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2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142210, 2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994793

RESUMO

Importance: A surge of COVID-19 occurred from March to June 2021, in New Delhi, India, linked to the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 vaccines were rolled out for health care workers (HCWs) starting in January 2021. Objective: To assess the incidence density of reinfection among a cohort of HCWs and estimate the effectiveness of the inactivated whole virion vaccine BBV152 against reinfection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective cohort study among HCWs working at a tertiary care center in New Delhi, India. Exposures: Vaccination with 0, 1, or 2 doses of BBV152. Main Outcomes and Measures: The HCWs were categorized as fully vaccinated (with 2 doses and ≥15 days after the second dose), partially vaccinated (with 1 dose or 2 doses with <15 days after the second dose), or unvaccinated. The incidence density of COVID-19 reinfection per 100 person-years was computed, and events from March 3, 2020, to June 18, 2021, were included for analysis. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Estimated vaccine effectiveness (1 - adjusted HR) was reported. Results: Among 15 244 HCWs who participated in the study, 4978 (32.7%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. The mean (SD) age was 36.6 (10.3) years, and 55.0% were male. The reinfection incidence density was 7.26 (95% CI: 6.09-8.66) per 100 person-years (124 HCWs [2.5%], total person follow-up period of 1696 person-years as time at risk). Fully vaccinated HCWs had lower risk of reinfection (HR, 0.14 [95% CI, 0.08-0.23]), symptomatic reinfection (HR, 0.13 [95% CI, 0.07-0.24]), and asymptomatic reinfection (HR, 0.16 [95% CI, 0.05-0.53]) compared with unvaccinated HCWs. Accordingly, among the 3 vaccine categories, reinfection was observed in 60 of 472 (12.7%) of unvaccinated (incidence density, 18.05 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 14.02-23.25), 39 of 356 (11.0%) of partially vaccinated (incidence density 15.62 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 11.42-21.38), and 17 of 1089 (1.6%) fully vaccinated (incidence density 2.18 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 1.35-3.51) HCWs. The estimated effectiveness of BBV152 against reinfection was 86% (95% CI, 77%-92%); symptomatic reinfection, 87% (95% CI, 76%-93%); and asymptomatic reinfection, 84% (95% CI, 47%-95%) among fully vaccinated HCWs. Partial vaccination was not associated with reduced risk of reinfection. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that BBV152 was associated with protection against both symptomatic and asymptomatic reinfection in HCWs after a complete vaccination schedule, when the predominant circulating variant was B.1.617.2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Reinfecção , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , COVID-19/etiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vírion/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 140, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013258

RESUMO

While mRNA vaccines are administrated worldwide in an effort to contain the COVID-19 pandemic, the heterogeneity of the humoral immune response they induce at the population scale remains unclear. Here, in a prospective, longitudinal, cohort-study, including 1245 hospital care workers and 146 nursing home residents scheduled for BNT162b2 vaccination, together covering adult ages from 19 to 99 years, we analyse seroconversion to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and amount of spike-specific IgG, IgM and IgA before vaccination, and 3-5 weeks after each dose. We show that immunogenicity after a single vaccine dose is biased to IgG, heterogeneous and reduced with increasing age. The second vaccine dose normalizes IgG seroconversion in all age strata. These findings indicate two dose mRNA vaccines is required to reach population scale humoral immunity. The results advocate for the interval between the two doses not to be extended, and for serological monitoring of elderly and immunosuppressed vaccinees.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Imunização Secundária , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Soroconversão , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
4.
Cancer Cell ; 40(1): 103-108.e2, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990570

