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1.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105253, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419664

RESUMO

Operational momentum (OM) refers to the behavioral tendency to overestimate or underestimate the results of addition or subtraction, respectively. The cognitive mechanism of the OM effect and how it is related to the development of symbolic math abilities are not well understood. The current study examined whether individual differences in the OM effect are related to symbolic arithmetic abilities, number line estimation performance, and the space-magnitude association effect in young children. In this study, first-grade elementary school children manifested the OM effect during approximate addition and subtraction. Individual differences in the OM effect were not correlated with number line estimation error. Interestingly, children who showed a greater degree of the OM effect performed not worse, but better on the symbolic arithmetic task. In addition, the OM effect was correlated with the space-magnitude association (size congruity) effect measured with the Numerical Stroop task. More specifically, the OM bias was correlated with the ability to inhibit interference from competing information on the incongruent trials of the Numerical Stroop task. Our results suggest that the inaccuracy of numerical magnitude representations is not the source of the OM effect. Given that children with better math ability showed a greater OM bias, a stronger OM effect may reflect better intuition in arithmetic operations. Altogether, we carefully interpret these findings as suggesting that a greater OM effect reflects superior intuition or fundamental knowledge of arithmetic operations and a more adult-like maturation of the reorienting component of the attentional system.


Assuntos
Atenção , Individualidade , Adulto , Viés , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Matemática , Movimento (Física)
2.
Vaccine ; 39(45): 6653-6659, 2021 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635374

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment is to assess whether priming for contamination and purity causes a change in attitudes to health interventions, including vaccination, and complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs). An online priming experiment was conducted with four between-subject experimental conditions including photos of: 1) biological contamination, 2) chemical contamination, 3) pure environments, such as pristine landscapes, and 4) hazard signs/icons indicating physical threats. Two control conditions included photos of neutral scenes and neutral icons, whereby experimental groups were compared against the related control groups (photograph for conditions 1-3 and neutral icons for condition 4). Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the six conditions, and after exposure to the images they were asked to rate 10 conventional and alternative health interventions for effectiveness and safety, as well being assessed for disgust sensitivity using the reduced-item DPSS-R [10]. A total of 642 adults completed the experiment. Exposure to primes did not cause a differential change in ratings of health interventions. Nevertheless, higher levels of sensitivity to disgust were associated with lower ratings of the effectiveness of MMR vaccination, tetanus injection, antibiotics, and surgery; and higher levels of sensitivity to disgust were associated with higher ratings of effectiveness of vitamins/minerals. In conclusion, this online experiment did not find an experimental effect of priming for contamination and purity on subjects' ratings of the safety and effectiveness of conventional and alternative health interventions. This indicates that attitudes to these health interventions are not influenced by a temporary increase in the salience of feelings of contamination or purity. However, individual differences in disgust sensitivity are related to their attitudes to vaccination and CAM interventions.


Assuntos
Atitude , Vacinação , Adulto , Humanos , Individualidade
3.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(4): 3038, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717515

RESUMO

In songbirds, song has traditionally been considered a vocalization mainly produced by males. However, recent research suggests that both sexes produce song. While the function and structure of male black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) fee-bee song have been well-studied, research on female song is comparatively limited. Past discrimination and playback studies have shown that male black-capped chickadees can discriminate between individual males via their fee-bee songs. Recently, we have shown that male and female black-capped chickadees can identify individual females via their fee-bee song even when presented with only the bee position of the song. Our results using discriminant function analyses (DFA) support that female songs are individually distinctive. We found that songs could be correctly classified to the individual (81%) and season (97%) based on several acoustic features including but not limited to bee-note duration and fee-note peak frequency. In addition, an artificial neural network was trained to identify individuals based on the selected DFA acoustic features and was able to achieve 90% accuracy by individual and 93% by season. While this study provides a quantitative description of the acoustic structure of female song, the perception and function of female song in this species requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Aves Canoras , Vocalização Animal , Acústica , Animais , Percepção Auditiva , Abelhas , Feminino , Individualidade , Masculino , Estações do Ano
4.
Eur J Neurosci ; 54(9): 7260-7273, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618375

