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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674666

RESUMO

Transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) constitutes a significant contributor to the increased morbidity and mortality after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). TA-TMA is a heterogenous disease, characterized by the triad of endothelial cell activation, complement dysregulation and microvascular hemolytic anemia, which may affect all organs. The lack of consensus diagnostic criteria, along with the common clinical features mimicking other diseases that complicate allo-HSCT, make the diagnosis of TA-TMA particularly challenging. Significant effort has been made to recognize specific risk factors predisposing to the development of TA-TMA and to identify serum biomarkers predicting the development of the disease. With regard to treatment, therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) has been traditionally used, although with doubtful efficacy. On the other hand, the pivotal role of complement activation in the pathophysiology of TA-TMA has led to the exploration of the therapeutic potential of complement inhibitors in this setting. Eculizumab has been proposed as a first-line therapeutic agent in TA-TMA, owing to the very promising results in both pediatric and adult clinical trials. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies and CH50 levels are of paramount importance in the allo-HSCT setting, as a different dosing schedule (more intensive-in dose and frequency-at the beginning) seems to be required for successful outcomes. Furthermore, Narsoplimab, a MASP-2 inhibitor, recently received a Breakthrough Therapy Designation from the FDA for the treatment of TA-TMA after allo-HSCT. Finally, the decision to withdraw the CNIs, although initially advised by the Bone and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network Committee, remains debatable owing to the controversial results of recent clinical trials. This review summarizes the current updates on pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutic approaches and emphasizes future goals and perspectives.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Microangiopatias Trombóticas , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento , Ativação do Complemento , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Inativadores do Complemento , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/etiologia , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/terapia , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/diagnóstico
2.
Rev Med Interne ; 43(12): 703-712, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460439

RESUMO

Innate immunity, and more specifically the complement system, has arised renewed interest in the medical field in recent years. Many innovative complement-inhibiting drugs have appeared, acting at various levels of the complement cascade. These drugs have made it possible to transform poor prognosis of certain diseases. Many of them are currently being tested in clinical trials for various indications. Many questions appear about their optimal use and their future indications. This article recalls the fundamental role of the complement system in the human organism. It then discusses the diseases in which the complement is involved on the pathophysiological level. The third part details the different classes of complement inhibitors and briefly recalls the indications for which these treatments seem the most promising. Finally, we end with a discussion that highlights the different aspects and questions induced by these new treatments.


Assuntos
Inativadores do Complemento , Imunidade Inata , Humanos , Inativadores do Complemento/farmacologia , Inativadores do Complemento/uso terapêutico
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1051161, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36479121

RESUMO

The complement system is considered the first line of defense against pathogens. Hijacking complement regulators from blood is a common evasion tactic of pathogens to inhibit complement activation on their surfaces. Here, we report hijacking of the complement C4b-binding protein (C4bp), the regulator of the classical and lectin pathways of complement activation, by the sporozoite (SPZ) stage of the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. This was shown by direct binding of radiolabeled purified C4bp to live SPZs as well as by binding of C4bp from human serum to SPZs in indirect immunofluorescence assays. Using a membrane-bound peptide array, peptides from the N-terminal domain (NTD) of P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) were found to bind C4bp. Soluble biotinylated peptide covering the same region on the NTD and a recombinantly expressed NTD also bound C4bp in a dose-dependent manner. NTD-binding site on C4bp was mapped to the CCP1-2 of the C4bp α-chain, a common binding site for many pathogens. Native CSP was also co-immunoprecipitated with C4bp from human serum. Preventing C4bp binding to the SPZ surface negatively affected the SPZs gliding motility in the presence of functional complement and malaria hyperimmune IgG confirming the protective role of C4bp in controlling complement activation through the classical pathway on the SPZ surface. Incorporating the CSP-C4bp binding region into a CSP-based vaccine formulation could induce vaccine-mediated immunity that neutralizes this immune evasion region and increases the vaccine efficacy.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Vacinas , Animais , Humanos , Proteína de Ligação ao Complemento C4b , Inativadores do Complemento , Peptídeos , Plasmodium falciparum , Esporozoítos
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1060923, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36532073

