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Viruses ; 14(10)2022 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36298731


Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in experimentally infected domestic cats produces characteristic clinical manifestations including hematological changes, neurological disease, neoplasia (most notably lymphoma) and lymphopenia-mediated immunodeficiency predisposing cats to a range of secondary infections. Conflicting reports exist, however, with regard to disease associations and survival time in naturally FIV-infected cats. The purpose of this retrospective case-control study was to investigate the effect of natural FIV infection on hematological, blood biochemical and urinalysis parameters and survival time in three cohorts of pet cats in Australia. Cohorts 1 and 2 were recruited from a large veterinary hospital in Melbourne, Victoria (n = 525 and 282), while a third cohort consisted of cats recruited from around Australia as part of a FIV field vaccine efficacy trial (n = 425). FIV-infected cats in cohorts 1, 2 and 3 were found to have 15/37 (41%), 13/39 (33%) and 2/13 (15%) clinicopathological parameters significantly different to FIV-uninfected cats, respectively. Two changes in FIV-infected cats in cohort 1, hypochromia (low hemoglobin) and hyperglobulinemia, were outside the supplied reference intervals and should serve as diagnostic triggers for FIV testing. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of cats in cohorts 1 and 2 combined did not find any difference between FIV-infected and FIV-uninfected cats, however a confounding factor was a large euthanasia rate within the first 12 months in both groups. Three significant (p < 0.05) spatial clusters of FIV infection were identified in Melbourne. A possible relationship between FIV infection status and socioeconomic disadvantage was discovered, based on three government indices of socioeconomic status (p < 0.001). Until longitudinal field studies are performed in Australia to further investigate the long-term effects of natural FIV infection, Australian veterinarians should consider FIV to be an important infection of pet cats, and recommend measures to prevent FIV infection.

Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida Felina , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Infecções por Lentivirus , Animais , Gatos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hemoglobinas , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vitória
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 69(2): 155-165, mayo-ago. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1395018


Resumen Los virus de inmunodeficiencia y leucemia felina representan un problema de gran envergadura para los felinos domésticos debido a la multiplicidad de sintomatologías que manifiestan. El objetivo del presente estudio fue establecer, retrospectivamente, la prevalencia en la presentación de ViLeF y VIF en pacientes de seis clínicas de pequeños animales en Bogotá y Chía, en relación con factores como su edad, raza y género. Se realizó un estudio transversal y retrospectivo, mediante la recopilación de datos de 1.014 historias clínicas de pacientes felinos que ingresaron a seis clínicas de la ciudad de Bogotá y Chía, para determinar la prevalencia de VIF y ViLeF y la asociación de estas con factores como edad, género y raza, entre 2015 y 2019, a través de la prueba OR. La detección de los virus se realizó mediante una prueba rápida basada en inmunocromatografía. La mayor prevalencia para cada enfermedad por año fue: 12,3% para VIF en 2012 y 18% para ViLeF en 2019. Los machos presentaron mayores seroprevalencias para ambas enfermedades durante la mayoría los años evaluados. Factores como raza (criolla: VIF: 1,85; ViLeF: 2,01), género (macho: VIF: 1,53 OR; ViLeF: 1,64) y edad (> 7 años: VIF: 3,82; ViLeF: 3,21) se relacionaron positivamente con la presentación de ambas enfermedades en la población felina evaluada.

Abstract Immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus represent major problems for domestic felines due to the multiplicity of symptoms they manifest. The objective of the present study was to establish, retrospectively, the prevalence in the presentation of FeLV and FIV in patients from six small animal clinics in Bogota and Chia, related to factors such as age, race, and gender. A cross-sectional and retrospective study was carried out, collecting data from 1.014 clinical records of feline patients who were admitted to six clinics in the city of Bogota and Chia, to determine the prevalence of FIV and FeLV and their association with factors such as age, gender, and race, between 2015 and 2019 through the OR test. The detection of the viruses was carried out through a rapid test based on immunochromatography. The highest prevalence for each disease per year was 12,3% for FIV in 2012 and 18% for FeLV in 2019. Males presented higher seroprevalences for both diseases during most of the years evaluated. Factors such as race (Creole: FIV: 1,85; FeLV: 2,01), gender (male: FIV: 1.53 OR, FeLV: 1,64), and age (> 7 years: FIV: 3.82; FeLV: 3.21) were positively related to the presentation of both diseases in the feline population evaluated.