RESUMO

The ability to flexibly manipulate memory representations is embedded in visual working memory (VWM) and can be tested using paradigms with retrospective cues. Although valid retrospective cues often facilitate memory recall, invalid ones may or may not result in performance costs. We investigated individual differences in utilising retrospective cues and evaluated how these individual differences are associated with brain oscillatory activity at rest. At the behavioural level, we operationalised flexibility as the ability to make effective use of retrospective cues or disregard them if required. At the neural level, we tested whether individual differences in such flexibility were associated with properties of resting-state alpha oscillatory activity (8-12 Hz). To capture distinct aspects of these brain oscillations, we evaluated their power spectral density and temporal dynamics using long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs). In addition, we performed multivariate patterns analysis (MVPA) to classify individuals' level of behavioural flexibility based on these neural measures. We observed that alpha power alone (magnitude) at rest was not associated with flexibility. However, we found that the participants' ability to manipulate VWM representations was correlated with alpha LRTC and could be decoded using MVPA on patterns of alpha power. Our findings suggest that alpha LRTC and multivariate patterns of alpha power at rest may underlie some of the individual differences in using retrospective cues in working memory tasks.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Memória de Curto Prazo , Encéfalo , Humanos , Individualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
J Exp Psychol Anim Learn Cogn ; 47(3): 364-370, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618534

RESUMO

Short assessments of spatial working memory (SWM) in dogs are becoming popular evaluations of canine aging and individual differences. In a typical SWM task, an experimenter hides a reward inside of a bucket at a specific stimulus position while the dog watches. Then, following a varying delay interval, the dog is released to choose a bucket. The longest delay at which the dog can successfully choose the bucket containing the reward is considered to reflect the dog's SWM duration. Although past studies were informative, the tasks often lacked a valid measure of SWM due to dogs' ability to use nonmnemonic strategies, such as body orientation or sustained attention, to successfully solve these tasks without relying on working memory mechanisms. Therefore, we designed the first study to assess the internal validity of these tasks by directly comparing dogs' performance on two experimental conditions. We found that dogs performed worse in a control condition in which nonmnemonic strategies were eliminated compared with a typical SWM task condition. In addition, our results indicate a strong relationship between the percentage of delay time that a dog spends orienting its head or body to the correct bucket and performance in a typical SWM task. These findings were the first to show a difference in SWM performance when dogs' use of nonmnemonic strategies was controlled and stress the importance of considering the internal validity of these tasks if used to examine SWM in future work. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Memória Espacial , Animais , Atenção , Cães , Individualidade , Recompensa
6.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258242, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637460

RESUMO

We examined the detailed behavioral characteristics of transfer of skill and the ability of the adaptive control of thought rational (ACT-R) architecture to account for this with its new Controller module. We employed a simple action video game called Auto Orbit and investigated the control tuning of timing skills across speed perturbations of the environment. In Auto Orbit, players needed to learn to alternate turn and shot actions to blow and burst balloons under time constraints imposed by balloon resets and deflations. Cognitive and motor skill transfer was assessed both in terms of game performance and in terms of the details of their motor actions. We found that skill transfer across speeds necessitated the recalibration of action timing skills. In addition, we found that acquiring skill in Auto Orbit involved a progressive decrease in variability of behavior. Finally, we found that players with higher skill levels tended to be less variable in terms of action chunking and action timing. These findings further shed light on the complex cognitive and motor mechanisms of skill transfer across speeds in complex task environments.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257658, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547057