RESUMO

More than half of patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) treated with complement fraction C5 inhibitors experience residual anemia and hemolysis. This is partly due to the persistent activation of the complement cascade upstream C5, resulting in C3 deposition on PNH erythrocytes and extravascular hemolysis in the reticuloendothelial system. Pegcetacoplan is the first proximal C3 inhibitor to be approved for PNH basing on favorable efficacy and safety data in both naïve and eculizumab treated PNH. Here we report the first Italian patient treated with pegcetacoplan in a named patient program. The patient suffered from hemolytic PNH associated with CALR+ myeloproliferative neoplasm and was heavily transfusion dependent despite eculizumab therapy. Treatment with pegcetacoplan induced a dramatic improvement in Hb, along with normalization of unconjugated bilirubin and reticulocytes, as markers of extravascular hemolysis. Sequential laboratory workup showed the disappearance of C3 deposition on erythrocytes by direct anti-globulin test, the increase of PNH clone on erythrocytes, and a peculiar right shift of the ektacytometry curve. The drug was well tolerated, and the patient reported a significant improvement in his quality of life. Overall, pegcetacoplan appears a safe and effective option "ready to use" in the clinic for patients with PNH and suboptimal response to anti-C5 agents.


Assuntos
Hemoglobinúria Paroxística , Humanos , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/tratamento farmacológico , Hemólise , Qualidade de Vida , Complemento C3 , Inativadores do Complemento/uso terapêutico , Complemento C5
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362350

RESUMO

Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that traumatic hemorrhage (TH) induces early complement cascade activation, leading to inflammation-associated multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Several previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of complement inhibition in anesthetized (unconscious) animal models of hemorrhage. Anesthetic agents profoundly affect the immune response, microcirculation response, and coagulation patterns and thereby may confound the TH research data acquired. However, no studies have addressed the effect of complement inhibition on inflammation-driven MODS in a conscious model of hemorrhage. This study investigated whether early administration of decay-accelerating factor (CD55/DAF, a complement C3/C5 inhibitor) alleviates hemorrhage-induced organ damage and how DAF modulates hemorrhage-induced organ damage. DAF was administered to unanesthetized male Sprague Dawley rats subjected to pressure-controlled hemorrhage followed by a prolonged (4 h) hypotensive resuscitation with or without lactated Ringer's (LR). We assessed DAF effects on organ protection, tissue levels of complement synthesis and activation, T lymphocyte infiltration, fluid resuscitation requirements, and metabolic acidosis. Hemorrhage with (HR) or without (H) LR resuscitation resulted in significantly increased C3, C5a, and C5b-9 deposition in the lung and intestinal tissues. HR rats had significantly higher tissue levels of complement activation/deposition (particularly C5a and C5b-9 in the lung tissues), a higher but not significant amount of C3 and C5b-9 pulmonary microvascular deposition, and relatively severe injury in the lung and intestinal tissues compared to H rats. DAF treatment significantly reduced tissue C5b-9 formation and C3 deposition in the H or HR rats and decreased tissue levels of C5a and C3 mRNA in the HR rats. This treatment prevented the injury of these organs, improved metabolic acidosis, reduced fluid resuscitation requirements, and decreased T-cell infiltration in lung tissues. These findings suggest that DAF has the potential as an organ-protective adjuvant treatment for TH during prolonged damage control resuscitation.


Assuntos
Acidose , Antígenos CD55 , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Complexo de Ataque à Membrana do Sistema Complemento , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento , Inativadores do Complemento , Inflamação , Fenótipo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232608

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to clinically significant multisystem disorders that also affect the kidney. According to recent data, renal injury in the form of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) in native kidneys ranks third in frequency. Our review of global literature revealed 46 cases of TMA in association with COVID-19. Among identified cases, 18 patients presented as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and 28 cases presented as atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). Altogether, seven patients with aHUS had previously proven pathogenic or likely pathogenic genetic complement abnormalities. TMA occurred at the time of viremia or even after viral clearance. Infection with COVID-19 resulted in almost no or only mild respiratory symptoms in the majority of patients, while digestive symptoms occurred in almost one-third of patients. Regarding the clinical presentation of COVID-19-associated TMA, the cases showed no major deviations from the known presentation. Patients with TTP were treated with plasma exchange (88.9%) or fresh frozen plasma (11.1%), corticosteroids (88.9%), rituximab (38.9%), and caplacizumab (11.1%). Furthermore, 53.6% of patients with aHUS underwent plasma exchange with or without steroid as initial therapy, and 57.1% of patients received a C5 complement inhibitor. Mortality in the studied cohort was 16.7% for patients with TTP and 10.7% for patients with aHUS. The exact role of COVID-19 in the setting of COVID-19-associated TMA remains unclear. COVID-19 likely represents a second hit of aHUS or TTP that manifests in genetically predisposed individuals. Early identification of the TMA subtype and appropriate prompt and specific treatment could lead to good outcomes comparable to survival and recovery statistics for TMA of all causes.


