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1.
Acta Trop ; 225: 106172, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627760

RESUMO

The excretory-secretory product (ESP) of Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) has been reported to inhibit the growth of various tumor cells, but the mechanism is not yet clear. To explore the effect and mechanism of ESP on liver cancer cells, tumor models were established with H22 cells and then infected with T. spiralis. The results showed that the growth of tumors in mice infected with T. spiralis was significantly inhibited. ESP from adult worms or muscle larvae were then incubated with H22 cells in vitro, and it was found that the ESP could inhibit cell proliferation and promote apoptosis. Subsequently, apoptosis-related proteins in stimulated H22 cells were evaluated, and ESP was found to induce cell apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. Additionally, Th-related cytokines were investigated in vivo, and the results showed that the levels of Th1 cytokines were significantly increased in the early stage of T. spiralis infection, while Th2 cytokines increased later than Th1 cytokines, implying that Th1 cytokines with antitumor effects may play a role in inhibiting tumor growth at early stage. In short, ESP can directly induce tumor cell apoptosis and indirectly inhibit tumor cell growth through the host immune system, which may be the antitumor mechanism of T. spiralis infection.


Assuntos
Trichinella spiralis , Triquinelose , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Imunidade , Larva , Camundongos
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 765965, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721437

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), resulted in an unprecedented global crisis. Although primarily a respiratory illness, dysregulated immune responses may lead to multi-organ dysfunction. Prior data showed that the resident microbial communities of gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts act as modulators of local and systemic inflammatory activity (the gut-lung axis). Evolving evidence now signals an alteration in the gut microbiome, brought upon either by cytokines from the infected respiratory tract or from direct infection of the gut, or both. Dysbiosis leads to a "leaky gut". The intestinal permeability then allows access to bacterial products and toxins into the circulatory system and further exacerbates the systemic inflammatory response. In this review, we discuss the available data related to the role of the gut microbiome in the development and progression of COVID-19. We provide mechanistic insights into early data with a focus on immunological crosstalk and the microbiome's potential as a biomarker and therapeutic target.


Assuntos
COVID-19/microbiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/microbiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Disbiose/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade , Inflamação
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 732913, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737743

RESUMO

Obesity prevails worldwide to an increasing effect. For example, up to 42% of American adults are considered obese. Obese individuals are prone to a variety of complications of metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Recent meta-analyses of clinical studies in patient cohorts in the ongoing coronavirus-disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic indicate that the presence of obesity and relevant disorders is linked to a more severe prognosis of COVID-19. Given the significance of obesity in COVID-19 progression, we provide a review of host metabolic and immune responses in the immunometabolic dysregulation exaggerated by obesity and the viral infection that develops into a severe course of COVID-19. Moreover, sequela studies of individuals 6 months after having COVID-19 show a higher risk of metabolic comorbidities including obesity, diabetes, and kidney disease. These collectively implicate an inter-systemic dimension to understanding the association between obesity and COVID-19 and suggest an interdisciplinary intervention for relief of obesity-COVID-19 complications beyond the phase of acute infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , Obesidade/imunologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , COVID-19/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade , Doenças Metabólicas/imunologia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , Prognóstico , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
4.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(40): 6775-6793, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790007