Animais , Gatos , Vírus , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Leucemia , Doença Crônica , Doença , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Vírus da Leucemia Felina , Diagnóstico , Retroviridae , Hospitais Veterinários
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(2): e004222, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792756


We evaluated the epidemiological, hematological, and pathological data of Leishmania spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Platynosomum illiciens, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections and the coinfections in stray cats of an endemic area for leishmaniasis. The diagnosis was performed by serological tests and necropsy. We described gross lesions and histopathological findings. We used immunohistochemistry and chromogenic in situ hybridization for L. infantum detection. We found infection in 27 out of 50 sampled cats, among them, 14 presented coinfections. A strong correlation between splenomegaly and lymphadenomegaly with FeLV, and an association between hepatic lesions and cachexia with parasitism due to P. illiciens were observed. Moreover, we found a significant increase in the monocyte count in the FeLV-infected and a decrease in the red blood cell count in the FIV-infected animals. Amastigote forms of Leishmania spp. and tissue changes were detected in lymphoid organs of an animal coinfected with P. illiciens, T. gondii, and FIV. Polyparasitism recorded in stray cats of the Brazilian Midwest should be considered in effective control strategies for public health diseases. Moreover, stray cats of Campo Grande may be a source of infection of FIV, FeLV and P. illiciens for populations of domiciled cats.

Doenças do Gato , Coinfecção , Leishmaniose , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Leishmaniose/complicações , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Vírus da Leucemia Felina , Leucemia Felina/complicações , Leucemia Felina/epidemiologia
J Wildl Dis ; 58(3): 641-645, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35763618


This retrospective study provides an analysis of the prevalence and detectability of canine distemper virus (CDV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV), and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) sheltered in a wild animal recovery center in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Blood samples of 19 rescued ocelots from 2019-20 were analyzed using FeLV p27 antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and commercial insulated isothermal reverse transcriptase PCR (iiRT-PCR) kits. Using this PCR we detected positive results for CDV (4/ 17; 23.5%) and FeLV (14/16; 87.5%), but not for FIV (0/8). Three previously positive cases of CDV and two of FeLV showed negative results on retesting 6 mo later. Moreover, a third analysis was conducted and was negative for CDV. Our results suggest that ocelots can recover from the local CDV and FeLV strains. An ELISA for the FeLV p27 antigen showed no capability to detect FeLV in ocelots that were confirmed positive by iiRT-PCR. Regional lineages, viral virulence, and host immune response capabilities should be addressed in further research to inform management and decision making for wildlife conservation.

Vírus da Cinomose Canina , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Gatos , Equador , Vírus da Leucemia Felina , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
Vet Dermatol ; 33(5): 435-439, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644925


Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan, for which felids are the definitive host. Immunocompromised individuals are susceptible to recrudescent toxoplasmosis. This case describes a 6-year-old, feline immunodeficiency virus-positive domestic short hair cat with feline atopic skin syndrome that developed fatal toxoplasmosis after treatment with oclacitinib for five months.

Toxoplasma gondii est un protozoaire ubiquitaire dont les félidés sont l'hôte définitif. Les personnes immunodéprimées sont sensibles à la toxoplasmose recrudescente. Ce cas décrit un chat domestique à poils courts de 6 ans, positif pour le virus de l'immunodéficience féline, atteint du syndrome atopique cutané félin, qui a développé une toxoplasmose mortelle après un traitement à l'oclacitinib pendant cinq mois.

Toxoplasma gondii es un protozoo ubicuo, cuyo huésped definitivo son los felinos. Las personas inmunocomprometidas son susceptibles a la toxoplasmosis recrudescente. Este caso describe un gato doméstico de pelo corto positivo para el virus de la inmunodeficiencia felina de 6 años de edad con síndrome de piel atópica felina, que desarrolló toxoplasmosis fatal después del tratamiento con oclacitinib durante cinco meses.

Toxoplasma gondii é um protozoário ubíquo para o qual os felídeos são o hospedeiro definitivo. Indivíduos imunocomprometidos são suscetíveis a toxoplasmose recrudescente. Este relato descreve um caso de um felino doméstico de pelo curto de seis anos de idade, positivo para o vírus da imunodeficiência felina, com síndrome atópica felina, que desenvolveu toxoplasmose fatal após tratamento com oclacitinib por cinco meses.

