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1.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(2): 726-731, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130418

RESUMO

Complete medical examinations were performed on 25 wild golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli) from northeastern Madagascar. Each animal received a complete physical examination and weight, body temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate were documented. Blood samples were collected for packed cell volume, estimated total white blood cell count, serum biochemical profile, fat-soluble vitamin analysis, trace mineral analysis, and Toxoplasma gondii serology. All animals examined were adults and determined to be in good health and body condition. No ectoparasites were observed. Fecal samples were collected for endoparasite examination and bacterial culture; while no endoparasites were observed, fecal samples from two females cultured positive for Bacillus cereus. One male lemur had a positive antibody titer to Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G. These baseline health data provide an important foundation for continued monitoring of this critically endangered species.


Assuntos
Indriidae/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Feminino , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Masculino , Exame Físico/veterinária , Toxoplasmose Animal/sangue , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
2.
Anim Cogn ; 24(4): 897-906, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683508

RESUMO

Vocal and gestural sequences of several primates have been found to conform to two general principles of information compression: the compensation between the duration of a construct and that of its components (Menzerath-Altmann law) and an inverse relationship between signal duration and its occurrence (Zipf's law of abbreviation). Even though Zipf's law of brevity has been proposed as a universal in animal communication, evidence on non-human primate vocal behavior conformity to linguistic laws is still debated, and information on strepsirrhine primates is lacking. We analyzed the vocal behavior of the unique singing lemur species (Indri indri) to assess whether the song of the species shows evidence for compression. As roars have a chaotic structure that impedes the recognition of each individual utterance, and long notes are usually given by males, we focused on the core part of the song (i.e., the descending phrases, composed of two-six units). Our results indicate that indris' songs conform to Zipf's and Menzerath-Altmann linguistic laws. Indeed, shorter phrases are more likely to be included in the song, and units' duration decrease at the increase of the size of the phrases. We also found that, despite a sexual dimorphism in the duration of both units and phrases, these laws characterize sequences of both males and females. Overall, we provide the first evidence for a trade-off between signal duration and occurrence in the vocal behavior of a strepsirrhine species, suggesting that selective pressures for vocal compression are more ancestral than previously assumed within primates.


Assuntos
Indriidae , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Feminino , Linguística , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Vocalização Animal
3.
Am J Primatol ; 83(3): e23239, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544402

RESUMO

Tannins, a type of plant secondary metabolite, are well-known for their ability to precipitate proteins and thereby reduce the protein available to consumers. Most primate studies have focused on condensed tannins (CTs) as they were thought to be the most effective type of tannin at preventing protein acquisition, but there is growing recognition that other types of tannins can bind to proteins, suggesting the division among tannin types is not as clear-cut as previously thought. Although previous studies have documented the presence of CTs in primate diets and primates' behavioral responses to them, our understanding of tannins remains limited because few researchers have used Sephadex column purification to accurately determine tannin concentrations, and few have used in vitro assays to determine available protein content and the tannins' effectiveness in binding protein. In this study, we documented diademed sifaka (Propithecus diadema) diet from June to August 2018 at Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar (in two forests with varying degrees of habitat disturbance) and quantified CT concentration and actual available protein in foods. Eleven of the fourteen top foods tested contained CTs (concentrations: 4.8%-39.3% dry matter). An in vitro assay showed available protein was strikingly low in six of the eleven top foods (e.g., little to no apparent available protein, despite high crude protein). Overall, our findings suggest sifakas acquire less protein than previously recognized and probably have adaptations to counteract tannins. Such studies of available protein are critical in understanding dietary constraints on sifaka populations and the evolution of their diet choice strategies; despite the conventional wisdom that leaves are protein-rich, folivorous primates may indeed be protein-limited. However, further studies are necessary to determine if sifakas have counter-adaptations to tannins, and if they absorb more protein than our analyses suggest, perhaps receiving protein that we were unable to detect with the current techniques (e.g., pollen).


