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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674803

RESUMO

Nitrile imine cycloaddition to hydantoins containing an exocyclic C=C double bond has been previously described in a very limited number of examples. In this work, regioselective synthesis of spiro-pyrazoline-imidazolidine-2,4-diones based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of nitrile imines to 5-methylidene-3-phenyl-hydantoin have been proposed. It was found that, regardless of the nature of the aryl substituents at the terminal C and N atoms of the C-N-N fragment of nitrile imine (electron donor or electron acceptor), cycloaddition to the 5-methylidenhydantoin exocyclic C=C bond proceeds regioselectively, and the terminal nitrogen atom of the nitrile imine connects to the more sterically hindered carbon atom of the double bond, which leads to the formation of a 5-disubstituted pyrazoline ring. The observed cycloaddition regioselectivity was rationalized using DFT calculations of frontier molecular orbital interactions, global CDFT reactivity indices, and minimum energy paths.


Assuntos
Hidantoínas , Reação de Cicloadição , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Iminas/química , Nitrilas/química , Anticonvulsivantes
2.
Org Biomol Chem ; 21(2): 284-288, 2023 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36484764

RESUMO

A radical selenylative cyclization of trifluoromethyl propargyl imines with diselenides for the regiodivergent construction of diversely functionalized azaspiro[4,5]-tetraenones and quinolines has been developed, which enables dual incorporation of CF3 and Se groups into heterocycles in a one-pot reaction. When using Oxone as a green oxidant, the reaction proceeds through oxidative dearomative ipso-annulation or intramolecular ortho-annulation exhibiting good regioselectivity. The synthetic utility of this method is demonstrated by a scale-up reaction and further modification of the obtained products.


Assuntos
Iminas , Quinolinas , Ciclização
3.
J Org Chem ; 88(1): 632-639, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36475729

RESUMO

The first direct N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed preparation of allylic amines bearing a quaternary center (α-tertiary amine) from isatin-derived ketimines in the presence of vinyl selenones and aldehydes is reported. This multicomponent reaction is expected to proceed via unprecedented in situ reduction of imines through a hydride transfer from the aldehydes.


Assuntos
Aldeídos , Isatina , Estrutura Molecular , Iminas , Aminas , Catálise
4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 145(1): 610-625, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36538490

RESUMO

Enantioselective [2 + 2] cyclization between an imine and a carbon-carbon double bond is a versatile strategy to build chiral azetidines. However, α-branched allenoates have never been successfully applied in [2 + 2] cyclization reactions with imines, as they always undergo Kwon's [4 + 2] annulation in previous catalytic methods. Herein, a simple in situ generated magnesium catalyst was employed to successfully achieve the enantioselective [2 + 2] cyclization reaction of DPP-imines and α-branched allenoates for the first time. Insightful experiments including KIE experiments, controlled experiments, Hammett plot analysis, and 31P NMR studies of initial intermediates indicate that the current [2 + 2] cyclization of imine most likely involves an asynchronous concerted transition state. Further mechanistic investigations by combining kinetic studies, ESI experiments, 31P NMR studies of coordination complexes, and controlled experiments on reaction rates under different catalyst loading amounts provided the coordination details for this [2 + 2] cyclization reaction between DPP-imines and α-branched allenoates. This new approach was applied to the synthesis of various chiral aza-heterocycles, including the enantioselective synthesis of the key intermediate of a lipid-lowering agent Ezetimibe.


