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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(7): e0012228, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38976836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral gastrointestinal infections remain a major public health concern in developing countries. In Burkina Faso, there are very limited updated data on the circulating viruses and their genetic diversity. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the detection rates and characteristics of rotavirus A (RVA), norovirus (NoV), sapovirus (SaV) and human astrovirus (HAstV) in patients of all ages with acute gastrointestinal infection in urban and rural areas. STUDY DESIGN & METHODS: From 2018 to 2021, stool samples from 1,295 patients with acute gastroenteritis were collected and screened for RVA, NoV, SaV and HAstV. Genotyping and phylogenetic analyses were performed on a subset of samples. RESULTS: At least one virus was detected in 34.1% of samples. NoV and SaV were predominant with detection rates of respectively 10.5 and 8.8%. We identified rare genotypes of NoV GII, RVA and HAstV, recombinant HAstV strains and a potential zoonotic RVA transmission event. CONCLUSIONS: We give an up-to-date epidemiological picture of enteric viruses in Burkina Faso, showing a decrease in prevalence but a high diversity of circulating strains. However, viral gastroenteritis remains a public health burden, particularly in pediatric settings. Our data advocate for the implementation of routine viral surveillance and updated management algorithms for diarrheal disease.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Norovirus , Filogenia , Rotavirus , População Rural , Humanos , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/classificação , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem , Fezes/virologia , Sapovirus/genética , Sapovirus/isolamento & purificação , Sapovirus/classificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Urbana , Recém-Nascido , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Mamastrovirus/genética , Mamastrovirus/classificação , Mamastrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Prevalência
2.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1373322, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38993708

RESUMO

Introduction: Norovirus is widely recognized as a leading cause of both sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) across all age groups. The GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant has consistently prevailed since 2012, distinguishing itself from other variants that typically circulate for a period of 2-4 years. Objective: This review aims to systematically summarize the prevalence of norovirus gastroenteritis following emergence of the GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant. Methods: Data were collected from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases spanning the period between January 2012 and August 2022. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the global prevalence and distribution patterns of norovirus gastroenteritis from 2012 to 2022. Results: The global pooled prevalence of norovirus gastroenteritis was determined to be 19.04% (16.66-21.42%) based on a comprehensive analysis of 70 studies, which included a total of 85,798 sporadic cases with acute gastroenteritis and identified 15,089 positive cases for norovirus. The prevalence rate is higher in winter than other seasons, and there are great differences among countries and age groups. The pooled attack rate of norovirus infection is estimated to be 36.89% (95% CI, 36.24-37.55%), based on a sample of 6,992 individuals who tested positive for norovirus out of a total population of 17,958 individuals exposed during outbreak events. Conclusion: The global prevalence of norovirus gastroenteritis is always high, necessitating an increased emphasis on prevention and control strategies with vaccine development for this infectious disease, particularly among the children under 5 years old and the geriatric population (individuals over 60 years old).


