Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 404
Filtrar
1.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9873

RESUMO

A AMHB conta com a presença da Profa. Dra. Leoni V. Bonamin, Médica Veterinária, Doutora em Patologia Experimental. Professora Titular da UNIP. Nesta Live, a Dra. Leoni virá abordar experimentos realizados em laboratório com agentes infecciosos para avaliar os parâmetros de resposta imune do medicamento homeopático em células isoladas. Observando assim a célula como um fractal do paciente na sua totalidade e entendendo como a Homeopatia age.


Assuntos
Terapêutica Homeopática , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunitário , Antimonium Muriaticum , Fósforo , Cantharis vesicatoria
3.
Adipocyte ; 11(1): 190-201, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412419

RESUMO

Bariatric surgery (BS) is an effective treatment for obesity. Adipose tissue, liver tissue and skeletal muscle are important metabolic tissues. This study investigated hub genes and their association with immune infiltration in these metabolic tissues of obese patients after BS by bioinformatic analysis with Gene Expression Omnibus datasets. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, and a protein-protein interaction network was constructed to identify hub genes. As a result, 121 common DEGs were identified and mainly enriched in cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, chemokine signaling pathway, neutrophil activation and immune responses. Immune cell infiltration analysis showed that the abundance of M1 macrophages was significantly lower in adipose and liver tissue after BS (p<0.05). Ten hub genes (TYROBP, TLR8, FGR, NCF2, HCK, CCL2, LAPTM5, MNDA and S100A9) that were all downregulated after BS were also associated with immune cells. Consistently, results in the validated dataset showed that the expression levels of these hub genes were increased in obese patients and mice, and decreased after BS. In conclusion, this study analysed the potential immune and inflammatory mechanisms of BS in three key metabolic tissues of obese patients, and revealed hub genes associated with immune cell infiltration, thus providing potential targets for obesity treatment.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunitário , Obesidade , Tecido Adiposo/imunologia , Animais , Quimiocinas , Citocinas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunitário/genética , Fígado/imunologia , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético/imunologia , Neutrófilos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Receptores de Citocinas
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 807097, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35197979

RESUMO

Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a highly conserved protein possessing numerous biological functions and molecular interactions, ranging from cell growth to immune responses. However, the molecular mechanism by which TCTP regulates immune function is largely unknown. Here, we found that knockdown of Bombyx mori translationally controlled tumor protein (BmTCTP) led to the increased susceptibility of silkworm cells to virus infection, whereas overexpression of BmTCTP significantly decreased the virus replication. We further demonstrated that BmTCTP could be modified by SUMOylation molecular BmSMT3 at the lysine 164 via the conjugating enzyme BmUBC9, and the stable SUMOylation of BmTCTP by expressing BmTCTP-BmSMT3 fusion protein exhibited strong antiviral activity, which confirmed that the SUMOylation of BmTCTP would contribute to its immune responses. Further work indicated that BmTCTP is able to physically interact with interleukin enhancer binding factor (ILF), one immune molecular, involved in antivirus, and also induce the expression of BmILF in response to virus infection, which in turn enhanced antiviral activity of BmTCTP. Altogether, our present study has provided a novel insight into defending against virus via BmTCTP SUMOylation signaling pathway and interacting with key immune molecular in silkworm.


Assuntos
Bombyx/virologia , Animais , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunitário , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias , Nucleopoliedrovírus/fisiologia , Fagocitose , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteômica , Transdução de Sinais , Sumoilação , Viroses , Replicação Viral
5.
JCI Insight ; 7(2)2022 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35076027

RESUMO

Secreted phospholipase A2-IIA (sPLA2-IIA) hydrolyzes phospholipids to liberate lysophospholipids and fatty acids. Given its poor activity toward eukaryotic cell membranes, its role in the generation of proinflammatory lipid mediators is unclear. Conversely, sPLA2-IIA efficiently hydrolyzes bacterial membranes. Here, we show that sPLA2-IIA affects the immune system by acting on the intestinal microbial flora. Using mice overexpressing transgene-driven human sPLA2-IIA, we found that the intestinal microbiota was critical for both induction of an immune phenotype and promotion of inflammatory arthritis. The expression of sPLA2-IIA led to alterations of the intestinal microbiota composition, but housing in a more stringent pathogen-free facility revealed that its expression could affect the immune system in the absence of changes to the composition of this flora. In contrast, untargeted lipidomic analysis focusing on bacteria-derived lipid mediators revealed that sPLA2-IIA could profoundly alter the fecal lipidome. The data suggest that a singular protein, sPLA2-IIA, produces systemic effects on the immune system through its activity on the microbiota and its lipidome.