Assuntos
Iminas , Magnésio , Reação de Cicloadição , Estrutura Molecular , Iminas/química , Estereoisomerismo , Cinética , Catálise , Carbono
5.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 6(1): 246-256, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516427

RESUMO

Current biomedical applications of nanocarriers are focused on drug delivery, where encapsulated cargo is released in the target tissues under the control of external stimuli. Here, we propose a very different approach, where the active toxic molecules are removed from biological tissues by the nanocarrier. It is based on the drug-sponge concept, where specific molecules are captured by the lipid nanoemulsion (NE) droplets due to dynamic covalent chemistry inside their oil core. To this end, we designed a highly lipophilic amine (LipoAmine) capable of reacting with a free cargo-aldehyde (fluorescent dye and 4-hydroxynonenal toxin) directly inside lipid NEs, yielding a lipophilic imine conjugate well encapsulated in the oil core. The formation of imine bonds was first validated using a push-pull pyrene aldehyde dye, which changes its emission color during the reaction. The conjugate formation was independently confirmed by mass spectrometry. As a result, LipoAmine-loaded NEs spontaneously loaded cargo-aldehydes, yielding formulations stable against leakage at pH 7.4, which can further release the cargo in a low pH range (4-6) in solutions and living cells. Using fluorescence microscopy, we showed that LipoAmine NEs can extract pyrene aldehyde dye from cells as well as from an epithelial tissue (chicken skin). Moreover, successful extraction from cells was also achieved for a highly toxic aliphatic aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal, which allowed obtaining the proof of concept for detoxification of living cells. Taken together, these results show that the dynamic imine chemistry inside NEs can be used to develop detoxification platforms.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos , Iminas , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Aldeídos , Lipídeos
6.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 634: 836-851, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565625

RESUMO

Chemodynamic therapy (CDT) is a novel cancer therapeutic strategy. However, barriers such as high glutathione (GSH) concentration and low concentration of metal ions intracellular reduce its treatment effect. In this work, a nanosystem named GA-Fe@HMDN-PEI-PEG with a "dynamic protection" property was reported for enhanced cancer CDT. Mesoporous hollow manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanoparticle (HMDN) was prepared to load gallic acid-ferrous (GA-Fe) nanodots fabricated from gallic acid (GA) and ferrous ion (Fe2+). Then the pores of HMDN were blocked by polyethyleneimine (PEI), which was then grafted with methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) through a pH-sensitive benzoic imine bond. mPEG could protect the nanoparticles (NPs) against the nonspecific uptake by normal cells and enhance their accumulation in the tumor. However, in the slightly acidic tumor microenvironment, hydrolysis of benzoic imine led to DePEGylation to reveal PEI for enhanced uptake by cancer cells. The reaction between HMDN and GSH could consume GSH and obtain manganese ion (Mn2+) for the Fenton-like reaction for CDT. GA-Fe nanodots could also offer Fe for the Fenton reaction, and reductive GA could reduce the high-valence ions to low-valence for reusing in Fenton and Fenton-like reactions. These properties allowed GA-Fe@HMDN-PEI-PEG for precise medicine with a high utilization rate and common side effects.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Humanos , Compostos de Manganês/farmacologia , Compostos de Manganês/química , Óxidos/farmacologia , Óxidos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Gálico , Iminas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Glutationa/química , Microambiente Tumoral
7.
Food Res Int ; 162(Pt B): 112125, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461354

RESUMO

Strecker aldehydes (SAs) are key determinants of wine shelf-life and can be present in unoxidized wines in odorless forms, such as hydroxyalkylsulfonates, imines or acetals. A robust and accurate method for the determination of total forms of SAs, based on the classical derivatization with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) and in the selective solid phase extraction of derivatives has been optimized and validated. Matrix effects have been solved by the use of adequate internal standards and by large-enough equilibration times under anoxic conditions. Method figures of merit are highly satisfactory in terms of detection limits (<0.1 µg/L), linearity (R2 > 0.997), reproducibility (5-13%) and recoveries (RSDs, between 2 and 10%, for 3-methylbutanal, 14%). The analysis of total SAs in 108 Spanish wines revealed that between 52% and 70% of unoxidized red wines and likely a similar fraction of white wines, contain levels of SAs high enough to cause oxidative aromas if bound forms of SAs cleave.