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Norovirus/genética , Prevalência , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Pediatr Transplant ; 28(5): e14821, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38992876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Norovirus is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis. Studies in adult kidney recipients have documented significant morbidity associated with norovirus infection, but there are few studies in pediatric recipients. METHODS: Multicenter retrospective cohort study of pediatric kidney transplant recipients with norovirus, confirmed by stool PCR, between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2018. Outcomes of interest included duration of diarrhea, incidence of chronic diarrhea, management strategies, and graft function. RESULTS: Forty pediatric kidney transplant recipients from four centers were identified for inclusion. Median age at transplant was 5.4 years (IQR 2.2-11.2 years), and median time post-transplant was 1.9 years (IQR 0.8-3.8 years). Median diarrheal duration was 16 days (IQR 6.0-41.5 days); 15 patients (43%) had acute diarrhea, 8 (23%) had persistent, and 12 (30%) had chronic diarrhea. Twenty-one (53%) patients developed acute kidney injury. Thirty-five (88%) patients required supplemental fluids, 8 (20%) patients underwent immunosuppression reduction for a median of 22 days, 5 (13%) were treated with nitazoxanide, and 5 (13%) received oral immunoglobulin. Acute rejection was diagnosed in 3 (8%) patients within 6 months of norovirus diagnosis. We observed no sustained decline in eGFR at 12 months after diarrhea resolution (median eGFR difference: 2.8 mL/min/1.73 m2 [IQR: -17.1, 7.4]). Of the patients in the cohort, two lost their graft at 6.8 and 30.0 months after the onset of diarrhea. CONCLUSION: Norovirus is associated with significant morbidity in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Various treatment interventions are being employed for norovirus infection. Larger studies, both observational and interventional, are needed to determine the optimal treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Diarreia , Transplante de Rim , Norovirus , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Criança , Feminino , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Rejeição de Enxerto , Lactente , Adolescente
4.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1755, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Norovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks were common in schools and kindergartens and were more related to faculty knowledge, attitude, and practice level. Gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by norovirus in educational institutions were the prominent cause of Public Health Emergency Events in China. This study aimed to explore the transformation in the contribution of KAP items related to outbreak prevention before and after intervention and the impact of demography factors on the intervention. METHODS: This study sampled 1095 kindergarten and 1028 school staff in Shenzhen, China. We created a questionnaire consisting of 35 items in 4 parts, and each item was rated on a scale of 1-5 according to the accuracy. Univariate analysis of non-parametric tests and binary logistic regression were used to estimate the score difference on demographic characteristics, each item and KAP. The odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence and intervals (CI) for the association between statistical indicators were mainly used to explain the effects before and after intervention. RESULTS: Overall, 98.72% and 74.9% of the kindergarten and school participants were female, and all respondents had the highest scores difference of practice. Following intervention, univariate analysis indicated that primary school and female respondents achieved higher knowledge scores. Staff age beyond 35 (OR = 0.56, CI:0.34-0.92; OR = 0.67, CI:0.50-0.90) and with more than ten years of service (OR = 0.58, CI:0.36-0.91; OR = 0.38, CI:0.17-0.84) demonstrated a significantly lower post-intervention score for attitude and practice in both kindergartens and schools. The staff members exhibited a general lack of familiarity with the transmission of aerosols and the seasonal patterns of NoVs diarrhea pandemics. Item analysis revealed that kindergarten staff aged 26 and above demonstrated superior performance in terms of the efficacy of medical alcohol for inactivation (OR = 1.93, CI:1.13-3.31) and management strategies for unexplained vomiting among students (OR = 1.97, CI:1.21-3.18). Private school personnel displayed more significant improvement in their practices following educational interventions. School administrators' negative attitudes were primarily evident in their perspectives on morning inspections (OR = 0.11, CI:0.05-0.84). CONCLUSIONS: The potential negative impact of faculty age on NoVs-related knowledge can be mitigated by the positive attitudes fostered through seniority. Furthermore, it is imperative to urgently address the lack of knowledge among administrators, and the identification and treatment of vomiting symptoms should be emphasized as crucial aspects of school prevention strategies. Therefore, education authorities should implement comprehensive public health interventions in the future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Surtos de Doenças , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Norovirus , Instituições Acadêmicas , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções por Caliciviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39021123

RESUMO

Abstract: There were 108 norovirus-positive outbreaks in 2022, with 45 (41.7%) occurring during the first quarter (Q1), January-March. Aged care facilities accounted for 44.4% of norovirus-positive outbreaks; 43.5% were in childcare settings. Overall, the GII.P31/GII.4 genotype was the most common, involved in 39.4% of outbreaks; however, there were shifts in the most common genotype across the year. In Q1, the GII.P31/GII.4 genotype accounted for 73.3% of typed outbreaks, but by Q3 (July-September) the GII.P7/GII.6 was the most prominent genotype at 45.0%. In Q4 (October-December), the dominant genotype had changed again to GII.P16/GII.4 (52.6%). While the incidence of norovirus outbreaks in 2022 was average regarding overall prevalence and genotype diversity, there are still ongoing effects from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in relation to seasonality, outbreak demographics and specimen referral.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por Caliciviridae , Surtos de Doenças , Genótipo , Norovirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Norovirus/genética , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Incidência , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Vitória/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Estações do Ano , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Criança , Idoso
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 20(7): e1011909, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38976719