RESUMO

The present study examined individual characteristics potentially associated with changes in mitigation behaviors (social distancing and hygiene) recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Analysis of online survey responses from 361 adults, ages 20-78, with US IP addresses, identified significant correlates of adaptive behavioral changes, with implications for preventive strategies and mental health needs. The extent to which individuals changed their mitigation behaviors was unrelated to self-rated health or concern regarding the personal effects of COVID-19 but was related to concern regarding the effects of the pandemic on others. Thus, mitigation behaviors do not appear to be primarily motivated by self-protection. Importantly, adaptive changes in mitigation behaviors increased with age. However, these changes, particularly those related to the frequency of close proximity encounters, appear to be due to age-related decreases in anxiety and depression. Taken together, the present results argue against over-reliance on 'fear appeals' in public health messages as they may increase anxiety and depression. Instead, the present findings argue for more appeals to people's concern for others to motivate mitigation as well as indicating an immediate need to address individual mental health concerns for the sake of society as a whole.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Individualidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(10): 3720-3733, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525309

RESUMO

Purpose Individuals vary in their ability to learn the sound categories of nonnative languages (nonnative phonetic learning) and to adapt to systematic differences, such as accent or talker differences, in the sounds of their native language (native phonetic learning). Difficulties with both native and nonnative learning are well attested in people with speech and language disorders relative to healthy controls, but substantial variability in these skills is also present in the typical population. This study examines whether this individual variability can be organized around a common ability that we label "phonetic plasticity." Method A group of healthy young adult participants (N = 80), who attested they had no history of speech, language, neurological, or hearing deficits, completed two tasks of nonnative phonetic category learning, two tasks of learning to cope with variation in their native language, and seven tasks of other cognitive functions, distributed across two sessions. Performance on these 11 tasks was compared, and exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the extent to which performance on each task was related to the others. Results Performance on both tasks of native learning and an explicit task of nonnative learning patterned together, suggesting that native and nonnative phonetic learning tasks rely on a shared underlying capacity, which is termed "phonetic plasticity." Phonetic plasticity was also associated with vocabulary, comprehension of words in background noise, and, more weakly, working memory. Conclusions Nonnative sound learning and native language speech perception may rely on shared phonetic plasticity. The results suggest that good learners of native language phonetic variation are also good learners of nonnative phonetic contrasts. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.16606778.


Assuntos
Fonética , Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Individualidade , Idioma , Ruído , Adulto Jovem
9.
Psychol Sci ; 32(10): 1617-1635, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546824

RESUMO

Humans primarily rely on language to communicate, on the basis of a shared understanding of the basic building blocks of communication: words. Do we mean the same things when we use the same words? Although cognitive neural research on semantics has revealed the common principles of word-meaning representation, the factors underlying the potential individual variations in word meanings are unknown. Here, we empirically characterized the intersubject consistency of 90 words across 20 adult subjects (10 female) using both behavioral measures (rating-based semantic-relationship patterns) and neuroimaging measures (word-evoked brain activity patterns). Across both the behavioral and neuroimaging experiments, we showed that the magnitude of individual disagreements on word meanings could be modeled on the basis of how much language or sensory experience is associated with a word and that this variation increases with word abstractness. Uncovering the cognitive and neural origins of word-meaning disagreements across individuals has implications for potential mechanisms to modulate such disagreements.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Semântica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma
10.
Psychol Sci ; 32(10): 1592-1604, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550820

RESUMO

What drives people's perceptions of novel risks, and how malleable are such risk perceptions? Psychological research has identified multiple potential drivers of risk perception, but no studies have yet tested within a unified analytic framework how well each of these drivers accounts for individual differences in large population samples. To provide such a framework, I harnessed the deployment of 5G-the latest generation of cellular network technology. Specifically, I conducted a multiverse analysis using a representative population sample in Switzerland (Study 1; N = 2,919 individuals between 15 and 94 years old), finding that interindividual differences in risk perceptions were strongly associated with hazard-related drivers (e.g., trust in the institutions regulating 5G, dread) and person-specific drivers (e.g., electromagnetic hypersensitivity)-and strongly predictive of people's policy-related attitudes (e.g., voting intentions). Further, a field experiment based on a national expert report on 5G (N = 839 individuals in a longitudinal sample between 17 and 79 years old) identified links between intraindividual changes in psychological drivers and perceived risk, thus highlighting potential targets for future policy interventions.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Intenção , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Confiança , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5713, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588439