RESUMO

Patients with cancer are more likely to have impaired immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. We study the breadth of responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants after primary vaccination in 178 patients with a variety of tumor types and after booster doses in a subset. Neutralization of alpha, beta, gamma, and delta SARS-CoV-2 variants is impaired relative to wildtype, regardless of vaccine type. Regardless of viral variant, mRNA1273 is the most immunogenic, followed by BNT162b2, and then Ad26.COV2.S. Neutralization of more variants (breadth) is associated with a greater magnitude of wildtype neutralization, and increases with time since vaccination; advancing age associates with a lower breadth. The concentrations of anti-spike protein antibody are a good surrogate for breadth (positive predictive value of =90% at >1,000 U/mL). Booster SARS-CoV-2 vaccines confer enhanced breadth. These data suggest that achieving a high antibody titer is desirable to achieve broad neutralization; a single booster dose with the current vaccines increases the breadth of responses against variants.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/biossíntese , Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Idoso , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Secundária , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/terapia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Carga Viral
5.
RMD Open ; 8(1)2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34987092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scanty data on the immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 vaccine in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) on Tumor Necrosis Factor inhibitors (TNFi) have been published. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the humoral response to BNT162b2 vaccination patients with PsA on TNFi, comparing immunogenicity with healthy controls. METHODS: Forty patients with classified PsA on TNFi undergoing vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (BioNTech/Pfizer) were enrolled. Fifteen days after the second shot, serum IgG levels against SARS-CoV-2 (Abbott ARCHITECT i2000SR, positivity cut-off 50 AU/mL) were assayed in all patients. Clinimetrics and treatment data were gathered. TNFi treatment was not discontinued throughout the whole period, whereas methotrexate (MTX) was discontinued for 1 week after each shot in those on combination therapy. Sera from healthcare professionals were considered as healthy controls for 1:1 propensity score matching; any of them was taking medication.Student's t-test and logistic regression were used for investigating differences in immunogenicity between groups and predictors of antibody response. RESULTS: Clinical Disease Activity Index did not change before and after vaccination (7.06±5.23 to 7.10±5.27, p=0.92).Patients with PsA achieved a positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG level with a mean (±SD) of 13794.44±15 815.42 AU/mL. Although lower, the antibody level was not significantly different from matched controls (19227.4±11.8460.45 AU/mL, p=0.08). In the overall sample, those on MTX (12/80, 15%) had a trend toward lower immune response (p=0.07); glucocorticoid therapy (11/80, 13.8%) predicted lower antibody levels (p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Continuing TNFi in patients with PsA throughout the vaccination did not hamper immunogenicity.


Assuntos
Artrite Psoriásica , COVID-19 , Artrite Psoriásica/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , RNA Mensageiro , SARS-CoV-2 , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral
6.
RMD Open ; 8(1)2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34987093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with immune-mediated rheumatic diseases (IMRDs) are commonly treated with immunosuppressors and prone to infections. Recently introduced mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have demonstrated extraordinary efficacy across all ages. Immunosuppressed patients were excluded from phase III trials with SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. AIMS: To fully characterise B-cell and T-cell immune responses elicited by mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with rheumatic diseases under immunotherapies, and to identify which drugs reduce vaccine's immunogenicity. METHODS: Humoral, CD4 and CD8 immune responses were investigated in 100 naïve patients with SARS-CoV-2 with selected rheumatic diseases under immunosuppression after a two-dose regimen of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. Responses were compared with age, gender and disease-matched patients with IMRD not receiving immunosuppressors and with healthy controls. RESULTS: Patients with IMRD showed decreased seroconversion rates (80% vs 100%, p=0.03) and cellular immune responses (75% vs 100%, p=0.02). Patients on methotrexate achieved seroconversion in 62% of cases and cellular responses in 80% of cases. Abatacept decreased humoral and cellular responses. Rituximab (31% responders) and belimumab (50% responders) showed impaired humoral responses, but cellular responses were often preserved. Antibody titres were reduced with mycophenolate and azathioprine but preserved with leflunomide and anticytokines. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with IMRD exhibit impaired SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity, variably reduced with immunosuppressors. Among commonly used therapies, abatacept and B-cell depleting therapies show deleterious effects, while anticytokines preserved immunogenicity. The effects of cumulative methotrexate and glucocorticoid doses on immunogenicity should be considered. Humoral and cellular responses are weakly correlated, but CD4 and CD8 tightly correlate. Seroconversion alone might not reflect the vaccine's immunogenicity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Reumáticas , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas Sintéticas
7.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 173-177, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427924

RESUMO

In this study, it was aimed to determine the antibody responses after the two doses of inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccinations in people who were above 65 years old and to evaluate the factors affecting this response. A total of 235 participants aged 65 years and older were included. Blood samples were taken and data about age, gender, comorbid diseases, and presence of side effects after vaccination were noted. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 QuantiVac ELISA (IgG) test kit (catalogue number: EI-2606-9601-10-G, Euroimmun) was used. The mean age was 70.38 ± 4.76. Approximately 120 of 235 participants had at least one comorbid disease. The mean levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody after 4 weeks from the first and second doses of vaccine were 37.70 ± 57.08 IU/ml, and 194.61 ± 174.88 IU/ml, respectively. Additionally, 134 of 235 participants (57.02%) had under 25.6 IU/ml antibody level (negative) after 4 weeks from the first vaccine dose while this rate was 11.48% (n = 27) after 4 weeks from the second vaccine dose. The 19 (70.4%) participants who had under had 25.6 IU/ml antibody level after 4 weeks from the first dose of vaccine had at least one comorbid disease including diabetes mellitus, and 8 (29.6%) participants had no comorbid disease (F = 2.352, p = 0.006). Lower rates of antibody response were detected in participants aged 65 years and older and those with comorbidities both in our study and similar studies in the current literature. Further studies should evaluate whether the low antibody titers are really associated with age and comorbidities or not. Finally, prospective studies are needed to determine how long the immunity provided by SARS-CoV-2 vaccines will continue.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2411: 219-240, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816408