Assuntos
Artrite , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Fosfolipases A2 do Grupo II/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/imunologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Artrite/imunologia , Artrite/microbiologia , Humanos , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunitário , Lipidômica/métodos , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Patologia Molecular/métodos , Transgenes
6.
J Immunol ; 208(2): 227-234, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017212

RESUMO

Our body's most outward facing epithelial barrier, the skin, serves as the frontline defense against myriad environmental assailants. To combat these motley threats, the skin has evolved a sophisticated immunological arsenal. In this article, I provide an overview of the skin's complex architecture and the distinct microniches in which immune cells reside and function. I review burgeoning literature on the synchronized immune, stromal, epithelial, and neuronal cell responses in healthy and inflamed skin. Next, I delve into the distinct requirement and mechanisms of long-term immune surveillance and tissue adaptation at the cutaneous frontier. Finally, by discussing the contributions of immune cells in maintaining and restoring tissue integrity, I underscore the constellation of noncanonical functions undertaken by the skin immune system. Just as our skin's immune system benefits from embracing diverse defense strategies, so, too, must we in the immunology research community support disparate perspectives and people from all walks of life.


Assuntos
Fenômenos do Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Vigilância Imunológica/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Junções Íntimas/imunologia
7.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 7507459, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34950737

RESUMO

The search for common mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory conditions has crystalized the concept of continuous dual resetting of the immune repertoire (CDR) as a basic principle of the immune system function. Consequently, outlined was the first dynamic comprehensive picture of the immune system function. The goal of this study is to elaborate on regulation of immune responses and mechanisms of tolerance, particularly focusing on adaptive immunity. It is well established that the T/B cell repertoire is selected and maintained based on interactions with self. However, their activation also requires interaction with a self-specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC) "code," i.e., the context of MHC molecules. Therefore, not only repertoire selection and maintenance but also the T/B cell activation and function are self-centered. Thus, adaptive effectors may be primarily focused on the state of self and maintenance of integrity of the self, and only to a certain degree on elimination of the foreign. As examples of such function are used immunologically poorly understood MHC-disparate settings typical for transplantation and pregnancy. Transplantation represents an extreme setting of strong systemic compartment-level adaptive/MHC-restricted immune responses. Described are clinically identified conditions for operational tolerance of MHC-disparate tissues/living systems in allotransplantation, which are in line with the CDR-proposed self-centered regulatory role of T/B cells. In contrast, normal pregnancy is coexistence of semiallogeneic or entirely allogeneic mother and fetus, but without alloreactivity akin to transplantation settings. Presented data support the notion that maintenance of pregnancy is a process that relies predominantly on innate/MHC-independent immune mechanisms. By the inception of hemotrophic stage of pregnancy (second and third trimester), both mother and child are individual living systems, with established adaptive immune repertoires. Although mother-fetus interactions at that point become indirect systemic compartment-level communications, their interactions throughout gestation remain within the innate realm of molecular-level adaptations.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Tolerância Imunológica , Imunomodulação , Tolerância a Antígenos Próprios/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunitário , Imunidade Inata , Masculino , Troca Materno-Fetal/imunologia , Gravidez , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/imunologia , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Imunologia de Transplantes
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 802839, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34970274