Assuntos
Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica , COVID-19 , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica , Microangiopatias Trombóticas , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/etiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Inativadores do Complemento , Humanos , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/diagnóstico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/terapia , Rituximab , Esteroides , Tiamina , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/diagnóstico , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/etiologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232671

RESUMO

Complement factor I (CFI), a complement inhibitor, is well known for regulating the complement system activation by degrading complement component 3b (C3b) in animal serum, thus becoming involved in innate defense. Nevertheless, the functional mechanisms of CFI in the complement system and in host-pathogen interactions are far from being clarified in teleost fish. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the CFI gene, CiCFI, from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and analyzed its function in degrading serum C3b and expression changes after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection. The open reading frame of CiCFI was found to be 2121 bp, encoding 706 amino acids with a molecular mass of 79.06 kDa. The pairwise alignments showed that CiCFI shared the highest identity (66.9%) with CFI from Carassius gibelio and the highest similarity (78.7%) with CFI from Danio rerio. The CiCFI protein was characterized by a conserved functional core Tryp_SPc domain with the catalytic triad and substrate binding sites. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CiCFI and the homologs CFIs from other teleost fish formed a distinct evolutionary branch. Similar with the CFIs reported in mammals, the recombinant CiCFI protein could significantly reduce the C3b content in the serum, demonstrating the conserved function of CiCFI in the complement system in the grass carp. CiCFI mRNA and protein showed the highest expression level in the liver. After GCRV infection, the mRNA expressions of CiCFI were first down-regulated, then up-regulated, and then down-regulated to the initial level, while the protein expression levels maintained an overall downward trend to the late stage of infection in the liver of grass carps. Unexpectedly, the protein levels of CiCFI were also continuously down-regulated in the serum of grass carps during GCRV infection, while the content of serum C3b proteins first increases and then returns to the initial level, suggesting a distinct role of CiCFI in regulating complement activation and fish-virus interaction. Combining our previous results that complement factor D, a complement enhancer, shows continuously up-regulated expression levels in grass carps during GCRV infection, and this study may provide the further essential data for the full picture of complex complement regulation mechanism mediated by Df and CFI of the grass carp during pathogen infection.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Reoviridae , Reoviridae , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Carpas/genética , Carpas/metabolismo , Ativação do Complemento , Complemento C3b , Fator D do Complemento/genética , Fator I do Complemento/genética , Fator I do Complemento/metabolismo , Inativadores do Complemento , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Reoviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/genética , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17870, 2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36284220

RESUMO

Preservation of photoreceptors beyond areas of retinal pigment epithelium atrophy is a critical treatment goal in eyes with geographic atrophy (GA) to prevent vision loss. Thus, we assessed the association of treatment with the complement C3 inhibitor pegcetacoplan with optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based photoreceptor laminae thicknesses in this post hoc analysis of the FILLY trial (NCT02503332). Retinal layers in OCT were segmented using a deep-learning-based pipeline and extracted along evenly spaced contour-lines surrounding areas of GA. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline in (standardized) outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness at the 5.16°-contour-line at month 12. Participants treated with pegcetacoplan monthly had a thicker ONL along the 5.16° contour-line compared to the pooled sham arm (mean difference [95% CI] + 0.29 z-score units [0.16, 0.42], P < 0.001). The same was evident for eyes treated with pegcetacoplan every other month (+ 0.26 z-score units [0.13, 0.4], P < 0.001). Additionally, eyes treated with pegcetacoplan exhibited a thicker photoreceptor inner segment layer along the 5.16°-contour-line at month 12. These findings suggest that pegcetacoplan could slow GA progression and lead to reduced thinning of photoreceptor layers beyond the GA boundary. Future trials in earlier disease stages, i.e., intermediate AMD, aiming to slow photoreceptor degeneration warrant consideration.