RESUMO

Large, openly available datasets and current analytic tools promise the emergence of population neuroscience. The considerable diversity in personality traits and behaviour between individuals is reflected in the statistical variability of neural data collected in such repositories. Recent studies with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have concluded that patterns of resting-state functional connectivity can both successfully distinguish individual participants within a cohort and predict some individual traits, yielding the notion of an individual's neural fingerprint. Here, we aim to clarify the neurophysiological foundations of individual differentiation from features of the rich and complex dynamics of resting-state brain activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 158 participants. We show that akin to fMRI approaches, neurophysiological functional connectomes enable the differentiation of individuals, with rates similar to those seen with fMRI. We also show that individual differentiation is equally successful from simpler measures of the spatial distribution of neurophysiological spectral signal power. Our data further indicate that differentiation can be achieved from brain recordings as short as 30 seconds, and that it is robust over time: the neural fingerprint is present in recordings performed weeks after their baseline reference data was collected. This work, thus, extends the notion of a neural or brain fingerprint to fast and large-scale resting-state electrophysiological dynamics.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Individualidade , Magnetoencefalografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neurofisiologia/métodos , Descanso/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Artefatos , Conectoma , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 220: 103422, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592586

RESUMO

Individuals vary in emotion recognition ability (ERA), but the causes and correlates of this variability are not well understood. Previous studies have largely focused on unimodal facial or vocal expressions and a small number of emotion categories, which may not reflect how emotions are expressed in everyday interactions. We investigated individual differences in ERA using a brief test containing dynamic multimodal (facial and vocal) expressions of 5 positive and 7 negative emotions (the ERAM test). Study 1 (N = 593) showed that ERA was positively correlated with emotional understanding, empathy, and openness, and negatively correlated with alexithymia. Women also had higher ERA than men. Study 2 was conducted online and replicated the recognition rates from Study 1 (which was conducted in lab) in a different sample (N = 106). Study 2 also showed that participants who had higher ERA were more accurate in their meta-cognitive judgments about their own accuracy. Recognition rates for visual, auditory, and audio-visual expressions were substantially correlated in both studies. Results provide further clues about the underlying structure of ERA and its links to broader affective processes. The ERAM test can be used for both lab and online research, and is freely available for academic research.


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Individualidade , Sintomas Afetivos , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Psicológico
13.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(2): 1076, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470293

RESUMO

This study aimed at predicting individual differences in speech reception thresholds (SRTs) in the presence of symmetrically placed competing talkers for young listeners with sensorineural hearing loss. An existing binaural model incorporating the individual audiogram was revised to handle severe hearing losses by (a) taking as input the target speech level at SRT in a given condition and (b) introducing a floor in the model to limit extreme negative better-ear signal-to-noise ratios. The floor value was first set using SRTs measured with stationary and modulated noises. The model was then used to account for individual variations in SRTs found in two previously published data sets that used speech maskers. The model accounted well for the variation in SRTs across listeners with hearing loss, based solely on differences in audibility. When considering listeners with normal hearing, the model could predict the best SRTs, but not the poorer SRTs, suggesting that other factors limit performance when audibility (as measured with the audiogram) is not compromised.


Assuntos
Inteligibilidade da Fala , Percepção da Fala , Limiar Auditivo , Individualidade , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Teste do Limiar de Recepção da Fala
14.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256210, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559807