RESUMO

Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that rely on host cell metabolism for successful replication. Thus, viruses rewire host cell pathways involved in central carbon metabolism to increase the availability of building blocks for successful propagation. However, the underlying mechanisms of virus-induced alterations to host metabolism are largely unknown. Noroviruses (NoVs) are highly prevalent pathogens that cause sporadic and epidemic viral gastroenteritis. In the present study, we uncovered several strain-specific and shared host cell metabolic requirements of three murine norovirus (MNV) strains, MNV-1, CR3, and CR6. While all three strains required glycolysis, glutaminolysis, and the pentose phosphate pathway for optimal infection of macrophages, only MNV-1 relied on host oxidative phosphorylation. Furthermore, the first metabolic flux analysis of NoV-infected cells revealed that both glycolysis and glutaminolysis are upregulated during MNV-1 infection of macrophages. Glutamine deprivation affected the viral lifecycle at the stage of genome replication, resulting in decreased non-structural and structural protein synthesis, viral assembly, and egress. Mechanistic studies further showed that MNV infection and overexpression of the non-structural protein NS1/2 increased the enzymatic activity of the rate-limiting enzyme glutaminase. In conclusion, the inaugural investigation of NoV-induced alterations to host glutaminolysis identified NS1/2 as the first viral molecule for RNA viruses that regulates glutaminolysis either directly or indirectly. This increases our fundamental understanding of virus-induced metabolic alterations and may lead to improvements in the cultivation of human NoVs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Glutamina , Norovirus , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais , Replicação Viral , Norovirus/fisiologia , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Camundongos , Animais , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Glutamina/metabolismo , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/metabolismo , Macrófagos/virologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Humanos , Glutaminase/metabolismo , Glicólise/fisiologia , Células RAW 264.7
7.
Virulence ; 15(1): 2368080, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38899573

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DCs) present an ideal target for delivering immunogenic cargo due to their potent antigen-presenting capabilities. This targeting approach holds promise in vaccine development by enhancing the efficiency of antigen recognition and capture by DCs. To identify a high-affinity targeting peptide binding to rabbit DCs, rabbit monocyte-derived DCs (raMoDCs) were isolated and cultured, and a novel peptide, HS (HSLRHDYGYPGH), was identified using a phage-displayed peptide library. Alongside HS, two other DC-targeting peptides, KC1 and MY, previously validated in our laboratory, were employed to construct recombinant Lactgobacillus reuteri fusion-expressed rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) capsid protein VP60. These recombinant Lactobacillus strains were named HS-VP60/L. reuteri, KC1-VP60/L. reuteri, and MY-VP60/L. reuteri. The ability of these recombinant Lactobacillus to bind rabbit DCs was evaluated both in vivo and in vitro. Results demonstrated that the DC-targeting peptide KC1 significantly enhanced the capture efficiency of recombinant Lactobacillus by raMoDCs, promoted DC maturation, and increased cytokine secretion. Furthermore, oral administration of KC1-VP60/L. reuteri effectively induced SIgA and IgG production in rabbits, prolonged rabbit survival post-challenge, and reduced RHDV copies in organs. In summary, the DC-targeting peptide KC1 exhibited robust binding to raMoDCs, and recombinant Lactobacillus expressing KC1-VP60 protein antigens efficiently induced systemic and mucosal immune responses in rabbits, conferring protective efficacy against RHDV. This study offers valuable insights for the development of novel RHDV vaccines.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos , Limosilactobacillus reuteri , Peptídeos , Animais , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Coelhos , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/imunologia , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/genética , Limosilactobacillus reuteri/genética , Limosilactobacillus reuteri/imunologia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Peptídeos/genética , Infecções por Caliciviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Caliciviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Reoviridae/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/genética , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus/imunologia
8.
Viruses ; 16(6)2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38932216