Assuntos
Vinho , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Aldeídos , Acetais , Iminas
8.
Molecules ; 27(23)2022 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36500337

RESUMO

A density functional theory (DFT) study is reported to examine the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (ATH) of imines catalyzed by an indium metal-organic framework (In-MOF) derived from a chiral phosphoric acid (CPA). It is revealed that the imine and reducing agent (i.e., thiazoline) are simultaneously adsorbed on the CPA through H-bonding to form an intermediate, subsequently, a proton is transferred from thiazoline to imine. The transition state TS-R and TS-S are stabilized on the CPA via H-bonding. Compared to the TS-S, the TS-R has shorter H-bonding distances and longer C-H···π distances, it is more stable and experiences less steric hindrance. Consequently, the TS-R exhibits a lower activation barrier affording to the (R)-enantiomer within 68.1% ee in toluene. Imines with substituted groups such as -NO2, -F, and -OCH3 are used to investigate the substitution effects on the ATH. In the presence of an electron-withdrawing group like -NO2, the electrophilicity of imine is enhanced and the activation barrier is decreased. The non-covalent interactions and activation-strain model (ASM) analysis reveal that the structural distortions and the differential noncovalent interactions of TSs in a rigid In-MOF provide the inherent driving force for enantioselectivity. For -OCH3 substituted imine, the TS-S has the strongest steric hindrance, leading to the highest enantioselectivity. When the solvent is changed from toluene to dichloromethane, acetonitrile, and dimethylsulfoxide with increasing polarity, the activation energies of transition state increase whereas their difference decreases. This implies the reaction is slowed down and the enantioselectivity becomes lower in a solvent of smaller polarity. Among the four solvents, toluene turns out to be the best for the ATH. The calculated results in this study are in fairly good agreement with experimental observations. This study provides a mechanistic understanding of the reaction mechanism, as well as substitution and solvent effects on the activity and enantioselectivity of the ATH. The microscopic insights are useful for the development of new chiral MOFs toward important asymmetric reactions.


Assuntos
Iminas , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Iminas/química , Índio , Catálise , Hidrogenação , Tolueno
9.
Molecules ; 27(23)2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36500541

RESUMO

A solvent-free two-step synthesis of polyfunctionalized pyrazoles under ball-milling mechanochemical conditions was developed. The protocol comprises (3 + 2)-cycloaddition of in situ generated nitrile imines and chalcones, followed by oxidation of the initially formed 5-acylpyrazolines with activated MnO2. The second step proceeds via an exclusive deacylative pathway, to give a series of 1,4-diarylpyrazoles functionalized with a fluorinated (CF3) or non-fluorinated (Ph, COOEt, Ac) substituent at C(3) of the heterocyclic ring. In contrast, MnO2-mediated oxidation of a model isomeric 4-acylpyrazoline proceeded with low chemoselectivity, leading to fully substituted pyrazole as a major product formed via dehydrogenative aromatization. The presented approach extends the scope of the known methods carried out in organic solvents and enables the preparation of polyfunctionalized pyrazoles, which are of general interest in medicine and material sciences.


Assuntos
Compostos de Manganês , Óxidos , Iminas , Reação de Cicloadição , Oxirredução , Solventes
10.
Molecules ; 27(23)2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36500582

RESUMO

Novel aryl-substituted homophthalic acids were cyclodehydrated to the respective homophthalic anhydrides for use in the Castagnoli-Cushman reaction. With a range of imines, this reaction proceeded smoothly and delivered hitherto undescribed 4-aryl-substituted tetrahydroisoquinolonic acids with remarkable diastereoselectivity, good yields and no need for chromatographic purification. These findings significantly extend the range of cyclic anhydrides employable in the Castagnoli-Cushman reaction and signify access to a novel substitution pattern around the medicinally relevant tetrahydroisoquinolonic acid scaffold.