RESUMO

Eosinophils are multifunctional, evolutionary conserved leukocytes that are involved in a plethora of responses ranging from regulation of tissue homeostasis to host defense and cancer. Eosinophils have been studied mostly in the context of Type 2 inflammatory responses such as those found in allergy. Nonetheless, it is now evident that they participate in Type 1 inflammatory responses and can respond to Type 1 cytokines such as IFN-γ. Recent data suggest that the pleotropic roles of eosinophils are due to heterogeneous responses to environmental cues. Despite this, the activation profile of eosinophils, in response to various stimuli is yet to be defined. To better understand the transcriptional spectrum of eosinophil activation, we exposed eosinophils to Type 1 (e.g. IFN-γ, E. coli) vs. Type 2 (e.g. IL-4) conditions and subjected them to global RNA sequencing. Our analyses show that IL-4, IFN-γ, E. coli and IFN-γ in the presence of E. coli (IFN-γ/E. coli)-stimulated eosinophils acquire distinct transcriptional profiles, which polarize them towards what we termed Type 1 and Type 2 eosinophils. Bioinformatics analyses using Gene Ontology based on biological processes revealed that different stimuli induced distinct pathways in eosinophils. These pathways were confirmed using functional assays by assessing cytokine/chemokine release (i.e. CXCL9, CCL24, TNF-α and IL-6) from eosinophils following activation. In addition, analysis of cell surface markers highlighted CD101 and CD274 as potential cell surface markers that distinguish between Type 1 and Type 2 eosinophils, respectively. Finally, the transcriptome signature of Type 1 eosinophils resembled that of eosinophils that were obtained from mice with experimental colitis whereas the transcriptome signature of Type 2 eosinophils resembled that of eosinophils from experimental asthma. Our data demonstrate that eosinophils are polarized to distinct "Type 1" and "Type 2" phenotypes following distinct stimulations. These findings provide fundamental knowledge regarding the heterogeneity of eosinophils and support the presence of transcriptional differences between Type 1 and Type 2 cells that are likely reflected by their pleotropic activities in diverse disease settings.


Assuntos
Eosinófilos/imunologia , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Transcriptoma , Animais , Biomarcadores , Plasticidade Celular/genética , Plasticidade Celular/imunologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunitário , Imunidade , Mediadores da Inflamação , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos
9.
J Dermatol Sci ; 104(2): 83-94, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34690024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urban pollution is correlated with an increased prevalence of skin pigmentation disorders, however the physiological processes underlying this association are unclear. OBJECTIVES: To delineate the relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a key constituent of atmospheric pollution, and immunity/skin pigmentation pathways. METHODS: We exposed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to PAHs and performed cytokines/chemokine profiling. We then examined the effect of immune activation on pigmentation by co-culturing PBMC and Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) with reconstructed human pigmented epidermis (RHPE). To study the mechanism, we treated keratinocytes with conditioned medium from BaP-exposed PBMC and studied DNA damage responses, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation and pro-pigmentation factor, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) secretion. RESULTS: PAHs induced up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines/chemokine in PBMC. Co-culturing of RHPE with PBMC+BaP resulted in increased melanin content and localization. BaP-conditioned medium significantly increased DNA damage, p53 stabilization, AhR activation and POMC secretion in keratinocytes. We found that IFNγ induced DNA damage, while TNFα and IL-8 potentiated POMC secretion in keratinocytes. Importantly, BaP-conditioned medium-induced DNA damage and POMC secretion is prevented by antioxidants vitamin E, vitamin C and sulforaphane, as well as the prototypical corticosteroid dexamethasone. Finally, vitamin C and sulforaphane enhanced the genome protective and depigmentation effects of dexamethasone, providing proof-of-concept for a combinatorial approach for the prevention and/or correction of PAH-induced pigment spots formation. CONCLUSION: Our study reveals the importance of systemic immunity in regulating PAH-induced skin pigmentation, and provide a new keratinocyte DNA damage response mechanistic target for the prevention or reversal of pollution-associated skin pigmentation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Reparo do DNA , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/imunologia , Pigmentação da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pigmentação da Pele/imunologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Benzo(a)pireno/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Epiderme , Humanos , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunitário , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Queratinócitos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Melaninas/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/farmacologia , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Sulfóxidos/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Vitamina E/farmacologia
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299312

RESUMO

It is well known that lifestyle changes can alter several physiological functions in the human body. For exercise and diet, these effects are used sensibly in basic therapies, as in cardiovascular diseases. However, the physiological changes induced by exercise and a modified diet also have the capacity to influence the efficacy and toxicity of several drugs, mainly by affecting different pharmacokinetic mechanisms. This pharmacological plasticity is not clinically relevant in all cases but might play an important role in altering the effects of very common drugs, particularly drugs with a narrow therapeutic window. Therefore, with this review, we provide insights into possible food-drug and exercise-drug interactions to sharpen awareness of the potential occurrence of such effects.