RESUMO

For the past several decades, aquaculture all around the world have been retarded by various disease outbreaks caused by many pathogens including parasites, bacteria, and viruses. Apart from being harmful to human health, the emerging diseases also dramatically affect the farm animals such as livestock and aquatic animals. To cope with this problem, one of the effective prophylactic measures is the application of vaccine. However, the traditional vaccines still have some limitations and several drawbacks; thus there is a need for the development of novel advanced vaccine such as chimeric multiepitope vaccine. Based on the current understanding of genomics and immunoproteomics together with the present bioinformatics tools, the researchers can identify the potential targeted epitopes being recognizable by the immune cells. Additionally, another critical point that should be considered for designing the chimeric multiepitope vaccine is the exposure of all those epitopes to the host organism. Thus, selecting an appropriate linker and joining each identified epitope in a suitable site can create the ideal protein structure protruding all the selected epitopes on its surface. Herein, our study would provide the fundamental platform to develop the multiepitope B-cell vaccine for the prevention and control of the aquatic animal disease starting with the epitope prediction until in vivo testing the multiepitope vaccine efficacy.


Assuntos
Animais , Biologia Computacional , Epitopos , Epitopos de Linfócito T , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Vacinas de Subunidades
10.
Vaccine ; 40(4): 587-593, 2022 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD 1222) is the main vaccine planned for general administration in Thailand. This vaccine is stored in multiple-dose vials meant to be administered to 10 recipients with a volume of 0.5 mL for each dose. However, the vaccine vials were overfilled, which allows the administration of more than 10 doses per vial. We have stipulated the preparation and use of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine using traditional 21 or 25G needles and planned to investigate the immune responses of participants who were administered the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine using this technique. METHODS: We measured anti-SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike RBD IgG and neutralising antibody using a surrogate virus neutralising test (sVNT) among adults aged 18-72 years on average of 8.57 weeks (IQR 6.85-8.93) after the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. The primary outcome was the antibody level. The secondary outcomes included adverse events, factors affecting antibody levels, and incidence of COVID-19 infection. FINDINGS: In all, 60 participants comprised 25 males and 35 females. The mean age was 53.70 ± 17.48 years. BMI was 23.45 ± 3.69 kg/m2. Tests for the neutralising antibody were positive in 60% of the participants (71.4% among males and 44% among females). The median anti-SARS-CoV-2 QuantiVac (anti-spike IgG) level among male and female samples was 111.83 BAU/mL (IQR 73.48-196.74 BAU/mL) and 159.65 BAU/mL (IQR 100.39-371.81), respectively. The positive QuantiVac value of male and female samples was 88.00% and 98.44%, respectively (p-value = 0.382) .A good correlation was observed between neutralising Ab and anti-spike RBD IgG. CONCLUSION: Patients receiving 12-dose per vial injections of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 exhibited high levels of immunity without severe side effects. This technique can be adopted to maximise the number of doses per vial while preserving vaccine effectiveness.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Idoso , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Secundária , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Mol Med Rep ; 25(1)2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821373