Doenças do Gato , Dermatite Atópica , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Atópica/veterinária , Pirimidinas , Sulfonamidas , Toxoplasmose Animal/tratamento farmacológico
Bioorg Med Chem ; 68: 116834, 2022 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653871


We disclose a series of potent anti-viral 1,2,3-dithiazoles, accessed through a succinct synthetic approach from 4,5-dichloro-1,2,3-dithiazolium chloride (Appel's salt). A series of small libraries of compounds were screened against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infected cells as a model for HIV. This approach highlighted new structure activity relationship understanding and led to the development of sub-micro molar anti-viral compounds with reduced toxicity. In addition, insight into the mechanistic progress of this system is provided via advanced QM-MM modelling. The 1,2,3-dithiazole represents a versatile scaffold with potential for further development to treat both FIV and HIV.

Infecções por HIV , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Animais , Antivirais/química , Gatos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35632665


Immunocompromise is a common condition in cats, especially due to widespread infections with immunosuppressive viruses, such as feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV), but also due to chronic non-infectious diseases, such as tumours, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease, as well as treatment with immunosuppressive drugs, such as glucocorticoids, cyclosporins, or tumour chemotherapy. In this review, the European Advisory Board on Cat Diseases (ABCD), a scientifically independent board of experts in feline medicine from eleven European countries, discusses the current knowledge and rationale for vaccination of immunocompromised cats. So far, there are few data available on vaccination of immunocompromised cats, and sometimes studies produce controversial results. Thus, this guideline summarizes the available scientific studies and fills in the gaps with expert opinion, where scientific studies are missing. Ultimately, this review aims to help veterinarians with their decision-making in how best to vaccinate immunocompromised cats.

Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Vírus da Leucemia Felina , Animais , Gatos , Europa (Continente) , Vacinação/veterinária
J Feline Med Surg ; 24(8): e194-e202, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35635064


OBJECTIVES: The relationship between blood group antigens and disease has been studied in humans. Blood types have been associated with both decreased and increased rates of various infections. In addition, blood group expression has been shown to vary with some cancers and gastrointestinal diseases. The objective of this study was to explore whether there is a relationship between blood type and retroviral infections in cats. METHODS: Case records from a veterinary research laboratory, veterinary teaching hospitals and veterinary blood banks were retrospectively searched for cats where both blood type and retroviral status (feline leukemia [FeLV], feline immunodeficiency virus [FIV] or both) were listed (part 1). In addition, a sample of 33 cats with confirmed FIV infection was genotyped to determine blood groups (part 2). RESULTS: In part 1, 709 cats were identified, 119 of which were positive for retroviral infection. Among all cases, 621 were type A (87.6%), 68 were type B (9.6%) and 20 were type AB (2.8%). There was no relationship between overall retroviral status (positive/negative) and blood type (P = 0.43), between FeLV status and blood type (P = 0.86) or between FIV status and blood type (P = 0.94). There was no difference in the distribution of blood types between cats that were healthy and typed as possible blood donors vs sick cats that were typed prior to a possible transfusion (P = 0.13). In part 2, of the 33 FIV-infected cats, all blood group genotypes were identified, although this test did not discriminate type A from type AB. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: No relationship was identified between feline retroviral status and blood type in this study. The relationship between blood type and other disease states requires further study in veterinary patients.

Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos , Doenças do Gato , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida Felina , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Leucemia Felina , Infecções por Retroviridae , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Humanos , Vírus da Leucemia Felina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções por Retroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária
Aust Vet J ; 100(8): 345-359, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35578381