Assuntos
Dieta , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Farmacocinética , Peso Corporal , Dieta Saudável , Interações Medicamentosas , Interações Alimento-Droga , Humanos , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunitário , Estilo de Vida , Microbiota , Modelos Biológicos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição
11.
Nutr Hosp ; 38(Spec No2): 17-22, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323083

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The immune system is a complex and integrated system whose main function is to protect the body from external aggression by microorganisms, allergens, or toxic agents. Different studies show that maintaining optimal amounts of different nutrients in the body is essential to ensure the synthesis of different factors related to the immune system. Most interesting nutrients and bioactive compounds include: vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, folic acid (B9) and biotin (B7); minerals such as zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium and copper; proteins (lactoferrin) and bioactive peptides; omega-3 fatty acids; and other nutrients and bioactive compounds such as fiber, polyphenols, carotenoids, probiotics, etc. Following a varied and balanced diet, including the servings recommended by food guides for each food group, is essential to achieve nutrient requirements. Food groups to which special attention should be paid are: fruits and vegetables (because of their high content in micronutrients and antioxidant compounds), fatty fish (because it contains omega-3 fatty acids), and dairy products (because this group contains a large number of nutrients). In particular, milk-especially enriched milk-contains many of the nutrients mentioned above. Moreover, their daily consumption, within a balanced diet, can help significantly cover their nutrient reference values. Finally, it is important to consider kind of milks as a good dietary alternative to increase the intake of some important nutrients for the proper functioning of the immune system, most especially some of them such as vitamin D, since a large percentage of the population have nutritional deficiencies.


INTRODUCCIÓN: El sistema inmunitario es un sistema complejo e integrado cuya función principal es proteger al organismo de agresiones externas provocadas por microorganismos, alergenos o agentes tóxicos. Diferentes estudios ponen de manifiesto que el mantenimiento de las cantidades óptimas de diferentes nutrientes es esencial para garantizar la síntesis de diferentes factores y mediadores de este sistema. Entre los nutrientes y compuestos bioactivos con mayor interés destacan: las vitaminas A, B6, B12, C, D, E, ácido fólico (B9) y biotina (B7); minerales como el zinc, hierro, selenio, magnesio y cobre; proteínas (lactoferrina) y péptidos bioactivos; ácidos grasos omega-3, y otros nutrientes y compuestos bioactivos como fibra, polifenoles, carotenoides, probióticos, etc. El seguimiento de una dieta variada y equilibrada que incluya las raciones recomendadas por las guías alimentarias para cada grupo de alimentos es fundamental para alcanzar los requerimientos de estos nutrientes. Y entre los grupos de alimentos a los que se debe prestar especial atención están: las frutas y verduras (por su alto contenido en micronutrientes y compuestos antioxidantes), los pescados azules (por contener omega-3) y los lácteos (por ser alimentos con gran cantidad de nutrientes). En concreto, la leche, especialmente enriquecida, contiene muchos de los nutrientes anteriormente mencionados y su consumo diario, dentro de una dieta equilibrada, puede contribuir a cubrir cantidades importantes de sus valores de referencia. Por último, es importante considerar las leches enriquecidas como una buena alternativa dietética para aumentar la ingesta de muchos nutrientes importantes para el buen funcionamiento del sistema inmune y, en especial, de algunos de ellos, como la vitamina D, en los que un gran porcentaje de la población presenta deficiencias nutricionales.


Assuntos
Fenômenos do Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Leite/imunologia , Vitaminas/imunologia , Animais , Humanos
12.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 582614, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122327

RESUMO

We have used the four core genotypes (FCG) mouse model, which allows a distinction between effects of gonadal secretions and chromosomal complement, to determine when sex differences in the immune system first appear and what influences their development. Using splenic T cell number as a measure that could be applied to neonates with as yet immature immune responses, we found no differences among the four genotypes at postnatal day 1, but by day 7, clear sex differences were observed. These sex differences were unexpectedly independent of chromosomal complement and similar in degree to gonadectomized FCG adults: both neonatal and gonadectomized adult females (XX and XY) showed 2-fold the number of CD4+ and 7-fold the number of CD8+ T cells versus their male (XX and XY) counterparts. Appearance of this long-lived sex difference between days 1 and 7 suggested a role for the male-specific perinatal surge of testicular testosterone. Interference with the testosterone surge significantly de-masculinized the male CD4+, but not CD8+ splenic profile. Treatment of neonates demonstrated elevated testosterone limited mature cell egress from the thymus, whereas estradiol reduced splenic T cell seeding in females. Neonatal male splenic epithelium/stroma expressed aromatase mRNA, suggesting capacity for splenic conversion of perinatal testosterone into estradiol in males, which, similar to administration of estradiol in females, would result in reduced splenic T cell seeding. These sex steroid effects affected both CD4+ and CD8+ cells and yet interference with the testosterone surge only significantly de-masculinized the splenic content of CD4+ cells. For CD8+ cells, male cells in the thymus were also found to express one third the density of sphingosine-1-phosphate thymic egress receptors per cell compared to female, a male characteristic most likely an indirect result of Sry expression. Interestingly, the data also support a previously unrecognized role for non-gonadal estradiol in the promotion of intra-thymic cell proliferation in neonates of both sexes. Microarray analysis suggested the thymic epithelium/stroma as the source of this hormone. We conclude that some immune sex differences appear long before puberty and more than one mechanism contributes to differential numbers and distribution of T cells.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/imunologia , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunitário/genética , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/fisiologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/patologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Gravidez , Caracteres Sexuais , Proteína da Região Y Determinante do Sexo/genética , Maturidade Sexual/genética , Maturidade Sexual/imunologia
13.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(5)2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069220