Assuntos
Anidridos , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Anidridos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Carbono , Iminas/química
11.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278569, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Routine use of chlorhexidine or octenidine for antiseptic bathing may have unintended consequences. Our analysis aimed to assess the phenotypic susceptibility of bacterial isolates from clinical samples to chlorhexidine and octenidine collected from intensive care units (ICU) that routinely used 2% chlorhexidine-impregnated wash cloths or 0.08% octenidine wash mitts (intervention) or water and soap (control) for daily patient care. METHODS: This study was conducted within the context of a three armed cluster-randomised controlled decolonisation trial (Registration number DRKS00010475, registration date August 18, 2016). Bacterial isolates were collected prior to and at the end of a 12-month-intervention period from patients with ≥ 3 days length of stay at an ICU assigned to one of two intervention groups or the control group. Phenotypic susceptibility to chlorhexidine and octenidine was assessed by an accredited contract research laboratory determining minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) as percentage of extraction solutions used. MIC were reported as estimated concentrations in µg/ml derived from the chlorhexidine and octenidine extraction solutions. Statistical analyses including generalized estimating equation models were applied. RESULTS: In total, 790 ICU-attributable bacterial isolates from clinical samples (e.g. blood, urine, tracheal aspirate) were eligible for all analyses. Pathogens included were Staphylococcus aureus (n = 155), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS, n = 122), Escherichia coli (n = 227), Klebsiella spp. (n = 150) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 136). For all species, chlorhexidine and octenidine MIC did not increase from baseline to intervention period in the antiseptic bathing groups. For proportions of bacterial isolates with elevated chlorhexidine / octenidine MIC (≥ species-specific chlorhexidine / octenidine MIC50), adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) showed no differences between the intervention groups and the control group (intervention period). CONCLUSION: We found no evidence for reduced phenotypic susceptibilities of bacterial isolates from clinical samples to chlorhexidine or octenidine in ICUs 12 months after implementation of routine antiseptic bathing with the respective substances.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Clorexidina , Humanos , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Iminas/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
12.
Org Lett ; 24(51): 9502-9507, 2022 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36537781

RESUMO

An asymmetric catalytic approach for the construction of C3-multifunctionalization α-hydroxy-ß-amino pyridines has been reported. The products can be accessed by the modulation of two chiral catalysts independently in high yield and with good enantioselectivity. The method features mild reaction conditions and an excellent functional group tolerance. Biological activity analysis shows that the resulting products have a selective antiosteosarcoma activity on 143B cells.


Assuntos
Iminas , Piridinas , Estrutura Molecular , Água , Estereoisomerismo , Caça
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36499284

RESUMO

Excited-State Intramolecular Photon Transfer (ESIPT) is known for the geometry-related phenolic and imine groups. The Schiff bases formed upon condensation of salicyl aldehyde and glycine led to the formation of ESIPT models. A series of alkali metal salicyliden glycinates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction of their monocrystals and spectroscopy measurements. The X-ray analysis revealed varied hydration levels between the salts. They adapted trans geometry on the imine groups and mostly anticlinal conformation with the neighboring atoms, which is different from the other structurally-related compounds in literature. Fluorescence of these compounds was found for the crystalline forms only. Protonation of the imine nitrogen atom and further proton distribution was consistent with the ESIPT theory, which also explained the observed fluorescence with the highest Stokes shift of 10,181 cm-1 and 10.1% of fluorescence quantum yield for the sodium salt.


Assuntos
Prótons , Bases de Schiff , Bases de Schiff/química , Conformação Molecular , Fótons , Fenômenos Químicos , Iminas
14.
Org Lett ; 24(50): 9169-9173, 2022 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503272

RESUMO

Alkynyl chlorides were found to be extraordinarily novel electrophiles, which could afford a single regioisomer of the [3+2] annulation adducts with cyclic ketimines by rhodium catalysis. The alkenyl chloride moiety in the products provided a valuable functional handle for further diverse transformations. Therefore, this research provided not only a synthetic protocol for accessing unsymmetrically substituted indenyl amines but also a highly divergent solution for decorating the substituting group by postmanipulation of the chloride.