Assuntos
Indriidae , Proantocianidinas , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Taninos
4.
Microb Ecol ; 82(1): 215-223, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471174

RESUMO

Here, we investigated the possible linkages among geophagy, soil characteristics, and gut mycobiome of indri (Indri indri), an endangered lemur species able to survive only in wild conditions. The soil eaten by indri resulted in enriched secondary oxide-hydroxides and clays, together with a high concentration of specific essential micronutrients. This could partially explain the role of the soil in detoxification and as a nutrient supply. Besides, we found that soil subject to geophagy and indris' faeces shared about 8.9% of the fungal OTUs. Also, several genera (e.g. Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium) commonly associated with soil and plant material were found in both geophagic soil and indri samples. On the contrary, some taxa with pathogenic potentials, such as Cryptococcus, were only found in indri samples. Further, many saprotrophs and plant-associated fungal taxa were detected in the indri faeces. These fungal species may be involved in the digestion processes of leaves and could have a beneficial role in their health. In conclusion, we found an intimate connection between gut mycobiome and soil, highlighting, once again, the potential consequent impacts on the wider habitat.


Assuntos
Indriidae , Lemur , Micobioma , Animais , Ecossistema , Pica , Microbiologia do Solo
5.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 125(5): 328-339, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792649

RESUMO

Many species are structured in social groups (SGs) where individuals exhibit complex mating strategies. Yet, most population genetic studies ignore SGs either treating them as small random-mating units or focusing on a higher hierarchical level (the population). Empirical studies acknowledging SGs have found an overall excess of heterozygotes within SGs and usually invoke inbreeding avoidance strategies to explain this finding. However, there is a lack of null models against which ecological theories can be tested and inbreeding avoidance quantified. Here, we investigate inbreeding (deviation from random mating) in an endangered forest-dwelling pair-living lemur species (Propithecus tattersalli). In particular, we measure the inbreeding coefficient (FIS) in empirical data at different scales: SGs, sampling sites and forest patches. We observe high excess of heterozygotes within SGs. The magnitude of this excess is highly dependent on the sampling scheme: while offspring are characterised by a high excess of heterozygotes (FIS < 0), the reproductive pair does not show dramatic departures from Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Moreover, the heterozygosity excess disappears at larger geographic scales (sites and forests). We use a modelling framework that incorporates details of the sifaka mating system but does not include active inbreeding avoidance mechanisms. The simulated data show that, although apparent "random mating" or even inbreeding may occur at the "population" level, outbreeding is maintained within SGs. Altogether our results suggest that social structure leads to high levels of outbreeding without the need for active inbreeding avoidance mechanisms. Thus, demonstrating and measuring the existence of active inbreeding avoidance mechanisms may be more difficult than usually assumed.


Assuntos
Hierarquia Social , Endogamia , Indriidae , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Indriidae/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Reprodução
6.
Primates ; 61(4): 575-581, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424537

RESUMO

Infanticide has been observed across many primate taxa, but the extent of its occurrence is not fully understood due to difficulty in observation and uneven reporting. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain why infanticide occurs in primates and whether it benefits some individuals within a social group. Here we report on a case of infanticide, followed by partial consumption of the infant, in a population of Coquerel's sifaka (Propithecus coquereli) at Mariarano, Northwest Madagascar. We witnessed an adult male sifaka kill and consume part of an infant, a member of his own social group, as well as the mother's reaction to the infanticide. Following the infanticide, the mother of the deceased infant left the social group after repeated agonistic encounters with the other group members. We evaluate how this event relates to the predictions of four common hypotheses. Further research on Coquerel's sifaka is needed to determine the frequency of infanticide in this species, and in lemurs more generally, because infanticide is currently poorly understood in this taxon.


Assuntos
Agressão , Canibalismo , Indriidae , Mortalidade , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Madagáscar , Masculino
7.
Am J Primatol ; 82(6): e23132, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277718