RESUMO

Menkes disease (MD) is a rare and often lethal X-linked recessive syndrome, characterized by generalized alterations in copper transport and metabolism, linked to mutations in the ATPase copper transporting α (ATP7A) gene. Our objective was to identify genomic alterations and circulating proteomic profiles related to MD assessing their potential roles in the clinical features of the disease. We describe the case of a male patient of 8 months of age with silvery hair, tan skin color, hypotonia, alterations in neurodevelopment, presence of seizures, and low values of plasma ceruloplasmin. Trio-whole-exome sequencing (Trio-WES) analysis, plasma proteome screening, and blood cell migration assays were carried out. Trio-WES revealed a hemizygous change c.4190C > T (p.S1397F) in exon 22 of the ATP7A gene. Compared with his parents and with child controls, 11 plasma proteins were upregulated and 59 downregulated in the patient. According to their biological processes, 42 (71.2%) of downregulated proteins had a participation in cellular transport. The immune system process was represented by 35 (59.3%) downregulated proteins (p = 9.44 × 10-11). Additional studies are necessary to validate these findings as hallmarks of MD.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/genética , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunitário/genética , Síndrome dos Cabelos Torcidos/genética , Proteoma/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , ATPases Transportadoras de Cobre/genética , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Proteômica/métodos , Regulação para Cima/genética , Adulto Jovem
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 698042, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149739

RESUMO

Redox medicine is a new therapeutic concept targeting reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secondary reaction products for health benefit. The concomitant function of ROS as intracellular second messengers and extracellular mediators governing physiological redox signaling, and as damaging radicals instigating or perpetuating various pathophysiological conditions will require selective strategies for therapeutic intervention. In addition, the reactivity and quantity of the oxidant species generated, its source and cellular location in a defined disease context need to be considered to achieve the desired outcome. In inflammatory diseases associated with oxidative damage and tissue injury, ROS source specific inhibitors may provide more benefit than generalized removal of ROS. Contemporary approaches in immunity will also include the preservation or even elevation of certain oxygen metabolites to restore or improve ROS driven physiological functions including more effective redox signaling and cell-microenvironment communication, and to induce mucosal barrier integrity, eubiosis and repair processes. Increasing oxidants by host-directed immunomodulation or by exogenous supplementation seems especially promising for improving host defense. Here, we summarize examples of beneficial ROS in immune homeostasis, infection, and acute inflammatory disease, and address emerging therapeutic strategies for ROS augmentation to induce and strengthen protective host immunity.


Assuntos
Fenômenos do Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Oxidantes/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Oxidantes/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
15.
J Hepatol ; 75 Suppl 1: S14-S26, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039485

RESUMO

Traditionally, the complications of cirrhosis, namely variceal bleeding, ascites and hepatic encephalopathy, were thought to result predominantly from circulatory dysfunction and altered organ perfusion arising as a result of portal hypertension. Over the past 20 years, large, international prospective studies have indicated the importance of systemic inflammation and organ immunopathology as additional determinants of organ dysfunction in cirrhosis, which not only manifests in the liver, brain, circulation and the kidneys, but also the immune system, gut, muscles, adrenal glands, reproductive organs, heart and lungs. This review provides an overview of the traditional and emerging concepts around the initiation and maintenance of organ dysfunction in cirrhosis and proposes a new paradigm based upon a better understanding of acute decompensation of cirrhosis. The interaction between the traditional concepts and the emerging perspectives remains a matter of great interest and the basis for future research.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunitário , Cirrose Hepática , Gastroenterologia/tendências , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/imunologia , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Pesquisa
16.
Infect Dis Now ; 51(5): 418-423, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991720