Despite the passage of over 30 years since its discovery, the importance of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) on the health and longevity of infected domestic cats is hotly debated amongst feline experts. Notwithstanding the absence of good quality information, Australian and New Zealand (NZ) veterinarians should aim to minimise the exposure of cats to FIV. The most reliable way to achieve this goal is to recommend that all pet cats are kept exclusively indoors, or with secure outdoor access (e.g., cat enclosures, secure gardens), with FIV testing of any in-contact cats. All animal holding facilities should aim to individually house adult cats to limit the spread of FIV infection in groups of animals that are stressed and do not have established social hierarchies. Point-of-care (PoC) FIV antibody tests are available in Australia and NZ that can distinguish FIV-infected and uninfected FIV-vaccinated cats (Witness™ and Anigen Rapid™). Although testing of whole blood, serum or plasma remains the gold standard for FIV diagnosis, PoC testing using saliva may offer a welfare-friendly alternative in the future. PCR testing to detect FIV infection is not recommended as a screening procedure since a negative PCR result does not rule out FIV infection and is only recommended in specific scenarios. Australia and NZ are two of three countries where a dual subtype FIV vaccine (Fel-O-Vax® FIV) is available and offers a further avenue for disease prevention. Since FIV vaccination only has a reported field effectiveness of 56% in Australia, and possibly lower in NZ, FIV-vaccinated cats should undergo annual FIV testing prior to annual FIV re-vaccination using a suitable PoC kit to check infection has not occurred in the preceding year. With FIV-infected cats, clinicians should strive to be even more thorough than usual at detecting early signs of disease. The most effective way to enhance the quality of life and life expectancy of FIV-infected cats is to optimise basic husbandry and to treat any concurrent conditions early in the disease course. Currently, no available drugs are registered for the treatment of FIV infection. Critically, the euthanasia of healthy FIV-infected cats, and sick FIV-infected cats without appropriate clinical investigations, should not occur.

Doenças do Gato , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida Felina , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Austrália , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Eutanásia Animal , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida Felina/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida Felina/prevenção & controle , Nova Zelândia , Qualidade de Vida
J Cell Sci ; 135(12)2022 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35638570


As the development of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drastically improves the lifespan of individuals with HIV, many are now entering the prime age when Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like symptoms begin to manifest. It has been shown that hyperphosphorylated tau, a known AD pathological characteristic, is prematurely increased in the brains of HIV-infected individuals as early as in their 30s and that its levels increase with age. This suggests that HIV infection might lead to accelerated AD phenotypes. However, whether HIV infection causes AD to develop more quickly in the brain is not yet fully determined. Interestingly, we have previously revealed that the viral glycoproteins HIV gp120 and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) gp95 induce neuronal hyperexcitation via cGMP-dependent kinase II (cGKII; also known as PRKG2) activation in cultured hippocampal neurons. Here, we use cultured mouse cortical neurons to demonstrate that the presence of HIV gp120 and FIV gp95 are sufficient to increase cellular tau pathology, including intracellular tau hyperphosphorylation and tau release to the extracellular space. We further reveal that viral glycoprotein-induced cellular tau pathology requires cGKII activation. Taken together, HIV infection likely accelerates AD-related tau pathology via cGKII activation.

Doença de Alzheimer , Infecções por HIV , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Gatos , Glicoproteínas , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/fisiologia , Camundongos , Neurônios/patologia , Proteínas tau/genética
Vet Rec ; 191(1): e1683, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512238


BACKGROUND: Age-related dementia has been documented in domestic cats; however, its interaction with naturally occurring feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection has been investigated minimally. METHODS: Visuospatial working memory (VSWM) and problem-solving (PS) ability were evaluated in FIV-infected (n = 37) and control cats (n = 39) using two cognitive tasks tested serially, which assessed the ability of cats to remember the location of a baited container after a set delay, then evaluated the capability of the cats to manipulate the container to obtain the food within a time limit. Cats were categorized using 7 years of age as a cut-off to determine age-related differences. The relationship between cognitive performance and FIV viral load was investigated using real-time PCR cycle threshold (Ct ) values. RESULTS: Age significantly affected VSWM and PS ability. Younger cats had better VSWM performance and PS ability compared to older cats with the same FIV status. There was no difference between younger FIV-positive and negative cats in either part of the task. While older FIV-positive cats had significantly worse VSWM than older FIV-negative cats, no differences were found in PS ability. Additionally, Ct values predicted VSWM but not PS ability. CONCLUSION: Age-related cognitive impairments and FIV infection appear synergetic, causing greater cognitive deficits in older FIV-infected cats.