Assuntos
Atrofia Geográfica , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Complemento C3 , Inativadores do Complemento , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Atrofia Geográfica/tratamento farmacológico , Cavalos , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Acuidade Visual
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(10): e0010809, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36201560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is a predominant but neglected enteric pathogen implicated in infantile diarrhoea and nutrient malabsorption. There are no non-antibiotic approaches to dealing with persistent infection by these exceptional colonizers, which form copious biofilms. We screened the Medicines for Malaria Venture Pathogen Box for chemical entities that inhibit EAEC biofilm formation. METHODOLOGY: We used EAEC strains, 042 and MND005E in a medium-throughput crystal violet-based antibiofilm screen. Hits were confirmed in concentration-dependence, growth kinetic and time course assays and activity spectra were determined against a panel of 25 other EAEC strains. Antibiofilm activity against isogenic EAEC mutants, molecular docking simulations and comparative genomic analysis were used to identify the mechanism of action of one hit. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In all, five compounds (1.25%) reproducibly inhibited biofilm accumulation by at least one strain by 30-85% while inhibiting growth by under 10%. Hits exhibited potent antibiofilm activity at concentrations at least 10-fold lower than those reported for nitazoxanide, the only known EAEC biofilm inhibitor. Reflective of known EAEC heterogeneity, only one hit was active against both screen isolates, but three hits showed broad antibiofilm activity against a larger panel of strains. Mechanism of action studies point to the EAEC anti-aggregation protein (Aap), dispersin, as the target of compound MMV687800. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified five compounds, not previously described as anti-adhesins or Gram-negative antibacterials, with significant EAEC antibiofilm activity. Molecule, MMV687800 targets the EAEC Aap. In vitro small-molecule inhibition of EAEC colonization opens a way to new therapeutic approaches against EAEC infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Humanos , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Violeta Genciana , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Biofilmes , Inativadores do Complemento , Diarreia
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(8)2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107725

RESUMO

A male in his teens with a history of liver transplant for biliary atresia (aged 2 years) and autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA, aged 6 years) presented with jaundice, dark urine, fatigue and chest discomfort that began 48 hours after the first dose of SARS-CoV-2 Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine (BNT162b2 mRNA). Investigations revealed a warm AIHA picture. Over 4 weeks the patient developed life-threatening anaemia culminating in haemoglobin of 35 g/L (after transfusion), lactate dehydrogenase of 1293 units/L and bilirubin of 228 µmol/L, refractory to standard treatment with corticosteroids and rituximab. An emergency splenectomy was performed that slowed haemolysis but did not completely ameliorate it. Eculizumab, a terminal complement pathway inhibitor, was initiated to arrest intravascular haemolysis and showed a favourable response. AIHA is rare but described after the SARS-CoV-2 Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. This case highlights the rare complication of AIHA, the use of emergency splenectomy for disease control, and the use of eculizumab.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune , Vacina BNT162 , COVID-19 , Adolescente , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/complicações , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Vacina BNT162/administração & dosagem , Vacina BNT162/efeitos adversos , Bilirrubina , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Inativadores do Complemento/uso terapêutico , Hemoglobinas , Hemólise , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Lactato Desidrogenases , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2 , Esplenectomia/efeitos adversos
11.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5519, 2022 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127336

RESUMO

With the addition of the compstatin-based complement C3 inhibitor pegcetacoplan, another class of complement targeted therapeutics have recently been approved. Moreover, compstatin derivatives with enhanced pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles are in clinical development (e.g., Cp40/AMY-101). Despite this progress, the target binding and inhibitory modes of the compstatin family remain incompletely described. Here, we present the crystal structure of Cp40 complexed with its target C3b at 2.0-Å resolution. Structure-activity-relationship studies rationalize the picomolar affinity and long target residence achieved by lead optimization, and reveal a role for structural water in inhibitor binding. We provide explanations for the narrow species specificity of this drug class and demonstrate distinct target selection modes between clinical compstatin derivatives. Functional studies provide further insight into physiological complement activation and corroborate the mechanism of its compstatin-mediated inhibition. Our study may thereby guide the application of existing and development of next-generation compstatin analogs.