RESUMO

Animal acoustic communication often takes the form of complex sequences, composed of multiple distinct acoustic units, which can vary in their degree of stereotypy. Studies of sequence variation may contribute to our understanding of the structural flexibility of primates' songs, which can provide essential ecological and behavioral information about variability at the individual, population, and specific level and provide insights into the mechanisms and drivers responsible for the evolutionary change of communicative traits. Several methods have been used for investigating different levels of structural information and sequence similarity in acoustic displays. We studied intra and interindividual variation in the song structuring of a singing primate, the indri (Indri indri), which inhabits the montane rain forests of Madagascar. Indri groups emit duets and choruses in which they combine long notes, short single units, and phrases consisting of a variable number of units (from two to six) with slightly descending frequency. Males' and females' contributions to the song differ in the temporal and frequency structure of song units and repertoire size. We calculated the similarity of phrase organization across different individual contributions using the Levenshtein distance, a logic distance that expressed the minimum cost to convert a sequence into another and can measure differences between two sequences of data. We then analyzed the degree of similarity within and between individuals and found that: (a) the phrase structure of songs varied between reproductive males and females: female structuring of the song showed a higher number of phrases if compared to males; (b) male contributions to the song were overall more similar to those of other males than were female contributions to the song of other females; (c) male contributions were more stereotyped than female contributions, which showed greater individual flexibility. The picture emerging from phrase combinatorics in the indris is in agreement with previous findings of rhythmic features and song repertoire size of the indris, which also suggested that female songs are potentially less stereotyped than those of males.


Assuntos
Indriidae/fisiologia , Comportamento Estereotipado , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Feminino , Madagáscar , Masculino
8.
Horm Behav ; 124: 104760, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330550

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids have wide-ranging effects on animals' behaviour, but many of these effects remain poorly understood because numerous confounding factors have often been neglected in previous studies. Here, we present data from a 2-year study of 7 groups of wild Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi), in which we examined concentrations of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCMs, n = 2350 samples) simultaneously in relation to ambient temperatures, food intake, rank, reproduction, adult sex ratios, social interactions, vigilance and self-scratching. Multi-variate analyses revealed that fGCM concentrations were positively correlated with increases in daily temperature fluctuations and tended to decrease with increasing fruit intake. fGCM concentrations increased when males were sexually mature and began to disperse, and dominant males had higher fGCM concentrations than subordinate males. In contrast to males, older females showed a non-significant trend to have lower fGCM levels, potentially reflecting differences in male and female life-history strategies. Reproducing females had the highest fGCM concentrations during late gestation and had higher fGCM levels than non-reproducing females, except during early lactation. Variation in fGCM concentrations was not associated with variation in social interactions, adult sex ratios, vigilance and self-scratching. Altogether, we show that measures of glucocorticoid output constitute appropriate tools for studying energetic burdens of ecological and reproductive challenges. However, they seem to be insufficient indicators for immediate endocrinological responses to social and nonsocial behaviours that are not directly linked to energy metabolism.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Indriidae/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Dominação-Subordinação , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/análise , Indriidae/metabolismo , Masculino , Gravidez , Reprodução/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Comportamento Social
9.
Am J Primatol ; 82(4): e23104, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011761

RESUMO

Primates worldwide are faced with increasing threats making them more vulnerable to extinction. Anthropogenic disturbances, such as habitat degradation and fragmentation, are among the main concerns, and in Madagascar, these issues have become widespread. As this situation continues to worsen, we sought to understand how fragmentation affects primate distribution throughout the island. Further, because species may exhibit different sensitivity to fragmentation, we also aimed to estimate the role of functional traits in mitigating their response. We collated data from 32 large-bodied lemur species ranges, consisting of species from the families Lemuridae (five genera) and Indriidae (two genera). We fitted Generalized Linear Models to determine the role of habitat fragmentation characteristics, for example, forest cover, patch size, edge density, and landscape configuration, as well as the protected area (PA) network, on the species relative probability of presence. We then assessed how the influence of functional traits (dietary guild, home range size) mitigate the response of species to these habitat metrics. Habitat area had a strong positive effect for many species, and there were significantly negative effects of fragmentation on the distribution of many lemur species. In addition, there was a positive influence of PAs on many lemur species' distribution. Functional trait classifications showed that lemurs of all dietary guilds are negatively affected by fragmentation; however, folivore-frugivores show greater flexibility/variability in terms of habitat area and landscape complexity compared to nearly exclusive folivores and frugivores. Furthermore, species of all home range sizes showed a negative response to fragmentation, while habitat area had an increasingly positive effect as home range increased in size. Overall, the general trends for the majority of lemur species are dire and point to the need for immediate actions on a multitude of fronts, most importantly landscape-level reforestation efforts.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Indriidae , Lemuridae , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Dieta , Florestas , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Madagáscar
10.
Am J Primatol ; 82(11): e23103, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994758

RESUMO

Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone that plays a principal role in metabolic function and stress responses in wild primates. Stressors are ubiquitous in environments and elicit a variety of physiological and behavioral responses. While stress responses are adaptive in the short-term, they can have negative effects when experienced over longer durations. As a physiological stressor, the process of lactation is an energetically expensive activity for mammals. Milk production increases water loss and increased hydration demands are amplified in mammalian species inhabiting xeric habitats, including lemur species living in northwestern Madagascar-the region for this research work. Here, sifakas give birth during the dry season (May-October) and wean infants during the subsequent wet season (November-April). The author collected fecal samples during the 24 weeks following infant births in 10 groups of Coquerel's sifaka in Ankarafantsika Park, Madagascar. The author analyzed the samples by comparing the first 12-week time block to the second 12-week time block, which corresponded to the dry and the beginning of the wet seasons, respectively. Analyses were based on 375 samples collected over two birth seasons (2010 and 2011). A linear mixed model determined the relationships between reproductive class and temporal cortisol variation. The three reproductive classes had significantly different cortisol concentrations. Lactating females had lower cortisol than adult males and nonlactating females in all weeks postnatal. Males had significantly higher cortisol in weeks 13-24 relative to weeks 1-12. Examining seasonal changes in cortisol concentrations demonstrates how lemurs respond physiologically to the energetic constraints of lactation during the critical life history stage of infant development.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona/análise , Indriidae/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Animais , Fezes/química , Feminino , Madagáscar , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Estresse Fisiológico
11.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 303(2): 250-264, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548126

RESUMO

Functional studies of skeletal anatomy are predicated on the fundamental assumption that form will follow function. For instance, previous studies have shown that the femora of specialized leaping primates are more robust than those of more generalized primate quadrupeds. Are such differences solely a plastic response to differential loading patterns during postnatal life, or might they also reflect more canalized developmental mechanisms present at birth? Here, we show that perinatal Lemur catta, an arboreal/terrestrial quadruped, have less robust femora than perinatal Propithecus coquereli, a closely related species specialized for vertical clinging and leaping (a highly unusual locomotor mode in which the hindlimbs are used to launch the animal between vertical tree trunks). These results suggest that functional differences in long bone cross-sectional dimensions are manifest at birth, belying simple interpretations of adult postcranial form as a direct record of loading patterns during postnatal life. Despite these significant differences in bone robusticity, we find that hindlimb bone mineralization, material properties, and measures of whole-bone strength generally overlap in perinatal L. catta and P. coquereli, indicating little differentiation in postcranial maturity at birth despite known differences in the pace of craniodental development between the species. In a broader perspective, our results likely reflect evolution acting during prenatal ontogeny. Even though primates are notable for relatively prolonged gestation and postnatal parental care, neonates are not buffered from selection, perhaps especially in the unpredictable and volatile environment of Madagascar. Anat Rec, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 303:250-264, 2020. © 2018 American Association for Anatomy.


Assuntos
Fêmur/anatomia & histologia , Indriidae/anatomia & histologia , Lemur/anatomia & histologia , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Animais , Fêmur/fisiologia , Indriidae/fisiologia , Lemur/fisiologia
12.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 91(4): 385-398, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694022

RESUMO

Rarely observed in mammals, female dominance is documented in several of Madagascar's lemurs. Although dominance affects many aspects of primates' lives, studies have largely focused on dyadic agonistic interactions to characterise relationships. We explored the power structure of three diademed sifaka groups (Propithecus diadema) at Tsinjoarivo during the lean season (July-August, 325 h) using social behaviours, group leadership, displacements and feeding outcomes. Two groups had a hierarchy dominated by the breeding female, while the highest rank was held by the breeding male in the third; in dyadic interactions, breeding females dominated males in all groups. Inconsistencies in hierarchies suggest that groups vary, with rank related to kinship ties of breeders. Aggression and grooming were rare; adult females received aggression at lower frequencies than males. Group movements were led more by females and followed more by males, and female feeding priority was evident in displacements during feeding. However, males and females did not differ in feeding outcomes, as expected (particularly in the lean season) if female dominance (and/or male deference) serves to ensure better access for females. This unexpected pattern (female dominance despite rare aggression, clear female leadership and displacement, yet no observable benefit in grooming or feeding outcomes) defies easy explanation, and reinforces the fact that studies examining female power in lemurs should take a multifaceted approach. Further study is needed to understand this pattern, the physiological and reproductive consequences of female dominance (e.g. detecting subtler variation in food quality or intake rates) and exactly how (and when) the benefits of female dominance are manifested.