Assuntos
Ródio , Cloretos , Aminas , Iminas , Catálise
15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 58(96): 13345-13348, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36373836

RESUMO

A three-component reductive coupling reaction of aldehydes, amines and cyanopyridines under electrochemical conditions has been developed. The in situ generated imine and cyanopyridine simultaneously undergo single-electron reduction at the cathode, and afford diarylmethylamines through radical coupling without the participation of reducing agents. The one-pot electrolysis method can modularly obtain various secondary and tertiary amines and exhibits broad functional group compatibility. Mechanistic experiments verify the pivotal reduction step from imine to α-amino radical and reveal the key role of benzoic acid in reducing the reduction potential of imine and cyanopyridine.


Assuntos
Aminas , Eletricidade , Catálise , Aminação , Iminas
16.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36363982

RESUMO

A series of copper(II) complexes of 2-imino-2H-chromen-3-yl-1,3,5-triazines 2a-h, 3-(benzoxazol-2-yl)-2H-chromen-2-imines 4a-b, and 3-(benzothiazol-2-yl)-2H-chromen-2-imines 6a-c were obtained by reacting of appropriate 2-iminocoumarin ligands L1a-h, L3a-b, and L5a-c with 3-fold molar excess of copper(II) chloride. The structure of these compounds was confirmed by IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (2f, 2g, 2h, and 6c). All the synthesized complexes were screened for their activity against five human cancer cell lines: DAN-G, A-427, LCLC-103H, SISO, and RT-4 by using a crystal violet microtiter plate assay and relationships between structure and in vitro cytotoxic activity are discussed. The coordination of 2-iminocoumarins with copper(II) ions resulted in complexes 2a-h, 4a-b, and 6a-c with significant inhibitory properties toward tested tumor cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 0.04 µM to 15.66 µM. In comparison to the free ligands L1a-h, L3a-b, and L5a-c, the newly prepared Cu(II) complexes often displayed increased activity. In the series of copper(II) complexes of 2-imino-2H-chromen-3-yl-1,3,5-triazines 2a-h the most potent compound 2g contained a 4-phenylpiperazine moiety at position 6 of the 1,3,5-triazine ring and an electron-donating diethylamino group at position 7' of the 2-iminocoumarin scaffold. Among the Cu(II) complexes of 3-(benzoxazol-2-yl)-2H-chromen-2-imines 4a-b and 3-(benzothiazol-2-yl)-2H-chromen-2-imines 6a-c the most active was benzoxazole-2-iminocoumarin 4b that also possessed a diethylamino group at position 7' of the 2-iminocoumarin moiety. Moreover, compound 4b was found to be the most prominent agent and displayed the higher potency than cisplatin against tested cell lines.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Complexos de Coordenação , Humanos , Cobre/química , Benzoxazóis/farmacologia , Triazinas , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Benzotiazóis , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligantes , Iminas , Complexos de Coordenação/química
17.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364037

RESUMO

Based on the previously reported involvement of homophthalic acid monoesters in the Castagnoli-Cushman reaction-type cyclocondensation with imines, we tested a number of other o-methyl benzoic acids bearing various electron-withdrawing groups in the α-position. The majority of these substrates delivered the expected tetrahydroisoquinolone adducts on activation with CDI or acetic anhydride. Homophthalic acid mononitriles displayed the highest promise as substrates for the new reaction, both in terms of scope and product yields. Homophthalic acid monoamides either gave low yields or failed to react with imines. Sulfonyl-substituted substrates gave the desired (and hitherto unknown) type of tetrahydroisoquinolines. Despite the low yields, this approach to sulfonyl-substituted tetrahydroisoquinolines appears practical as alternative syntheses based on the traditional, carboxylic acid CCR adducts would presumably be cumbersome and multistep. The azido- and nitro-substituted o-methyl benzoic acids failed to react with imines.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas , Benzoatos , Iminas
18.
Org Lett ; 24(47): 8633-8638, 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410001

RESUMO

N-(Anthrancen-9-ylmethyl) isoserines are useful drug intermediates but short for efficient synthesis. We herein report the synthesis of N-(anthrancen-9-ylmethyl) isoserines via a Rh2(Ph3COO)3(OAc) and chiral phosphoric acid (CPA) synergistically catalyzed multicomponent reaction (MCR) of N-alkyl imines, alcohols, and diazoesters. The method representing the first example of N-alkyl imines-involved MCR is featured by high atom-economy, high diastereo- and enantioselectivities, and broad substrate scope. DFT calculations on the mechanism of the MCR reveals that the hydrophobic interactions and π-π stackings between N-(anthrancen-9-ylmethyl) imines and Rh2(Ph3COO)3(OAc)/CPA cocatalyst is essential to the reactivity and stereocontrol. The synthetic applications of the MCR products include the semisynthesis of paclitaxel, its alkyne-tagged derivative, and ß-lactam as an anticancer agent overcoming paclitaxel-resistance. We expect this work to shed light on the development of new N-alkyl imines-involved reactions and on the synthesis of drugs with isoserines as intermediates.


Assuntos
Iminas , Ácidos Fosfóricos , Paclitaxel
19.
J Mol Model ; 28(12): 393, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401090

RESUMO

Most hydrazone compounds prefer the azine tautomeric states. However, oxygen-/sulfur-substituted compounds prefer hydrazone tautomers. In this study, density functional theory at M062X level with the basis set of 6-311 + + g(2d, 2p), with MP2/cc-pVTZ for reference, was used to investigate the different tautomeric mechanisms between hydrazone and azine forms with oxygen, sulfur, carbon, and nitrogen as negative centers. The energetic stabilities are in the order as oxygen- < sulfur- < imine- < amidino- < carbene-substituted hydrazones with respect to their azine tautomeric structures. Resonance of the molecular structures might be the geometrical basis for their energy stabilities and were estimated based on HOMED indices. Further, the increased proton affinities in the trend as hydroxyl < sulfhydryl < imine terminal groups account for their increasing azine preferences. Proton release was examined for the reversible equilibrium from azine to hydrazone by calculating the transition energy barrier of H transfer. It is favorable to form hydrazone tautomers for oxygen and sulfur containing groups, while it is less favorable for amino-substituted ones. Azine form is the most stable tautomer for methyl substituted.


Assuntos
Carbono , Hidrazonas , Prótons , Compostos Azo , Enxofre/química , Oxigênio , Iminas
20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(46): 21088-21095, 2022 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350999

RESUMO

The development of efficient and sustainable methods for the synthesis of nitrogen heterocycles is an important goal for the chemical industry. In particular, substituted chiral piperidines are prominent targets due to their prevalence in medicinally relevant compounds and their precursors. A potential biocatalytic approach to the synthesis of this privileged scaffold would be the asymmetric dearomatization of readily assembled activated pyridines. However, nature is yet to yield a suitable biocatalyst specifically for this reaction. Here, by combining chemical synthesis and biocatalysis, we present a general chemo-enzymatic approach for the asymmetric dearomatization of activated pyridines for the preparation of substituted piperidines with precise stereochemistry. The key step involves a stereoselective one-pot amine oxidase/ene imine reductase cascade to convert N-substituted tetrahydropyridines to stereo-defined 3- and 3,4-substituted piperidines. This chemo-enzymatic approach has proved useful for key transformations in the syntheses of antipsychotic drugs Preclamol and OSU-6162, as well as for the preparation of two important intermediates in synthetic routes of the ovarian cancer monotherapeutic Niraparib.


Assuntos
Piperidinas , Piridinas , Piridinas/química , Estereoisomerismo , Catálise , Piperidinas/química , Iminas/química
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