Doenças do Gato , Disfunção Cognitiva , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida Felina , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Infecções por Lentivirus , Animais , Gatos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida Felina/complicações , Infecções por Lentivirus/complicações , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 107, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534884


BACKGROUND: Feline leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is often associated with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection; however, the role and clinical significance of this coinfection remain unknown. This study aimed to assess whether FIV is associated with L. infantum infection in cats from canine leishmaniosis endemic areas and to report the clinical signs and hematological alterations associated with coinfection. METHODS: A retrospective matched case-control study (ratio 1:2) was conducted. Data of clinical examination and complete blood count (CBC) were selected from a cohort of 705 cats examined for epidemiological studies on feline leishmaniosis conducted between 2012 and 2019. Ninety-one FIV seropositive cases and 182 FIV seronegative control cats were selected. Matching was done according to age, sex, lifestyle and geographic provenience of case cats. Rapid ELISA devices were mainly used to detect anti-FIV antibodies. Anti-Leishmania IgG antibodies were detected by indirect-immunofluorescence test (IFAT). Leishmania DNA was searched in blood, oral and conjunctival swabs by quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: Feline immunodeficiency virus seropositive cats had no hematological abnormalities suggestive of an advanced stage of FIV infection and were statistically more frequently IFAT positive, and their risk of being L. infantum antibody positive was 2.8 greater than in the FIV seronegatives. The association of FIV seropositivity with L. infantum antibody positivity was confirmed in the univariable model of logistic regression. A multivariate model found FIV infection and L. infantum PCR positivity as predictors of a positive L. infantum IFAT result. Male outdoor cats from rural or suburban areas were at risk for FIV and L. infantum antibody positivity. Clinical signs more frequently associated with the coinfection were oral lesions, pale mucous membranes and low body condition score (BCS). CONCLUSIONS: This study documents that FIV seropositive cats with no hematological abnormalities suggestive of an advanced stage of FIV infection are more prone to be L. infantum seroreactive by IFAT in endemic areas. Therefore, FIV seropositive cats should be tested for L. infantum antibodies and treated for preventing sand fly bites. Pale mucous membranes, low BCS and oral lesions but no CBC abnormalities were significantly associated with the coinfection.

Doenças do Gato , Coinfecção , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral , Leishmaniose , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Gatos , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266621, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390075


OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the seroprevalence, presenting complaint, clinicopathological changes, co-morbidities and outcomes of feline leukemia virus positive cats presented to a specialty referral center in Florida, USA. METHODS: In this retrospective study, medical records of 8050 cats presented to a private referral center from August 2008 to September 2019 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria required was a positive result for feline leukemia virus by point-of-care antigen testing or immunofluorescence assay. RESULTS: Forty-one cases met the inclusion criteria. Of 2002 cats that were tested, 41 cats (2%) met the inclusion criteria. One cat had a negative point of care antigen test result and positive bone marrow IFA result. The mean age at diagnosis was 9 years. The main reasons for presentation were abnormal complete blood cell count results (35%), followed by pleural effusion (18%), and anorexia (15%). The most common laboratory abnormalities included anaemia (71%), of which 74% had a nonregenerative anemia, thrombocytopenia (52%), elevated aspartate aminotransferase (50%), hyperbilirubinemia (35%), and hypokalemia (35%). Seven percent of cats (3/41) were also positive for feline immunodeficiency virus. The most common diagnoses were neoplasia (76%) and bone marrow disorders (12%). Cats with neoplasia were significantly younger. Survival to discharge was 88%. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Results of this study show that feline leukemia virus is uncommon in secondary referral center, even if this represents a population of unhealthy cats. The most common associated diagnosis was neoplasia, which was more likely to be seen in younger cats (< 4 years of age). The mean age of cats positive for feline leukemia virus was also older than previously published data. These findings support the current guidelines which indicate that cats presented with clinical illness should be tested for FeLV at the time of presentation.

Doenças do Gato , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Leucemia Felina , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Florida/epidemiologia , Vírus da Leucemia Felina , Leucemia Felina/complicações , Leucemia Felina/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Cuidados de Saúde Secundários , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e1434-e1444, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35152562