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive tumor with high lethality. Even with surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and other locoregional or systemic therapies, the survival rates for PDAC are low and have not significantly changed in the past decades. The special characteristics of the PDAC's microenvironment and its complex immune escape mechanism need to be considered when designing novel therapeutic approaches in this disease. PDAC is characterized by chronic inflammation with a high rate of tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells and a low rate of natural killer and effector T cells. The pancreatic microenvironment is a fibrotic, microvascularized stroma that isolates the tumor from systemic vascularization. Immunotherapy, a novel approach that has demonstrated effectiveness in certain solid tumors, has failed to show any practice-changing results in pancreatic cancer, with the exception of PDACs with mismatch repair deficiency and high tumor mutational burden, which show prolonged survival rates with immunotherapy. Currently, numerous clinical trials are attempting to assess the efficacy of immunotherapeutic strategies in PDAC, including immune checkpoint inhibitors, cancer vaccines, and adoptive cell transfer, alone or in combination with other immunotherapeutic agents, chemoradiotherapy, and other targeted therapies. A deep understanding of the immune response will help in the development of new therapeutic strategies leading to improved clinical outcomes for patients with PDAC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/terapia , Humanos , Imunidade , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral
5.
Phytomedicine ; 93: 153811, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The immune-enhancing effects of red Platycodon grandiflorus root extract (RPGE) has been reported in vitro and in vivo, but there are few studies on humans. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of RPGE in enhancing immune function in healthy subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: An 8-week randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted at the Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, South Korea. A total of 100 adults aged 20-75 years with white blood cell counts of 3000-10,000 cell/µL were randomly divided into two groups (RPGE group, 50 and placebo group, 50) using a computer-generated random list with a 1:1 allocation ratio. The subjects consumed RPGE (2 times/day, 2 tablets/time, 375 mg RPGE powder/tablet) or placebo for 8 weeks. All test foods for the human study were coded and administered under double-blind conditions. The primary outcome was a change in the NK cell activity after 8 weeks of treatment compared to the baseline. RESULTS: Among 100 subjects enrolled for the study, 87 completed the study. NK cell activity (p = 0.005) and IFN-γ level (p = 0.003) of the RPGE group (n = 41) were higher than those of the placebo group (n = 46). The findings of the safety assessment revealed absence of clinically significant changes in any test and serious adverse events throughout the study. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, these results demonstrate the efficacy and safety of RPGE, suggesting it to be a beneficial agent for enhancing immune function in humans. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CRIS Registration Number KCT0005945, https://cris.nih.go.kr.


Assuntos
Platycodon , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Imunidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , República da Coreia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(16): 3788-3793, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790054

RESUMO

As the world is racing to develop perpetual immunity to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The emergence of new viral strains, together with vaccination and reinfections, are all contributing to a long-term immunity against the deadly virus that has taken over the world since its introduction to humans in late December 2019. The discovery that more than 95 percent of people who recovered from COVID-19 had long-lasting immunity and that asymptomatic people have a different immune response to SARS-CoV-2 than symptomatic people has shifted attention to how our immune system initiates such diverse responses. These findings have provided reason to believe that SARS-CoV-2 days are numbered. Hundreds of research papers have been published on the causes of long-lasting immune responses and variations in the numbers of different immune cell types in COVID 19 survivors, but the main reason of these differences has still not been adequately identified. In this article, we focus on the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which initiates molecular processes that allow our immune system to generate antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. To establish lasting immunity to SARS-CoV-2, we suggest that AID could be the key to unlocking it.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Citidina Desaminase/genética , Imunidade/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Citidina/genética , Citidina/imunologia , Citidina Desaminase/imunologia , Desaminação/imunologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Vacinação
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6277, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725327

RESUMO

Several COVID-19 vaccines have now been deployed to tackle the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, most of them based on messenger RNA or adenovirus vectors.The duration of protection afforded by these vaccines is unknown, as well as their capacity to protect from emerging new variants. To provide sufficient coverage for the world population, additional strategies need to be tested. The live pediatric measles vaccine (MV) is an attractive approach, given its extensive safety and efficacy history, along with its established large-scale manufacturing capacity. We develop an MV-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine expressing the prefusion-stabilized, membrane-anchored full-length S antigen, which proves to be efficient at eliciting strong Th1-dominant T-cell responses and high neutralizing antibody titers. In both mouse and golden Syrian hamster models, these responses protect the animals from intranasal infectious challenge. Additionally, the elicited antibodies efficiently neutralize in vitro the three currently circulating variants of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Vetores Genéticos , Imunidade , Adenoviridae , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Cricetinae , Citocinas , Feminino , Imunização , Imunização Secundária , Masculino , Vacina contra Sarampo/imunologia , Mesocricetus , Camundongos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
8.
Trials ; 22(1): 849, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the population of Korea ages, interest in healthcare has increased. In particular, there is an increasing demand for immune-function improvement to prevent infectious diseases. Phellinus linteus (PL) has previously been shown to exert immune-enhancing and anticancer effects. We aim to evaluate whether PL mycelium extract, cultured from the PL KCTC0399BP strain, can increase immune function, as measured using blood-test indicators. This clinical trial protocol is designed as the main trial and is based on the results of a pilot study. METHODS: This clinical trial is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Ninety-eight participants are enrolled and randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group (PL 1000 mg) and the control group (placebo). Participants are administered with experimental food or placebo for eight weeks. Blood tests are performed before trial initiation and 8 weeks later, at trial completion. Laboratory evaluation items are as follows: natural killer cell activity, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, immunoglobulin (Ig)G1, IgG2, and IgM. We will mainly use the full analysis dataset to statistically analyze the effectiveness of the treatment. DISCUSSION: This study evaluates the effects of PL extract on immune function and will contribute to knowledge on the value of PL as an immune-function-boosting functional food. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS) of Korea CRIS-KCT0005460 . Registered on 12 October 2020.


Assuntos
Phellinus , Extratos Vegetais , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Imunidade , Projetos Piloto , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 753249, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760721

RESUMO

Background: Novel coronavirus SARS-CoV2 is evolving continuously with emergence of several variants of increasing transmission capabilities and pandemic potential. Generation of variants occurs through accumulation of mutations due to the RNA nature of viral genome, which is further enhanced by variable selection pressures of this ongoing pandemic. COVID-19 presentations of SARS-CoV2 are mainly pulmonary manifestations with or without mild gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatic symptoms. However, the virus has evolved beyond pulmonary manifestations to multisystem disorder due to systemic inflammation and cytokine storm. Definitive cause of acute or late onset of inflammation, infection in various organs, and host response to emerging variants lacks clarity and needs elucidation. Several studies have reported underlying diseases including diabetes, hypertension, obesity, cardio- and cerebrovascular disorders, and immunocompromised conditions as significant risk factors for severe form of COVID-19. Pre-existing liver and GI diseases are also highly predominant in the population, which can alter COVID-19 outcome due to altered immune status and host response. We aim to review the emerging variants of SARS-CoV2 and host response in patients with pre-existing liver and GI diseases. Methods: In this review, we have elucidated the emergence and characteristic features of new SARS-CoV2 variants, mechanisms of infection and host immune response, GI and hepatic manifestation with radiologic features of COVID-19, and outcomes in pre-existing liver and GI diseases. Key Findings: Emerging variants of concern (VOC) have shown increased transmissibility and virulence with severe COVID-19 presentation and mortality. There is a drastic swift of variants from the first wave to the next wave of infections with predominated major VOC including alpha (B.1.1.7, UK), beta (B.1.351, South Africa), gamma (B.1.1.28.1, Brazil), and delta (B1.1.617, India) variants. The mutations in the spike protein of VOC are implicated for increased receptor binding (N501Y, P681R) and immune escape (L452R, E484K/Q, T478K/R) to host response. Pre-existing liver and GI diseases not only have altered tissue expression and distribution of viral entry ACE2 receptor but also host protease TMPRSS2, which is required for both spike protein binding and cleavage to initiate infection. Altered immune status due to pre-existing conditions results in delayed virus clearance or prolonged viremia. Even though GI and hepatic manifestations of SARS-CoV2 are less severe, the detection of virus in patient's stool indicates GI tropism, replication, and shedding from the GI tract. COVID-19-induced liver injury, acute hepatic decompensation, and incidences of acute-on-chronic liver failure may change the disease outcomes. Conclusions: The changes in the spike protein of emerging variants, immunomodulation by viral proteins, and altered expression of host viral entry receptor in pre-existing diseases are the key determinants of host response to SARS-CoV2 and its disease outcome.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Gastroenteropatias , Humanos , Imunidade , Fígado , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Chem Rec ; 21(11): 3313-3331, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812564

RESUMO

Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens are overexpressed as altered-self in most common epithelial cancers. Their glycosylation patterns differ from those of healthy cells, functioning as an ID for cancer cells. Scientists have been developing anti-cancer vaccines based on mucin glycopeptides, yet the interplay of delivery system, adjuvant and tumor associated MUC epitopes in the induced immune response is not well understood. The current state of the art suggests that the identity, abundancy and location of the glycans on the MUC backbone are all key parameters in the cellular and humoral response. This review shares lessons learned by us in over two decades of research in glycopeptide vaccines. By bridging synthetic chemistry and immunology, we discuss efforts in designing synthetic MUC1/4/16 vaccines and focus on the role of glycosylation patterns. We provide a brief introduction into the mechanisms of the immune system and aim to promote the development of cancer subunit vaccines.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer , Glicopeptídeos , Glicosilação , Imunidade , Vacinas Sintéticas
11.
Arch Razi Inst ; 76(3): 639-647, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824756

RESUMO

Obesity triggers the development of adipokines such as leptin, resistin, and visfatin, which have been associated with the development of diabetic nephropathy and other vascular disorders. The main purpose of the current investigation was to identify the physiological impact of visfatin on immunological response and its inflammatory effects on nephropathy. Fifty Iraqi patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) at various stages, as described by the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) and ranging in age from 48.367.56 to 53.68 8.46 years on average were considered. Prior to the start of the investigation, informed consent was obtained from all participants, and the ethics committee approved the study. Patients were classified into two groups: Group (A) comprised patients with a GFR higher than 60 mL/minute, and Group (B) comprised patients with a GFR of less than 60 mL/min. There was no considerable variance between the groups as regards visfatin, but a highly significant correlation between serum visfatin and CRP was observed. The results of the current investigation indicated that serum visfatin levels are significantly correlated with CRP in CKD patients; it is also correlated with deterioration of kidney function. Moreover, higher visfatin levels were accompanied by increased serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels. These findings would suggest that visfatin may perform an essential function in uremia-related inflammation and may serve as a potential target for treatment and prevention of renal associated complications. Future studies may delineate whether visfatin is a marker of disease activity and severity as well as a predictor of outcome in CKD.


Assuntos
Leptina , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase , Animais , Biomarcadores , Imunidade
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 716940, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745094

RESUMO

At present, the global COVID-19 epidemic is still in a state of anxiety, and increasing the cure rate of critically ill patients is an important means to defeat the virus. From an immune perspective, ARDS driven by an inflammatory storm is still the direct cause of death in severe COVID-19 patients. Although some experience has been gained in the treatment of COVID-19, and intensive COVID-19 vaccination has been carried out recently, it is still effective to save lives to develop more effective programs to alleviate the inflammatory storm and ARDS in patients with SARS-CoV-2 or emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2. In reorganizing the ARDS-related inflammatory storm formation program in COVID-19 patients, we highlighted the importance of the vicious circle of inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory cell death, which is aggravated by blood circulation to form multi-system inflammation. Summarizes the interlocking and crisscrossing of inflammatory response and inflammatory cell death mechanisms including NETs, pyrolysis, apoptosis and PANoptosis in severe COVID-19. More importantly, in response to the inflammatory storm formation program we described, and on the premise of following ethical and clinical experimental norms, we propose a three-dimensional integrated program for future research based on boosting antiviral immune response at the initial stage, inhibiting inflammatory cytokine signaling at the exacerbation stage and inhibiting cell death before it's worse to prevent and alleviate ARDS.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Animais , COVID-19/terapia , Protocolos Clínicos , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Humanos , Imunidade , Imunomodulação , Inflamação , Transdução de Sinais
13.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(8): 270, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766215

RESUMO

Poor immune responses to inactivated influenza vaccine can be improved by effective and safe adjuvants to increase antibody titers and cellular protective response. In our study, AddaVax and PolyI:C combined adjuvant (AP adjuvant) were used for influenza vaccine development. After immunizing BALB/c mice and Wistar rats intramuscularly, Split inactivated H3N2 vaccine adjuvanted with AP elicited higher serum hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies and IgG titers. We demonstrated that AP induced a transient innate immune cytokines production at the injection site, induced H3N2 uptake by DCs, increased recruitment of monocytes and DCs in LNs, and promoted H3N2 vaccine migration; AP facilitated vaccines to induce a vigorous adaptive immune response. Besides, AP showed good safety as shown by lymph nodes (LNs) size, spleens index of BALB/c mice, and weight changes and C-reaction protein level of BALB/c mice and Wistar rats after repeated administration of high-dose vaccine with or without adjuvant. These findings indicate that AP is a potential novel adjuvant and can be used as a safe and effective adjuvant for MDCK-based influenza inactivated vaccine to induce cellular and antibody protective response.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Imunidade , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Polissorbatos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Esqualeno
14.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 768124, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778110

RESUMO

Chagas disease is a major public health problem, especially in the South and Central America region. Its incidence is related to poverty and presents a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of Chagas disease is complex and involves many interactive pathways between the hosts and the Trypanosoma cruzi. Several factors have been implicated in parasite-host interactions, including molecules secreted by infected cells, lipid mediators and most recent, extracellular vesicles (EVs). The EVs of T. cruzi (EVsT) were reported for the first time in the epimastigote forms about 42 years ago. The EVsT are involved in paracrine communication during the infection and can have an important role in the inflammatory modulation and parasite escape mechanism. However, the mechanisms by which EVs employ their pathological effects are not yet understood. The EVsT seem to participate in the activation of macrophages via TLR2 triggering the production of cytokines and a range of other molecules, thus modulating the host immune response which promotes the parasite survival. Moreover, new insights have demonstrated that EVsT induce lipid body formation and PGE2 synthesis in macrophages. This phenomenon is followed by the inhibition of the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and antigen presentation, causing decreased parasitic molecules and allowing intracellular parasite survival. Therefore, this mini review aims to discuss the role of the EVs from T. cruzi as well as its involvement in the mechanisms that regulate the host immune response in the lipid metabolism and its significance for the Chagas disease pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Vesículas Extracelulares , Trypanosoma cruzi , Doença de Chagas/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos
15.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 41(10): 1492-1500, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of immune cell subsets in the lung tissues of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the mechanism of Liuwei Buqi capsule in modulating immune and inflammatory imbalance in COPD. METHODS: We downloaded COPD-related single-cell RNA sequencing data from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and identified COPD immune cell subsets using the Seurat package in the R software to construct an immune cell subsets-differential genes network. The target genes and active ingredients of Liuwei Buqi capsule were obtained from the Chinese Medicine System Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP), and the Liuwei Buqi capsule-immune cell subsets-target genes network was constructed by mapping the target genes to the differentially expressed genes in each immune cell subset. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis was performed to analyze significantly enriched pathways of the target genes, and the key genes involved in the top 20 pathways were identified. In a rat model of COPD, we investigated the effects of Liuwei Buqi capsule on pulmonary function, lung tissue pathology, serum levels of IL-1ß, NF-κB, and TNF-α, and expressions of IKBα, JNK, c-JUN, and c-FOS proteins in the lung tissue. RESULTS: A total of 18 immune-related cell subsets, including macrophages and alveolar macrophages, were identified in both COPD patients and healthy control subjects, and the patients with COPD showed significant changes the percentages of macrophages, cDC1, pDC, mast cells, T cells, and mature dendritic cells (P < 0.05). Liuwei Buqi capsules targeted multiple immune cell subsets, and the identified target genes were enriched mostly in such immune and inflammation-related signaling pathways as lipids and atherosclerosis, IL-17 signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, and TNF signaling pathway; the genes CXCL8, IL1B, JUN, NFKBIA, MAPK8, and FOS were the key genes involved in the significantly enriched pathways. In the rat models of COPD, treatment with Liuwei Buqi capsule significantly improved pulmonary function, alleviated lung pathologies, reduced serum levels of IL-1ß, TNF-α, and NF-κB (P < 0.05) and pulmonary expressions of JNK, c-JUN, and c-FOS (P < 0.01) protein, and increased pulmonary expression of IκBα (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Liuwei Buqi capsule may play an immunomodulatory role by targeting multiple immune cell subsets in the lung tissue of COPD patients.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Animais , Humanos , Imunidade , Pulmão/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(11): 2066-2070, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818856

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can cause a variety of hepatitis B-related diseases in infected people, and there is no specific drug for treatment. China, with a large population base, is the country with the heaviest burden of HBV infection in the world. Therefore, hepatitis B vaccination is particularly important in the prevention and control of this disease. However, some vaccinees did not produce effective protective immune response after vaccination according to the recommended hepatitis B vaccine immunization schedule. The purpose of this review is to analyze the influential factors of non/low immune response after hepatitis B vaccination from the aspects of organism and vaccine, and explore the mechanism of non/low immune response, so as to provide scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of hepatitis B in China.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Imunidade , Vacinação
17.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 724401, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796123