Assuntos
Indriidae/psicologia , Predomínio Social , Animais , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Madagáscar , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
13.
Brain Behav Evol ; 95(1): 1-14, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821998

RESUMO

The activity of mammal jaw elevator muscles during chewing has often been described using the concept of the triplet motor pattern, in which triplet I (balancing side superficial masseter and medial pterygoid; working side posterior temporalis) is consistently activated before triplet II (working side superficial masseter and medial pterygoid; balancing side posterior temporalis), and each triplet of muscles is recruited and modulated as a unit. Here, new measures of unison, synchrony, and coordination are used to determine whether in 5 primate species (Propithecus verreauxi, Eulemur fulvus, Papio anubis, Macaca fuscata,and Pan troglodytes)muscles in the same triplet are active more in unison, are more synchronized, and are more highly coordinated than muscles in different triplets. Results show that triplet I muscle pairs are active more in unison than other muscle pairs in Eulemur, Macaca, and Papio,buttriplet muscle pairs are mostly not more tightly synchronized than non-triplet pairs. Triplet muscles are more coordinated during triplet pattern cycles than non-triplet cycles, while non-triplet muscle pairs are more coordinated during non-triplet cycles than triplet cycles. These results suggest that the central nervous system alters patterns of coordination between cycles, recruiting triplet muscles as a coordinated unit during triplet cycles but employing a different pattern of muscle coordination during non-triplet cycles. The triplet motor pattern may simplify modulation of rhythmic mastication by being one possible unit of coordination that can be recruited on a cycle-to-cycle basis.


Assuntos
Músculo Masseter/fisiologia , Mastigação/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Primatas/fisiologia , Músculos Pterigoides/fisiologia , Músculo Temporal/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Indriidae , Lemuridae , Macaca fuscata , Pan troglodytes , Papio anubis , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Primates ; 60(5): 467-475, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456082

RESUMO

Sleep is a critically important dimension of primate behavior, ecology, and evolution, yet primate sleep is under-studied because current methods of analyzing sleep are expensive, invasive, and time-consuming. In contrast to electroencephalography (EEG) and actigraphy, videography is a cost-effective and non-invasive method to study sleep architecture in animals. With video data, however, it is challenging to score subtle changes that occur in different sleep states, and technology has lagged behind innovations in EEG and actigraphy. Here, we applied Eulerian videography to magnify pixels relevant to scoring sleep from video, and then compared these results to analyses based on actigraphy and standard infrared videography. We studied four species of lemurs (Eulemur coronatus, Lemur catta, Propithecus coquereli, Varecia rubra) for 12-h periods per night, resulting in 6480 1-min epochs for analysis. Cramer's V correlation between actigraphy-classified sleep and infrared videography-classified sleep revealed consistent results in eight of the nine 12-h videos scored. A sample of the infrared videography was then processed by Eulerian videography for movement magnification and re-coded. A second Cramer's V correlation analysis, between two independent scorers coding the same Eulerian-processed video, found that interobserver agreement among Eulerian videography increased sleep vs. awake, NREM, and REM classifications by 7.1%, 46.7%, and 34.3%, respectively. Furthermore, Eulerian videography was more strongly correlated with actigraphy data when compared to results from standard infrared videography. The increase in agreement between the two scorers indicates that Eulerian videography has the potential to improve the identification of sleep states in lemurs and other primates, and thus to expand our understanding of sleep architecture without the need for EEG.


Assuntos
Sono , Strepsirhini/fisiologia , Gravação em Vídeo/instrumentação , Animais , Indriidae , Lemur/fisiologia , Lemuridae/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8776, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217457

RESUMO

Anthropogenic habitat change can have varied impacts on primates, including both negative and positive outcomes. Even when behavioural shifts are seen, they may reflect decreased health, or simply behavioural flexibility; understanding this distinction is important for conservation efforts. This study examines habitat-related variation in adult and immature morphometrics among diademed sifakas (Propithecus diadema). We collected morphometric data from sifakas at Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar (19 years, 188 captures, 113 individuals). Captures spanned 12 groups, five within continuous forest ("CONT"), and seven in degraded fragments ("FRAG") where sifakas have lower nutritional intakes. Few consistent differences were found between CONT and FRAG groups. However, using home range quality as a covariate rather than a CONT/FRAG dichotomy revealed a threshold: the two FRAG groups in the lowest-quality habitat showed low adult mass and condition (wasting), and low immature mass and length (stunting). Though less-disturbed fragments apparently provide viable habitat, we suggest the sifakas in the most challenging habitats cannot evolve fast enough to keep up with such rapid habitat change. We suggest other long-lived organisms will show similar morphometric "warning signs" (wasting in adults, stunting in immatures); selected morphometric variables can thus be useful at gauging vulnerability of populations in the face of anthropogenic change.


Assuntos
Indriidae , Floresta Úmida , Animais , Feminino , Indriidae/anatomia & histologia , Indriidae/fisiologia , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional
16.
Am J Primatol ; 81(6): e22993, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180154

RESUMO

Monogamy is a rare strategy among mammals but relatively common among primates. The study of the evolution of monogamy in mammals and primates is lacking empirical studies that assess the relationship between a pair-living social organization and genetic monogamy. Sexual or genetic monogamy can only be assessed by performing molecular analyses and investigating rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP). Studying the occurrence of EPP can provide valuable insights into reproductive strategies and their adaptive value. The indri is a pair-living primate that lives in stable groups. Their social units are composed of the reproductive pair and up to four more individuals, but extra-pair copulation (EPC) can occur. This raises the question of whether this event may or may not lead to EPP. Here, we investigated whether a pair-living social organization corresponds to genetic monogamy in indris (Indri indri). We analyzed the paternity of 12 offspring from seven pairs using a set of six microsatellite loci on fecal samples (mean number of alleles 11.7 ± 1.8 (mean ± standard deviation). We found that in 92% of cases the genetic profile of the offspring matched the paired male of the group for all the loci considered. In the only case of paternity mismatch, the paternity assignment remained inconclusive. Our results show that I. indri genetic monogamy is the norm and supports the hypothesis that pair-living social organization is associated with low EPP rate. Also, our results are in contrast with the hypothesis of infertility as a reason to engage in EPC for this species.


Assuntos
Indriidae/fisiologia , Ligação do Par , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Fezes , Feminino , Indriidae/genética , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Comportamento Social
17.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 169(4): 599-607, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211415

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Unidirectional dominance-related signals can be used to communicate submission (an immediate behavioral response) or subordination (the status of an established relationship). Subordination signals are defined as emitted during peaceful interactions and are hypothesized to be critical for the evolution of social complexity and robust power structures because they reduce uncertainty in social relationships. The chatter vocalization in Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) is a unidirectional submissive signal. I tested the hypothesis that chatter vocalizations can signal subordination and thereby reduce agonism in a dyad. MATERIALS AND METHODS: I examined 780 chatters from 18 dyads collected over 881 observation hours on four groups of sifaka in Kirindy Forest, Madagascar. RESULTS: Sifaka emitted 63% of chatters in the peaceful context. Peaceful chatters significantly predicted grooming rate, fighting rate, reconciliation, and proportion of wins in a dyad but did not predict time in proximity. Dyad-type significantly predicted the frequency of peaceful chatters, with intrasexual dyads exhibiting chatters in peaceful contexts more often than intersexual dyads. DISCUSSION: Sifaka communicate both submission and subordination with chatter vocalizations. Subordination signaling increased tolerance and affiliation. It reduced conflicts and the probability dominant individuals usurped resources. Moreover, intrasexual power may be more institutionalized than intersexual power in sifaka. The finding of complex and cognitively demanding social communication in a lemur with low levels of cooperation (1) challenges previous assumptions that the evolution of social complexity is dependent on frequent triadic interactions and high levels of cooperation, and (2) highlights the need for taxonomic diversity in studies of social complexity.


Assuntos
Indriidae/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Antropologia Física , Feminino , Asseio Animal/fisiologia , Madagáscar , Masculino , Predomínio Social
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