Our study investigated the prevalence of feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in captive Siberian tigers in Northeastern China. A total of 324 blood samples and 33 nasopharyngeal swab samples of Siberian tigers collected from 2019 to 2021 in three cities were investigated by nested PCR. The results showed that 28.1% (91/324) tigers were infected with at least one virus; the positive rates of FHV-1, FCV, and FIV were 17.3%, 13.6%, and 0.9%, respectively; and the coinfection prevalence was 13.2%. No FeLV-positive sample was detected. And we found that the blood is the best for FCV, FIV, and FeLV detection, but nasopharyngeal swabs for FHV-1. By comparing the gD genes, TK gene, and gI gene of FHV-1, the homology of the three FHV-1 positive strains in this study was found to be 91.5%-99.9% shared with tigers and domestic cats. Based on a comparison of the nucleic acid sequences of 13 FCV strains, we found that the homology of strain HB-1926 with the other strains in this study was only about 77.7%, but shared 99.3% and 98.6% homology with Urnaba strain in American cat and TG1 strain in Chinese tiger, respectively. However, the other 12 FCV strains shared 87.1%-87.5% homology compared with the Chinese domestic cats. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the HB-1926 strain was not in the same clade as other strains. The fragments gag-p26, pol-RT, and pol-RNAse of Siberian tiger FIV shared more than 99% homology than domestic cats FIV subtype A. This study demonstrated that captive Siberian tigers in Northeastern China were exposed to FHV-1, FCV, and FIV, and it is necessary to develop more effective vaccines and improve daily management measures.

Calicivirus Felino , Doenças do Gato , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Ácidos Nucleicos , Tigres , Animais , Gatos , Vírus da Leucemia Felina , Filogenia , Prevalência , Ribonucleases/genética , Varicellovirus
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e189444, fev. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363181


Felines play a leading role in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection, but there is scarce information about the epidemiology of Neospora caninum, particularly in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats. Cats seropositive to T. gondii do not usually show symptoms unless they are immunosuppressed, such as FIV-infected cats. The same relationship remains poorly known for N. caninum, although it has been associated with neurological disorders in HIV-infected people. Since FIV-infected cats are prone to develop encephalitis of unknown etiology, this study aimed to evaluate the presence of specific antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum in a shelter for stray cats naturally infected with FIV. A total of 104 serum samples from cats living in a shelter, located in São Paulo city (Brazil), was assessed for T. gondii and N. caninum specific antibody by indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFAT). Of the 104 cats, 25 (24%) were infected with FIV and, aside from these, 8 (32%) had antibodies against T. gondii (titers from 16 to 128). Only 1 (4%) of the FIV-infected cats had antibodies against N. caninum, which was the first record of coinfection. Among the FIV-naïve cats, 11 (14%) were positive for T. gondii(titers from 16 to 256) and only 1 (1.2%) had antibodies against N. caninum. Serologically positive reactions to T. gondii and N. caninum were not correlated with age or sex (p>0.05), and there was no correlation between FIV and the occurrence of anti-T. gondii or anti-N. caninum antibodies (p>0.05). Further studies encompassing larger cat populations from different origins and locations are essential to clarify the prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies in FIV-positive cats.(AU)

Os felinos têm um papel importante na epidemiologia da infecção por Toxoplasma gondii, mas pouco se sabe sobre a epidemiologia da infecção por Neospora caninum em gatos, particularmente em gatos infectados com o vírus da imunodeficiência felina (FIV). Gatos soropositivos para Toxoplasma gondii geralmente não apresentam sintomas a não ser que estejam imunossuprimidos, como gatos infectados com FIV. A mesma relação ainda é pouco conhecida para N. caninum, embora tenha sido associada a distúrbios neurológicos em pessoas infectadas pelo HIV. Considerando que gatos infectados com FIV são propensos a desenvolver encefalite de etiologia desconhecida, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a presença de anticorpos específicos para T. gondii e N. caninum em gatos infectados com FIV. Um total de 104 amostras de soro de gatos residentes em um abrigo na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, foram avaliadas para a presença de anticorpos contra T. gondii e N. caninum pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI). Dos 104 gatos, 25 (24%) estavam infectados com FIV e destes 8, (32%) tinham anticorpos contra T. gondii (titulação entre 16 e 128). Apenas 1 (4%) dos gatos infectados com FIV apresentava anticorpos contra N. caninum, sendo este o primeiro registro dessa coinfecção. Entre os gatos não infectados com FIV, 11 (14%) foram positivos para T. gondii (titulação entre 16 e 256) e apenas 1 (1,2%) tinha anticorpos contra N. caninum. A reação sorologicamente positiva para T. gondii e N. caninum não foi correlacionada com a idade ou sexo (p> 0,05), nem houve correlação entre FIV e ocorrência de anticorpos para T. gondii ou N. caninum(p> 0,05). Estudos subsequentes abrangendo populações maiores de gatos de diferentes origens e locais são essenciais para esclarecer a prevalência de anticorpos contra T. gondii e N. caninum em animais acometidos por FIV.(AU)

Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Gatos , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida Felina/imunologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/imunologia , Neospora/imunologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Coinfecção
Arch Virol ; 167(2): 545-551, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35064833


Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) naturally infects more than 20 kinds of felines and poses a serious threat to their health, but there has been little research on FIV in tigers. In this study, 320 captive Siberian tigers (225 from Harbin, 55 from Hailin, and 40 from Shenyang) were tested for FIV by nested PCR, and three Siberian tigers from Hailin were FIV positive (5.45%). From these three animals, FIV gene fragments, gag-p26 (444 nt) from samples HD094 and HD1786 and pol-RT (576 nt) and pol-RNase (730 nt) from sample HD631, were sequenced and found to share more than 99% sequence identity with FIV subtype A from domestic cats. This is the first time FIV has been detected in Siberian tigers in China.

Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Tigres , Animais , Gatos , China/epidemiologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/genética
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 29(1): 46-49, jan./mar. 2022. il.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1393360


O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar a presença de DNA do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina (FIV) em gatos domesticos (Feliz catus) assintomáticos. Foi realizada a tecnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) em 50 animais. Para tal, foram coletadas amostras de sangue, por venopunção da jugular, de forma asséptica para armazenamento de 1-2 mL de sangue total. Os animais que participaram do estudo fizeram parte do projeto de castração "Vida digna" da Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia. E a escolha dos animais foi realizada de maneira aleatória, sem distinção por sexo ou idade, resultando em 29 foram fêmeas e 21 machos. Para o diagnóstico, foi realizada a extração do DNA, em seguida as amostras foram testadas em duas reações de PCR utilizando- se dois conjuntos de primers do Gene gag de FIV. Achou-se uma prevalência de 2% (1/50), confirmando assim a presença do vírus na cidade de Belém. Assim, evidenciando a importância de testar os felinos mesmo sendo assintomáticos. Desta forma, faz-se necessário a realização de trabalhos futuros que amplie o número amostral dos animais testados para assim elucidar o perfil epidemiológico da doença na região de Belém do Pará, considerando a relevância clínica desta infecção e a correta conduta médica veterinária para evitar novas infecções.

The objective of this work was to detect the presence of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) proviral DNA in asymptomatic domestic cats (Feliz catus). The polymerase chain reaction technique was performed from 50 animals. For this, blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture, aseptically for storage of 1-2 mL of whole blood. The animals that participated in the study were part of the castration project "Vida digna" at the Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia. And the choice of animals was performed randomly, without distinction by sex or age, resulting in 29 females and 21 males. For diagnosis, DNA extraction was performed, then the samples were tested in two PCR reactions using two sets of FIV gag gene primers. A prevalence of 2% (1/50) was observed, thus confirming the presence of the virus in the city of Belém. Thus, highlighting the importance of testing the felines even if they are asymptomatic. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out future work that expands the sample number of animals tested in order to elucidate the epidemiological profile of the disease in the region of Belém do Pará, considering the clinical relevance of this infection and the correct veterinary medical conduct to avoid new infections.

Animais , Gatos , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Gatos/imunologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/imunologia , Prevalência
Nat Ecol Evol ; 6(2): 174-182, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35087217


Hunting can fundamentally alter wildlife population dynamics but the consequences of hunting on pathogen transmission and evolution remain poorly understood. Here, we present a study that leverages a unique landscape-scale quasi-experiment coupled with pathogen-transmission tracing, network simulation and phylodynamics to provide insights into how hunting shapes feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) dynamics in puma (Puma concolor). We show that removing hunting pressure enhances the role of males in transmission, increases the viral population growth rate and increases the role of evolutionary forces on the pathogen compared to when hunting was reinstated. Changes in transmission observed with the removal of hunting could be linked to short-term social changes while the male puma population increased. These findings are supported through comparison with a region with stable hunting management over the same time period. This study shows that routine wildlife management can have impacts on pathogen transmission and evolution not previously considered.

Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Puma , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Feminino , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/fisiologia , Masculino , Comportamento Predatório , Puma/fisiologia , Puma/virologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais