues in the THz range, THz imaging and spectroscopy systems, THz radiation sources, and THz breast imaging studies are discussed. In addition, numerous chemometrics methods applied to improve THz image resolution and data collection processing are summarized. Finally, challenges and future research directions of THz breast imaging are presented.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Imagem Terahertz , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Humanos , Análise Espectral , Radiação Terahertz
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640889

RESUMO

We present a rotational terahertz imaging system for inline nondestructive testing (NDT) of press sleeves for the paper industry during fabrication. Press sleeves often consist of polyurethane (PU) which is deposited by rotational molding on metal barrels and its outer surface mechanically processed in several milling steps afterwards. Due to a stabilizing polyester fiber mesh inlay, small defects can form on the sleeve's backside already during the initial molding, however, they cannot be visually inspected until the whole production processes is completed. We have developed a fast-scanning frequenc-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) terahertz imaging system, which can be integrated into the manufacturing process to yield high resolution images of the press sleeves and therefore can help to visualize hidden structural defects at an early stage of fabrication. This can save valuable time and resources during the production process. Our terahertz system can record images at 0.3 and 0.5 THz and we achieve data acquisition rates of at least 20 kHz, exploiting the fast rotational speed of the barrels during production to yield sub-millimeter image resolution. The potential of automated defect recognition by a simple machine learning approach for anomaly detection is also demonstrated and discussed.


Assuntos
Imagem Terahertz , Aprendizado de Máquina
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198603

RESUMO

In this roadmap article, we have focused on the most recent advances in terahertz (THz) imaging with particular attention paid to the optimization and miniaturization of the THz imaging systems. Such systems entail enhanced functionality, reduced power consumption, and increased convenience, thus being geared toward the implementation of THz imaging systems in real operational conditions. The article will touch upon the advanced solid-state-based THz imaging systems, including room temperature THz sensors and arrays, as well as their on-chip integration with diffractive THz optical components. We will cover the current-state of compact room temperature THz emission sources, both optolectronic and electrically driven; particular emphasis is attributed to the beam-forming role in THz imaging, THz holography and spatial filtering, THz nano-imaging, and computational imaging. A number of advanced THz techniques, such as light-field THz imaging, homodyne spectroscopy, and phase sensitive spectrometry, THz modulated continuous wave imaging, room temperature THz frequency combs, and passive THz imaging, as well as the use of artificial intelligence in THz data processing and optics development, will be reviewed. This roadmap presents a structured snapshot of current advances in THz imaging as of 2021 and provides an opinion on contemporary scientific and technological challenges in this field, as well as extrapolations of possible further evolution in THz imaging.


Assuntos
Holografia , Imagem Terahertz , Inteligência Artificial , Análise Espectral , Radiação Terahertz
19.
Appl Opt ; 60(13): 3816-3822, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983317

RESUMO

Terahertz metamaterial sensors have received extensive attention in biosensing applications. However, sensitivity toward terahertz frequencies emitted by liquid samples remains challenging because of the strong absorption of terahertz waves by water. Here, we present a highly sensitive terahertz sensor based on a three-dimensional double I-type metamaterial integrated microfluidic channel. The designed sensor produces an inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance with a high quality factor of approximately 72, while demonstrating a maximum sensitivity of 832 GHz/RIU. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationship between the resonance frequency and ethanol concentration. These findings would promote the application of terahertz technology in label-free and rapid biomedical sensing as well as substance detection.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Microfluídica/métodos , Imagem Terahertz/métodos , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Imagem Terahertz/instrumentação , Espectroscopia Terahertz/instrumentação , Espectroscopia Terahertz/métodos
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810447

RESUMO

Molecular spectroscopy has been widely used to identify pesticides. The main limitation of this approach is the difficulty of identifying pesticides with similar molecular structures. When these pesticide residues are in trace and mixed states in plants, it poses great challenges for practical identification. This study proposed a state-of-the-art method for the rapid identification of trace (10 mg·L-1) and multiple similar benzimidazole pesticide residues on the surface of Toona sinensis leaves, mainly including benzoyl (BNL), carbendazim (BCM), thiabendazole (TBZ), and their mixtures. The new method combines high-throughput terahertz (THz) imaging technology with a deep learning framework. To further improve the model reliability beyond the THz fingerprint peaks (BNL: 0.70, 1.07, 2.20 THz; BCM: 1.16, 1.35, 2.32 THz; TBZ: 0.92, 1.24, 1.66, 1.95, 2.58 THz), we extracted the absorption spectra in frequencies of 0.2-2.2 THz from images as the input to the deep convolution neural network (DCNN). Compared with fuzzy Sammon clustering and four back-propagation neural network (BPNN) models (TrainCGB, TrainCGF, TrainCGP, and TrainRP), DCNN achieved the highest prediction accuracies of 100%, 94.51%, 96.26%, 94.64%, 98.81%, 94.90%, 96.17%, and 96.99% for the control check group, BNL, BCM, TBZ, BNL + BCM, BNL + TBZ, BCM + TBZ, and BNL + BCM + TBZ, respectively. Taking advantage of THz imaging and DCNN, the image visualization of pesticide distribution and residue types on leaves was realized simultaneously. The results demonstrated that THz imaging and deep learning can be potentially adopted for rapid-sensing detection of trace multi-residues on leaf surfaces, which is of great significance for agriculture and food safety.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Aprendizado Profundo , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Folhas de Planta , Imagem Terahertz/métodos , Toona , Benzimidazóis/análise , Carbamatos/análise , Análise por Conglomerados , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Lógica Fuzzy , Redes Neurais de Computação , Praguicidas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tiabendazol/análise
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