RESUMO

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, reduced incidence of many viral and bacterial infections has been reported in children: bronchiolitis, varicella, measles, pertussis, pneumococcal and meningococcal invasive diseases. The purpose of this opinion paper is to discuss various situations that could lead to larger epidemics when the non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) imposed by the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic will no longer be necessary. While NPIs limited the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, they also reduced the spread of other pathogens during and after lockdown periods, despite the re-opening of schools since June 2020 in France. This positive collateral effect in the short term is welcome as it prevents additional overload of the healthcare system. The lack of immune stimulation due to the reduced circulation of microbial agents and to the related reduced vaccine uptake induced an "immunity debt" which could have negative consequences when the pandemic is under control and NPIs are lifted. The longer these periods of "viral or bacterial low-exposure" are, the greater the likelihood of future epidemics. This is due to a growing proportion of "susceptible" people and a declined herd immunity in the population. The observed delay in vaccination program without effective catch-up and the decrease in viral and bacterial exposures lead to a rebound risk of vaccine-preventable diseases. With a vaccination schedule that does not include vaccines against rotavirus, varicella, and serogroup B and ACYW Neisseria meningitidis, France could become more vulnerable to some of these rebound effects.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunitário , Infecções/epidemiologia , Vacinas/imunologia , Criança , Humanos
17.
Circ Res ; 128(7): 908-933, 2021 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793336

RESUMO

Elevated cardiovascular risk including stroke, heart failure, and heart attack is present even after normalization of blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Underlying immune cell activation is a likely culprit. Although immune cells are important for protection against invading pathogens, their chronic overactivation may lead to tissue damage and high blood pressure. Triggers that may initiate immune activation include viral infections, autoimmunity, and lifestyle factors such as excess dietary salt. These conditions activate the immune system either directly or through their impact on the gut microbiome, which ultimately produces chronic inflammation and hypertension. T cells are central to the immune responses contributing to hypertension. They are activated in part by binding specific antigens that are presented in major histocompatibility complex molecules on professional antigen-presenting cells, and they generate repertoires of rearranged T-cell receptors. Activated T cells infiltrate tissues and produce cytokines including interleukin 17A, which promote renal and vascular dysfunction and end-organ damage leading to hypertension. In this comprehensive review, we highlight environmental, genetic, and microbial associated mechanisms contributing to both innate and adaptive immune cell activation leading to hypertension. Targeting the underlying chronic immune cell activation in hypertension has the potential to mitigate the excess cardiovascular risk associated with this common and deadly disease.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/imunologia , Imunidade Celular/fisiologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunitário , Imunidade Inata , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Monócitos/imunologia , Fatores Sexuais , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Viroses/imunologia
19.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919499

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) pathophysiology is not completely understood; however, altered inflammatory response and glutamate signaling have been reported, leading to the investigation of molecules targeting the immune-glutamatergic system in ASD treatment. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a naturally occurring saturated N-acylethanolamine that has proven to be effective in controlling inflammation, depression, epilepsy, and pain, possibly through a neuroprotective role against glutamate toxicity. Here, we systematically reviewed all human and animal studies examining PEA and its biobehavioral correlates in ASD. Studies indicate altered serum/brain levels of PEA and other endocannabinoids (ECBs)/acylethanolamines (AEs) in ASD. Altered PEA signaling response to social exposure and altered expression/activity of enzymes responsible for the synthesis and catalysis of ECBs/AEs, as well as downregulation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) and cannabinoid receptor target GPR55 mRNA brain expression, have been reported. Stress and exposure to exogenous cannabinoids may modulate ECBs/AEs levels and expression of candidate genes for neuropsychiatric disorders, with implications for ASD. Limited research suggests that PEA supplementation reduces overall autism severity by improving language and social and nonsocial behaviors. Potential neurobiological underpinnings include modulation of immune response, neuroinflammation, neurotrophy, apoptosis, neurogenesis, neuroplasticity, neurodegeneration, mitochondrial function, and microbiota activity, possibly through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) activation.


Assuntos
Amidas/farmacologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Etanolaminas/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Ácidos Palmíticos/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Humanos , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Receptores de Canabinoides/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-8267

RESUMO

¿Cómo actúan las vacunas para protegernos? Y ¿cuáles son los diferentes enfoques de los que estamos oyendo hablar con respecto a las vacunas?


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunitário
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...