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) is a global pandemic that can have a long­lasting impact on public health if not properly managed. Ongoing vaccine development trials involve classical molecular strategies based on inactivated or attenuated viruses, single peptides or viral vectors. However, there are multiple issues, such as the risk of reversion to virulence, inability to provide long­lasting protection and limited protective immunity. To overcome the aforementioned drawbacks of currently available COVID­19 vaccines, an alternative strategy is required to produce safe and efficacious vaccines that impart long­term immunity. Exosomes (key intercellular communicators characterized by low immunogenicity, high biocompatibility and innate cargo­loading capacity) offer a novel approach for effective COVID­19 vaccine development. An engineered exosome­based vaccine displaying the four primary structural proteins of SARS­CoV­2 (spike, membrane, nucleocapside and envelope proteins) induces humoral and cell mediated immunity and triggers long­lasting immunity. The present review investigated the prospective use of exosomes in the development of COVID­19 vaccines; moreover, exosome­based vaccines may be key to control the COVID­19 pandemic by providing enhanced protection compared with existing vaccines.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Exossomos , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Exossomos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are limited data on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine reactogenicity in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and how reactogenicity is affected by disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). The objective of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to generate real-world multiple sclerosis-specific vaccine safety information, particularly in the context of specific DMTs, and provide information to mitigate specific concerns in vaccine hesitant PwMS. METHODS: Between 3/2021 and 6/2021, participants in iConquerMS, an online people-powered research network, reported SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, experiences of local (itch, pain, redness, swelling, or warmth at injection site) and systemic (fever, chills, fatigue, headache, joint pain, malaise, muscle ache, nausea, allergic, and other) reactions within 24 hours (none, mild, moderate, and severe), DMT use, and other attributes. Multivariable models characterized associations between clinical factors and reactogenicity. RESULTS: In 719 PwMS, 64% reported experiencing a reaction after their first vaccination shot, and 17% reported a severe reaction. The most common reactions were pain at injection site (54%), fatigue (34%), headache (28%), and malaise (21%). Younger age, being female, prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, and receiving the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) vs BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine were associated with experiencing a reaction after the first vaccine dose. Similar relationships were observed for a severe reaction, including higher odds of reactions among PwMS with more physical impairment and lower odds of reactions for PwMS on an alpha4-integrin blocker or sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator. In 442 PwMS who received their second vaccination shot, 74% reported experiencing a reaction, whereas 22% reported a severe reaction. Reaction profiles after the second shot were similar to those reported after the first shot. Younger PwMS and those who received the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vs BNT162b2 vaccine reported higher reactogenicity after the second shot, whereas those on a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator or fumarate were significantly less likely to report a reaction. DISCUSSION: SARS-CoV-2 vaccine reactogenicity profiles and the associated factors in this convenience sample of PwMS appear similar to those reported in the general population. PwMS on specific DMTs were less likely to report vaccine reactions. Overall, the short-term vaccine reactions experienced in the study population were mostly self-limiting, including pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, and fever.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Secundária/efeitos adversos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 279-286, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468990

RESUMO

Vaccines have been seen as the most important solution for ending the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antibody levels after inactivated virus vaccination. We included 148 healthcare workers (74 with prior COVID-19 infection and 74 with not). They received two doses of inactivated virus vaccine (CoronaVac). Serum samples were prospectively collected three times (Days 0, 28, 56). We measured SARS-CoV-2 IgGsp antibodies quantitatively and neutralizing antibodies. After the first dose, antibody responses did not develop in 64.8% of the participants without prior COVID-19 infection. All participants had developed antibody responses after the second dose. We observed that IgGsp antibody titers elicited by a single vaccine dose in participants with prior COVID-19 infection were higher than after two doses of vaccine in participants without prior infection (geometric mean titer: 898 and 607 AU/ml). IgGsp antibodies, participants with prior COVID-19 infection had higher antibody levels as geometric mean titers at all time points (p < 0.001). We also found a positive correlation between IgGsp antibody titers and neutralizing capacity (rs = 0.697, p < 0.001). Although people without prior COVID-19 infection should complete their vaccination protocol, the adequacy of a single dose of vaccine is still in question for individuals with prior COVID-19. New methods are needed to measure the duration of protection of vaccines and their effectiveness against variants as the world is vaccinated. We believe quantitative IgGsp values may reflect the neutralization capacity of some vaccines.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Adulto , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Comorbidade , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imunização Secundária , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
15.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102446, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481947

RESUMO

After many years of the excessive use of praziquantel against Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni), it has already led to the development of drug resistance. While schistosomiasis is still affecting millions of people every year, vaccination may be one realistic alternative way to control the disease. Currently, S. mansoni 14-kDa fatty acid-binding protein (Sm14) has shown promising results as a vaccine antigen. Yet, the use of an adjuvant may be necessary to further increase the effectiveness of the vaccine. Herein, we investigated the potential of using heat-killed Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) as an adjuvant for recombinant Sm14 (rSm14). Immunization of mice with C. acnes-adjuvanted rSm14 showed increased humoral immune responses, compared with mice immunized with rSm14 alone. Additionally, C. acnes-adjuvanted rSm14 vaccination provided higher protection to mice against S. mansoni infection and liver injuries. These results suggest that C. acnes increases the immunogenicity of rSm14, which leads to better protection against S. mansoni infection. Therefore, heat-killed C. acnes may be a promising adjuvant to use with rSm14.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/imunologia , Proteínas de Helminto/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Propionibacteriaceae/química , Schistosoma mansoni/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/prevenção & controle , Vacinas/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
16.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 407-412, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491572