Assuntos
Complemento C3 , Inativadores do Complemento , Inativadores do Complemento/farmacologia , Peptídeos Cíclicos , Água/química
12.
Lancet Haematol ; 9(9): e648-e659, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the PEGASUS trial, the complement C3 inhibitor, pegcetacoplan, showed superiority to eculizumab in improving haematological outcomes in adult patients with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria and suboptimal response to eculizumab at 16 weeks. The aim of the open-label period was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of pegcetacoplan through to 48 weeks. METHODS: PEGASUS was a phase 3, randomised, open-label, active-comparator controlled trial conducted in 44 centres in Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Russia, South Korea, Spain, the UK, and the USA. Eligible participants were aged 18 years or older, had paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria, and had a haemoglobin concentration of less than 10·50 g/dL after 3 months or longer of stable eculizumab treatment. After a 4-week run-in with eculizumab plus pegcetacoplan, patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by interactive response technology to pegcetacoplan (1080 mg subcutaneously twice weekly) or eculizumab (according to their regimen at enrolment) for 16 weeks and could continue to the open-label period (32 weeks of pegcetacoplan monotherapy [pegcetacoplan-to-pegcetacoplan] or 28 weeks of pegcetacoplan monotherapy [eculizumab-to-pegcetacoplan]). Randomisation was stratified by platelet count and number of previous blood transfusions. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in haemoglobin at week 16, which has previously been reported. The outcomes of the open-label period (week 16 to week 48) are reported here. At 48 weeks, efficacy (including mean haemoglobin concentration and quality of life measured on the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy [FACIT]-Fatigue scale) was assessed in the intention-to-treat population and safety was assessed per protocol. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03500549, and has been completed. FINDINGS: Between June 14, 2018, and Nov 14, 2019, 80 patients were randomly assigned to receive treatment with pegcetacoplan (41 patients) or eculizumab (39 patients). Most participants were women (49 [61%]) and 31 (39%) were men; 12 (15%) were Asian, two (3%) were Black, 49 (61%) were White, and 17 (21%) were another race or did not report their race. The open-label period had 77 participants (38 pegcetacoplan-to-pegcetacoplan, 39 eculizumab-to-pegcetacoplan). Patients in the pegcetacoplan-to-pegcetacoplan group maintained high mean haemoglobin concentrations between 16 weeks (11·54 g/dL [SD 1·96]) and 48 weeks (11·30 g/dL [1·77]; p=0·14). Patients in the eculizumab-to-pegcetacoplan group had significantly greater mean haemoglobin concentrations at 48 weeks (11·57 g/dL [2·21]) versus 16 weeks (8·58 g/dL [0·96]; p<0·0001). Clinically meaningful improvements in FACIT-Fatigue scores were observed at 48 weeks, with a mean change from baseline for all patients receiving pegcetacoplan monotherapy of 9·89 points (SD 9·63), for patients in the pegcetacoplan-to-pegcetacoplan group mean 10·14 points (9·06), and for patients in the eculizumab-to-pegcetacoplan group mean 9·62 points (10·34). During the entire study period, 13 (16%) of 80 patients discontinued treatment (three [7%] of 41 through to week 16 due to breakthrough haemolysis, and ten [13%] of 77 due to severe treatment-emergent adverse events) and 18 patients (eight pegcetacoplan-to-pegcetacoplan, ten eculizumab-to-pegcetacoplan) had at least one serious treatment-emergent adverse event during the open-label period, four were considered to be related to pegcetacoplan treatment. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events (in ≥10% patients) among both pegcetacoplan-treated groups during the open-label period were injection site reactions (in 20 [26%] of 77 patients), haemolysis (15 [19%]), nasopharyngitis (12 [16%]), and diarrhoea (ten [13%]). No treatment-related deaths occurred throughout the duration of the study. INTERPRETATION: The durability of improved haematological outcomes and favourable safety profile over 48 weeks of treatment suggests that pegcetacoplan has the potential to improve treatment benefit and alter treatment goals in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria. FUNDING: Apellis Pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Hemoglobinúria Paroxística , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Inativadores do Complemento , Fadiga , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/tratamento farmacológico , Hemólise , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Masculino , Peptídeos Cíclicos , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 202, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of complement inhibition in COVID-19 patients is unclear. METHODS: A multicenter randomized controlled, open-label trial. Hospitalized COVID-19 patients with signs of systemic inflammation and hypoxemia (PaO2/FiO2 below 350 mmHg) were randomized (2:1 ratio) to receive standard of care with or without the C5 inhibitor zilucoplan daily for 14 days, under antibiotic prophylaxis. The primary outcome was improvement in oxygenation at day 6 and 15. RESULTS: 81 patients were randomly assigned to zilucoplan (n = 55) or the control group (n = 26). 78 patients were included in the safety and primary analysis. Most were men (87%) and the median age was 63 years. The mean improvement in PaO2/FiO2 from baseline to day 6 was 56.4 mmHg in the zilucoplan group and 20.6 mmHg in the control group (mean difference + 35.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) - 9.4 to 80.9; p = 0.12), an effect also observed at day 15. Day 28 mortality was 9% in the zilucoplan and 21% in the control group (odds ratio 0.4; 95% CI 0.1 to 1.5). At long-term follow up, the distance walked in a 6-min test was 539.7 m in zilucoplan and 490.6 m in the control group (p = 0.18). Zilucoplan lowered serum C5b-9 (p < 0.001) and interleukin-8 (p = 0.03) concentration compared with control. No relevant safety differences between the zilucoplan and control group were identified. CONCLUSION: Administration of zilucoplan to COVID-19 patients in this proof-of-concept randomized trial was well tolerated under antibiotic prophylaxis. While not reaching statistical significance, indicators of respiratory function (PaO2/FiO2) and clinical outcome (mortality and 6-min walk test) suggest that C5 inhibition might be beneficial, although this requires further research in larger randomized studies.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Complemento C5 , Inativadores do Complemento/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos Cíclicos , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Br J Haematol ; 199(4): 477-479, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942659