RESUMO

Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) is thought to lead to maladaptive behaviours and dysfunctional decision making, both in the clinical and healthy population. The seminal study reported by Luhmann and collaborators in 2011 [1] showed that IU was negatively associated with choosing a delayed, but more probable and valuable, reward over choosing an immediate, but less probable and valuable, reward. These findings have been widely disseminated across the field of personality and individual differences because of their relevance for the understanding of the role of IU in the development and maintenance of anxiety-related disorders. Given their importance it would be desirable to have replications of this study, but none have been carried out so far. The current study has been designed to replicate and extend Luhmann et al.'s results. Our sample will include 266 healthy participants (more than five times the sample size used by Luhmann et al.) to detect with a power of 95% the effect size that can be detected with a power of 33% in the original study. To increase our chances of getting such a sample size, the experiment will be conducted online, To increase our chances of getting such a sample size, the experiment will be conducted online, adding check trials to the original decision-making task to monitor participants' engagement. Additionally, we will explore the role of impulsivity in the relationship between IU and willingness to wait. This study will add empirical evidence about the role of IU in decision making and, in case of replication of Luhmann et al.'s results, will support the hypothesis that high-IU individuals may engage in inefficient or costly behaviour in exchange for less time enduring an uncertain situation.


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica , Ansiedade/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor , Recompensa , Incerteza , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Personalidade , Assunção de Riscos
15.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256987, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506528

RESUMO

The temporal binding window refers to the time frame within which temporal grouping of sensory information takes place. Sense of agency is the feeling of being in control of one's actions, and their associated outcomes. While previous research has shown that temporal cues and multisensory integration play a role in sense of agency, no studies have directly assessed whether individual differences in the temporal binding window and sense of agency are associated. In all three experiments, to assess sense of agency, participants pressed a button triggering, after a varying delay, the appearance of the circle, and reported their sense of agency over the effect. To assess the temporal binding window a simultaneity judgment task (Experiment 1) and a double-flash illusion task (Experiment 2 and 3) was also performed. As expected, the temporal binding window correlated with the sense of agency window. In Experiment 3, these processes were modulated by applying occipital tACS at either 14Hz or 8Hz. We found 14Hz tACS stimulation was associated with narrower temporal biding window and sense of agency window. Our results suggest the temporal binding window and the time window of sense of agency are related. They also point towards a possible underlying neural mechanism (alpha peak frequency) for this association.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Julgamento , Desempenho Psicomotor , Percepção do Tempo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Ilusões , Individualidade , Intenção , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257864, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559841

RESUMO

The present research examined how individuals' thinking style (holistic vs. analytic) is associated with the way they deal with contradictory information and whether experiencing mixed emotions can mediate this relationship. Participants first completed the thinking style measure and then were exposed to two contradictory pieces of information (Studies 1 and 2). In study 2, we also measured the experience of mixed emotions to test the mediating role of this variable. Across two studies, we found that individuals with a holistic thinking style were more able to reconcile contradictory information compared to individuals with an analytic thinking style. Study 2 showed that the relationship between thinking style and dealing with contradiction was mediated by the experience of mixed emotions. This research extends previous findings on confrontation of contradiction and mixed emotions by using an individual-differences rather than a cultural-differences approach, and establishes mixed emotions as a plausible mediating variable.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Comparação Transcultural , Características Culturais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Behav Addict ; 10(3): 611-625, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432645

RESUMO

Online gaming has become an essential form of entertainment with the advent of technology and a large sway of research has been undertaken to understand its various permutations. Previous reviews have identified associations between the Big Five personality traits and online gaming, but a systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between these constructs has yet to be undertaken. In the current study we aimed to fill this gap in the literature through a systematic review and meta-analysis comprising of 17 studies and 25,634 individuals (AgeMean = 26.55, males = 75%). The findings showed that agreeableness, extraversion, openness to experience, and neuroticism were not ubiquitously associated with online gaming. The findings showed that only conscientiousness, across samples, had a protective role in online gaming. Furthermore, there were non-significant variations in the Big Five personality traits associations with online gaming when comparing gamers to the general population, younger versus older participants, casual versus 'hardcore' gamers, and high versus low traits (with the exception of neuroticism). As a result of our observations, the underlying mechanisms of individual differences in online gaming remain unclear. Limitations and future directions for research are discussed.


Assuntos
Jogos de Vídeo , Extroversão Psicológica , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Neuroticismo , Personalidade
18.
Cognition ; 217: 104866, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450394

RESUMO

The dual strategy model posits that reasoners rely on two information processing strategies when making inferences: The statistical strategy generates a rapid probabilistic estimate based on associative access to a wide array of information, and the counterexample strategy uses a more focused representation allowing for a search for potential counterexamples. In this paper, we focused on individual differences in strategy use as a predictor of performance on four reasoning tasks: Belief bias, base rate neglect, conjunction fallacy, and denominator neglect. Predictions from the strategy use model were contrasted with predictions from Dual Process Theories, which suggest that individual differences in performance reflect variations in cognitive ability. In each of four studies, a large number (N ≈ 200) completed one of the above reasoning tasks, a strategy use diagnostic questionnaire, and measures of IQ, cognitive reflection, and numeracy. In three of four studies, individual differences in strategy use predicted differences in reasoning performance when the effects of the other variables were eliminated. Bayesian analysis indicated that none of the individual differences measures predicted a significant portion of variance on the conjunction fallacy task, and that strategy use was a strong predictor on the remaining three tasks. This research suggests that the type of strategy that is adopted paves a road to successful reasoning that is independent of cognitive capacity.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Pensamento , Teorema de Bayes , Cognição , Humanos , Resolução de Problemas
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(11): 11509-11521, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364637

RESUMO

Both sheep and goats can display very different individual degrees of milk fat depression (MFD), which might explain some apparent contradictions in the literature. Because the antilipogenic effect of certain fatty acids (FA) is the most likely origin of MFD, characterizing the milk FA profile of animals showing different degrees of MFD seems a helpful step to understand the physiological basis of the tolerance or susceptibility to the syndrome. Analyzing whether specific traits may predetermine a particular responsiveness would also be of relevance to meet this aim. However, information about these aspects is scant, not only in goats and sheep but in ruminants in general. This study was conducted with 25 Murciano-Granadina does and 23 Assaf ewes that were fed a total mixed ration without lipid supplementation for 3 wk (control period). Then, all animals received the same basal diet supplemented with 2% of fish oil (FO) for 5 additional weeks (MFD period). At the end of this second period, and on the basis of the extent of FO-induced decreases in milk fat concentration, the 5 most responsive (RESPON+) and the 5 least responsive (RESPON-) animals were selected within each species, 20 in total. Milk yield and composition, including a comprehensive FA profile, were examined at the end of each period. By design, between-group variation in milk fat concentration and yield was substantial, but no significant interaction with the effect of species was detected. Reductions in these 2 performance traits averaged 6% in RESPON- and 26% in RESPON+. Results do not allow suggesting that responsiveness to MFD would be clearly predetermined neither by the studied performance traits nor by milk FA profile, although a certain relationship with energy balance might exist. Furthermore, variations in ewes and does displaying different individual degrees of MFD may be associated with changes in certain candidate milk fat inhibitors, such as trans-10 18:1 and cis-9 16:1, whereas trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid would only have a minor role in determining MFD severity. Alterations in the molar yield of de novo and preformed FA suggest relevant differences in the mechanisms underlying MFD in RESPON+ and RESPON-, with interspecies effects being observed only in more tolerant animals. Further research is still required to elucidate key determinants of responsiveness to MFD.


Assuntos
Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados , Leite , Animais , Depressão , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Cabras , Individualidade , Lactação , Ovinos
20.
Brain Lang ; 221: 105007, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416539

RESUMO

The aims of the present ERP study were twofold. First, to determine whether a previous study on creative cognition could be replicated, and second, to extend these findings by examining individual differences in creativity. Conceptual expansion, a capacity that is central to creativity, was induced via the processing of novel metaphors. Brain activity patterns in relation to these were compared to the processing of literal and nonsense phrases. The previous findings were replicated in that the N400, known for its sensitivity to semantic anomalies, indexed the originality of the phrases, while a post-N400 late component (LC), which is linked to semantic integration processes, indexed the appropriateness of the phrases. Moreover, only the LC was significantly sensitive to individual differences in creativity in the processing of these phrases. Differences at the level of semantic integration processes as well as the structure of knowledge organization are thereby implicated in individual differences in creativity.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Metáfora , Criatividade , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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