RESUMO

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common enteric pathogen that causes diarrhoea in humans and animals. Lactobacillus rhamnosus LB1 (formerly named Lactobacillus zeae LB1) has been shown to reduce ETEC infection to Caenorhabditis elegans and Salmonella burden in pigs. This study was to evaluate the effect of L. rhamnosus LB1 on the gut health of lactating piglets that were challenged with ETEC. Six-four piglets at 7 days of age were equally assigned into 8 groups (8 piglets per group): 1) control group (basal diet, phosphate buffer saline); 2) CT group (basal diet + 40 mg/kg colistin); 3) LL group (basal diet + 1 × 107 CFU/pig/day LB1); 4) HL group (basal diet + 1 × 108 CFU/pig/day LB1); 5) ETEC group: (basal diet + ETEC challenged); 6) CT + ETEC group (basal diet + CT + ETEC); 7) LL + ETEC group (basal diet + 1 × 107 CFU/pig/day LB1 + ETEC); 8) HL + ETEC group (basal diet + 1 × 108 CFU/pig/day LB1 + ETEC). The trial lasted ten days including 3 days of adaptation. Several significant interactions were found on blood parameters, intestinal morphology, gene, and protein expression. ETEC infection disrupted the cell structure and biochemical indicators of blood, undermined the integrity of the intestinal tract, and induced oxidative stress, diarrhoea, intestinal damage, and death of piglets. The supplementation of L. rhamnosus LB1 alleviated ETEC's adverse effects by reducing pig diarrhoea, oxidative stress, and death, modulating cell structure and biochemical indicators of blood, improving the capacity of immunity and anti-oxidation stress of pigs, and restoring their intestinal integrity. At the molecular level, the beneficial effects of L. rhamnosus LB1 appeared to be mediated by regulating functional related proteins (including HSP70, Caspase-3, NLRP3, AQP3, and AQP4) and genes (including RPL4, IL-8, HP, HSP70, Mx1, Mx2, S100A12, Nrf2, GPX2 and ARG1). These results suggest that dietary supplementation of L. rhamnosus LB1 improved the intestinal functions and health of piglets.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Feminino , Imunidade , Lactação , Lactobacillus , Estresse Oxidativo , Suínos
18.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(11): 1038-1044, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809744

RESUMO

Metabolic reprogramming plays a very important role in the immunoregulatory process, and T cells, as the indispensable part in the immune response, realize the change of function and state through metabolic reprogramming. And endothelial cells exhibit similar metabolic reprogramming. This review explores the interaction between endothelial cells and T cells to reveal the mechanism of the former as non-professional antigen presenting cells to recruit and activate the latter and the specific mechanism of cytokines produced by the latter in inflammatory response to regulate the function and state of the former, aiming to find the potential therapeutic targets for chronic inflammation and provide new ideas for the treatment.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais , Linfócitos T , Humanos , Imunidade , Inflamação
19.
Cell ; 184(23): 5699-5714.e11, 2021 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735795

RESUMO

Extension of the interval between vaccine doses for the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine was introduced in the United Kingdom to accelerate population coverage with a single dose. At this time, trial data were lacking, and we addressed this in a study of United Kingdom healthcare workers. The first vaccine dose induced protection from infection from the circulating alpha (B.1.1.7) variant over several weeks. In a substudy of 589 individuals, we show that this single dose induces severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses and a sustained B and T cell response to the spike protein. NAb levels were higher after the extended dosing interval (6-14 weeks) compared with the conventional 3- to 4-week regimen, accompanied by enrichment of CD4+ T cells expressing interleukin-2 (IL-2). Prior SARS-CoV-2 infection amplified and accelerated the response. These data on dynamic cellular and humoral responses indicate that extension of the dosing interval is an effective immunogenic protocol.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Apresentação Cruzada/imunologia , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Referência , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 733094, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722333

RESUMO

Oomycetes are a group of eukaryotic organisms that includes many important pathogens of animals and plants. Within this group, the Haptoglossa genus is characterised by the presence of specialised gun cells carrying a harpoon-like infection apparatus. While several Haptoglossa pathogens have been morphologically described, there are currently no host systems developed to study the infection process or host responses in the lab. In this study, we report that Haptoglossa species are potent natural pathogens of Caenorhabditis nematodes. Using electron microscopy, we characterise the infection process in C. elegans and demonstrate that the oomycete causes excessive tissue degradation upon entry in the body cavity, whilst leaving the host cuticle intact. We also report that the host transcriptional response to Haptoglossa infection shares similarities with the response against the oomycete Myzocytiopsis humicola, a key example of which is the induction of chitinase-like (chil) genes in the hypodermis. We demonstrate that this shared feature of the host response can be mounted by pathogen detection without any infection, as previously shown for M. humicola. These results highlight similarities in the nematode immune response to natural infection by phylogenetically distinct oomycetes.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Oomicetos , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Imunidade , Microscopia Eletrônica
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