RESUMO

Transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy remains a lethal complication of haematopoietic stem cell transplant and not all patients respond to terminal complement inhibitors. Qi et al. show that hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) may be a previously unrecognized driver of this endothelial injury syndrome. Commentary on Qi et al. Upregulation of HIF-1α contributes to complement activation in transplantation-associated thrombotic microangiopathy. Br J Haematol. 2022 199:603-615.


Assuntos
Microangiopatias Trombóticas , Humanos , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/etiologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento , Ativação do Complemento , Inativadores do Complemento , Regulação para Cima
15.
Mol Immunol ; 150: 90-98, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027818

RESUMO

Paul Ehrlich was a pioneering Immunobiologist and physician who coined the term 'complement' in the year 1899. He was a leading visionary scientist who worked in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Berlin and Frankfurt. He received numerous awards and honors for his substantial contributions to immunobiology and medicine, including the identification of complement, and he received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1908 in recognition of his work on immunity. During his clinical work, Paul Ehrlich treated a patient with paroxysmal hemoglobinuria and reported his diagnostic approaches, including those related to erythrocyte lysis and microscopic cell analysis, to the Verein für Innere Medicine/Society of Internal Medicine, Berlin. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria was shown to be a complement-mediated disease; treatment of this disease with the complement inhibitor Eculzimab/Soliris was approved by the European Medicines Agency in 2003 and by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2007.


Assuntos
Prêmio Nobel , Médicos , Inativadores do Complemento , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
16.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 220: 115004, 2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988306

RESUMO

A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) Eculizumab, C5-complement cascade inhibitor, is an important treatment of complement-based diseases recommended by international guidelines. Elizaria® Drug Product (DP), developed by IBC Generium, Russia, is the world's first registered biosimilar of eculizumab (Soliris®, Alexion Pharmaceuticals). Using sensitive state-of-the-art analytical techniques extensive similarity assessment has been conducted to demonstrate the structural and functional similarity of original Soliris® (Eculizumab Reference Product, RP) and the biosimilar Elizaria®, focusing on the physicochemical and biological quality attributes, including those known to affect the mechanisms of action. A multitude of analyses revealed that amino acid sequence is identical, the higher order structures, post-translational modifications, purity, and product variants are highly similar between Elizaria® DP and Eculizumab RP, except for minor differences in the relative abundance of the charge variants and glycan moieties considered not clinically significant. The results demonstrate that Elizaria® is highly analytically similar to Eculizumab RP in terms of physicochemical properties and biological activities.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Biossimilares , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos Biossimilares/química , Inativadores do Complemento , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas
17.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 31(10): 1067-1085, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35962560

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections for exudative age-related macular degeneration (eAMD) are effective and safe but require frequent injections and have nonresponding patients. Geographic atrophy/dry AMD (gaAMD) remains an unmet medical need. New therapies are needed to address this leading cause of blindness in the increasing aged population. AREAS COVERED: This paper reviews the pathogenesis of macular degeneration, current and failed therapeutics, therapies undergoing clinical trials and a rationale for why certain AMD therapies may succeed or fail. EXPERT OPINION: VEGF-inhibitors reduce both vascular leakage and neovascularization. Experimental therapies that only address neovascularization or leakage will unlikely supplant anti-VEGF therapies. The most promising future therapies for eAMD, are those that target, more potently inhibit and have a more sustained effect on the VEGF pathway such as KSI-301, RGX-314, CLS-AX, EYEP-1901, OTX-TKI. GaAMD is a phenotype of phagocytic retinal cell loss. Inhibiting phagocytic activity of retinal microglial/macrophages at the border of geographic atrophy and reducing complement derived activators of microglial/macrophage is the most promising strategy. Complement inhibitors (Pegcetacoplan and Avacincaptad pegol) will likely obtain FDA approval but will serve to pave the way for combined complement and direct phagocytic inhibitors such as AVD-104.


Assuntos
Atrofia Geográfica , Degeneração Macular , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Inativadores do Complemento , Drogas em Investigação/uso terapêutico , Atrofia Geográfica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Degeneração Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Cíclicos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/uso terapêutico , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Immunotherapy ; 14(15): 1191-1204, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946351

RESUMO

Therapies for cold agglutinin disease have been directed at the pathogenic B-cell clone. Sutimlimab, a monoclonal antibody that targets C1s, is the first complement inhibitor to be extensively studied in cold agglutinin disease. Sutimlimab selectively blocks the classical activation pathway and leaves the alternative and lectin pathways intact. Trials have documented high response rates with rapid improvement in hemolysis, hemoglobin levels and fatigue scores and low toxicity. Sutimlimab was recently approved in the USA. This drug appears to be particularly useful in severely anemic patients who require a rapid response, in acute exacerbations that do not resolve spontaneously and in patients in whom chemoimmunotherapy is contraindicated or has failed. The choice of therapy in cold agglutinin disease should be individualized.


In cold agglutinin disease (CAD), red blood cells are destroyed by cold agglutinin, a type of antibody against the patient's own red blood cells. Previous treatments for CAD have aimed at killing the cold agglutinin-producing abnormal cells in the bone marrow. Sutimlimab, a new drug for treatment of CAD, is an artificially produced antibody that binds to a protein called C1s. This binding results in inhibition of complement, a system of active proteins that is part of the immune system and promotes red blood cell destruction in CAD. Clinical trials have shown that most patients with CAD respond well to treatment with sutimlimab, with rapid improvement in anemia and fatigue. The risk of serious side effects is very low provided the patient is vaccinated against certain types of bacteria. Sutimlimab, which is administered by intravenous infusion, was recently approved in the USA. This drug appears to be particularly useful in CAD patients with severe anemia, in those who cannot tolerate other treatment options and in those in whom other therapies have failed. The choice of treatment in CAD should be individualized.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Inativadores do Complemento/uso terapêutico , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Lectinas/uso terapêutico
19.
Immunotherapy ; 14(13): 995-1006, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35860926