RESUMO

The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (Oxford University-Astra Zeneca) has demonstrated nearly 70% efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19 in trials and some real-world studies. The vaccine was the first to be approved in India in early January 2021 and is manufactured by the Serum Institute of India. Favorable short-term safety data of the vaccine in India in a real-world setting has been recently demonstrated. Here, we report secondary objective (COVID-19 occurrence) measures of the same ongoing prospective observational study in prioritized recipients of the vaccine. The findings are based on participants who could complete at least 2 months of follow-up (n = 1500; female/male: 472/1028; mean age: 38.8 years). Laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection was observed in 27/65 participants (41%) who received a single dose and 271/1435 (19%) who received both doses. Specifically, among doctors, 18/27 (66.7%) one dose recipients and 131/377 (34.7%) fully vaccinated developed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The majority of the cases were mild in all groups, and most were breakthrough infections. The occurrence of "severe" COVID-19 was 7.7 times lower (0.4%) in fully vaccinated participants compared to partially vaccinated (3.1%). Four deaths were observed in the study. One of the four deaths was due to sepsis, two due to unspecified cardiac events, and one due to unspecified post-COVID-19 complications. The results of this preliminary analysis necessitate vigorous research on the performance of vaccines against variants, optimal timing of vaccination, and also optimal timings of effectiveness studies to guide future vaccination policy.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Secundária/estatística & dados numéricos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vacinação
17.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 88-98, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524697

RESUMO

The outbreak of the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) occurred in late 2019 and quickly spread all over the world. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) belongs to a genetically diverse group that mutates continuously leading to the emergence of multiple variants. Although a few antiviral agents and anti-inflammatory medicines are available, thousands of individuals have passed away due to emergence of new viral variants. Thus, proper surveillance of the SARS-CoV-2 genome is needed for the rapid identification of developing mutations over time, which are of the major concern if they occur specifically in the surface spike proteins of the virus (neutralizing analyte). This article reviews the potential mutations acquired by the SARS-CoV2 since the pandemic began and their significant impact on the neutralizing efficiency of vaccines and validity of the diagnostic assays.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Deriva Genética , Genoma Viral/genética , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Frequência do Gene/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 732693, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34899692

RESUMO

The effect of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants on vaccine efficacy is of critical importance. In this study, the potential impact of mutations that facilitate escape from the cytotoxic cellular immune response in these new virus variants for the 551 most abundant HLA class I alleles was analyzed. Computational prediction showed that most of these alleles, that cover >90% of the population, contain enough epitopes without escape mutations in the principal SARS-CoV-2 variants. These data suggest that the cytotoxic cellular immune protection elicited by vaccination is not greatly affected by emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Alelos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/metabolismo , Epitopos de Linfócito T/metabolismo , Feminino , Genes MHC Classe I/genética , Genes MHC Classe I/imunologia , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Mutação , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/virologia , Vacinação
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 779212, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34899739

RESUMO

Response to vaccines generally varies according to individual factors of the vaccinated subjects such as demographics and immune status. While there are various reports of factors associated with immunogenicity of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines, little is known about those of adenovirus vector vaccines. We conducted a prospective observational study to assess the relationships of antibody level with age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and adverse reactions (ARs) to an adenovirus vector vaccine, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Healthcare workers who planned to receive both the first and second injections of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine at Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul, Korea, were enrolled in the study. Seven days after each injection, participants were asked to complete an online adverse reaction survey. In addition, anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein receptor binding domain (RBD) antibody concentration was measured 4 weeks after the second injection. All participants (n = 447, 100%) showed serologic positivity (≥ 0.8 U/mL) 4 weeks after the second injection of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. Furthermore, the anti-SARS-CoV-2 S protein RBD concentration was similar among groups when stratified by age, sex, BMI, or presence and severity of AR; multivariable linear regression found no associations between antibody response to the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine and age, BMI, sex, and vaccine-induced ARs. In conclusion, age, sex, obesity, and ARs were not associated with antibody responses after two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , /efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Secundária , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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