RESUMO

WHAT IS THIS SUMMARY ABOUT?: This is a summary of a publication about the FILLY study, which was published in Ophthalmology in 2020. The FILLY study looked at an investigational medicine called pegcetacoplan as a possible treatment for geographic atrophy. Geographic atrophy, also known as GA, is the late stage of an eye disease called dry age-related macular degeneration, also known as dry AMD. In people with GA, lesions form on a part of the back of the eye called the retina. GA lesions are patches of thin retina. Growth of GA lesions ultimately causes blindness, which cannot be reversed. There is currently no approved treatment for GA. Pegcetacoplan, also called APL-2, could be a possible treatment for GA. Pegcetacoplan is an investigational medicine, which means it has not yet been approved. It is currently being studied in clinical studies to see how well it works. WHAT HAPPENED IN THE FILLY STUDY?: The FILLY study included participants with GA and tested how well pegcetacoplan worked compared to a sham injection (an injection that looks like the study treatment but does not have any medicine in it). The study also looked at how safe it was in adults with GA. WHAT WERE THE RESULTS?: The main questions the researchers wanted to answer were: Did pegcetacoplan slow the growth of the study participants' GA lesions? ○Yes. Overall, the researchers found that pegcetacoplan did slow the growth of the study participants' GA lesions. Did pegcetacoplan change the participants' vision? ○No. Overall, the researchers found that pegcetacoplan did not change the participants' vision. What medical problems happened after the participants received pegcetacoplan? ○The researchers kept track of any serious medical problems that happened during the study, also called serious adverse events. They also kept track of other medical problems that happened, or got worse, only at some point after the participants received the study treatment. These are called treatment emergent adverse events, also known as TEAEs. The serious adverse events and TEAEs that the participants had are described later in this summary. WHAT DO THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY MEAN?: Overall, results from this study showed that participants who received pegcetacoplan had slower growth of GA lesions than participants who received the sham injection. After the participants had stopped receiving pegcetacaoplan, the effect of the treatment seemed to be reduced. Pegcetacoplan did not change how well the participants could see during their vision tests in this trial. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT number: NCT02503332.


Assuntos
Atrofia Geográfica , Degeneração Macular , Animais , Complemento C3/uso terapêutico , Inativadores do Complemento/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Atrofia Geográfica/complicações , Atrofia Geográfica/tratamento farmacológico , Cavalos , Humanos , Idioma , Degeneração Macular/complicações , Degeneração Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Cíclicos , Acuidade Visual
20.
Ann Hematol ; 101(9): 1971-1986, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35869170

RESUMO

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, acquired hematologic disorder characterized by complement-mediated hemolysis. C5 inhibitors (eculizumab/ravulizumab) control intravascular hemolysis but do not prevent residual extravascular hemolysis. The newly approved complement inhibitor, pegcetacoplan, inhibits C3, upstream of C5, and has the potential to improve control of complement-mediated hemolysis. The PADDOCK and PALOMINO clinical trials assessed the safety and efficacy of pegcetacoplan in complement inhibitor-naïve adults (≥ 18 years) diagnosed with PNH. Patients in PADDOCK (phase 1b open-label, pilot trial) received daily subcutaneous pegcetacoplan (cohort 1: 180 mg up to day 28 [n = 3]; cohort 2: 270-360 mg up to day 365 [n = 20]). PALOMINO (phase 2a, open-label trial) used the same dosing protocol as PADDOCK cohort 2 (n = 4). Primary endpoints in both trials were mean change from baseline in hemoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin, and the number and severity of treatment-emergent adverse events. Mean baseline hemoglobin levels were below the lower limit of normal in both trials (PADDOCK: 8.38 g/dL; PALOMINO: 7.73 g/dL; normal range: 11.90-18.00 g/dL), increased to within normal range by day 85, and were sustained through day 365 (PADDOCK: 12.14 g/dL; PALOMINO: 13.00 g/dL). In PADDOCK, 3 serious adverse events (SAE) led to study drug discontinuation, 1 of which was deemed likely related to pegcetacoplan and 1 SAE, not deemed related to study drug, led to death. No SAE led to discontinuation/death in PALOMINO. Pegcetacoplan was generally well tolerated and improved hematological parameters by controlling hemolysis, while also improving other clinical PNH indicators in both trials. These trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02588833 and NCT03593200).


Assuntos
Inativadores do Complemento , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística , Peptídeos Cíclicos , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Inativadores do Complemento/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobinas , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/tratamento farmacológico , Hemólise , Humanos , Peptídeos Cíclicos/efeitos adversos
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