RESUMO

Diarrhea, often caused by viruses like rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NV), is a global health concern. This study focuses on RV and NV in Jining City from 2021 to 2022. Between 2021 and 2022, a total of 1052 diarrhea samples were collected. Real-Time Quantitative Fluorescent Reverse Transcriptase-PCR was used to detect RV-A, NV GI, and NV GII. For RV-A-positive samples, VP7 and VP4 genes were sequenced for genotype analysis, followed by the construction of evolutionary trees. Likewise, for NV-GII-positive samples, VP1 and RdRp genes were sequenced for genotypic analysis, and evolutionary trees were subsequently constructed. Between 2021 and 2022, Jining City showed varying detection ratios: RV-A alone (excluding co-infection of RV-A and NV GII) at 7.03%, NV GI at 0.10%, NV GII alone (excluding co-infection of RV-A and NV GII) at 5.42%, and co-infection of RV-A and NV GII at 1.14%. The highest RV-A ratios were shown in children ≤1 year and 2-5 years. Jining, Jinxiang County, and Liangshan County had notably high RV-A ratios at 24.37% (excluding co-infection of RV-A and NV GII) and 18.33% (excluding co-infection of RV-A and NV GII), respectively. Jining, Qufu, and Weishan had no RV-A positives. Weishan showed the highest NV GII ratios at 35.48% (excluding co-infection of RV-A and NV GII). Genotype analysis showed that, in 2021, G9P[8] and G2P[4] were dominant at 94.44% and 5.56%, respectively. In 2022, G8P[8], G9P[8], and G1P[8] were prominent at 75.86%, 13.79%, and 10.35%, respectively. In 2021, GII.3[P12], GII.4[P16], and GII.4[P31] constituted 71.42%, 14.29%, and 14.29%, respectively. In 2022, GII.3[P12] and GII.4[P16] accounted for 55.00% and 45.00%, respectively. RV-A and NV showed varying patterns for different time frames, age groups, and regions within Jining. Genotypic shifts were also observed in prevalent RV-A and NV GII strains in Jining City from 2021 to 2022. Ongoing monitoring of RV-A and NV is recommended for effective prevention and control.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Diarreia , Genótipo , Norovirus , Filogenia , Infecções por Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/classificação , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Diarreia/virologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Coinfecção/virologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Masculino , Adulto , Adolescente , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Recém-Nascido , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Pol J Microbiol ; 73(2): 253-262, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38905280

RESUMO

To establish a rapid detection method for norovirus GII.2 genotype, this study employed reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) combined with CRISPR/Cas12a and lateral flow strip (RT-RPA-Cas12a-LFS). Here, the genome of norovirus GII.2 genotype was compared to identify highly conserved sequences, facilitating the design of RT-RPA primers and crRNA specific to the conserved regions of norovirus GII.2. Subsequently, the reaction parameters of RT-RPA were optimized and evaluated using agar-gel electrophoresis and LFS. The results indicate that the conserved sequences of norovirus GII.2 were successfully amplified through RT-RPA at 37°C for 25 minutes. Additionally, CRISPR/Cas12a-mediated cleavage detection was achieved through LFS at 37°C within 10 minutes using the amplification products as templates. Including the isothermal amplification reaction time, the total time is 35 minutes. The established RT-RPA-Cas12a-LFS method demonstrated specific detection of norovirus GII.2, yielding negative results for other viral genomes, and exhibited an excellent detection limit of 10 copies/µl. The RT-RPA-Cas12a-LFS method was further compared with qRT-PCR by analyzing 60 food-contaminated samples. The positive conformity rate was 100%, the negative conformity rate was 95.45%, and the overall conformity rate reached 98.33%. This detection method for norovirus GII.2 genotype is cost-effective, highly sensitive, specific, and easy to operate, offering a promising technical solution for field-based detection of the norovirus GII.2 genotype.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Norovirus , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Humanos , RNA Viral/genética , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Infect Genet Evol ; 122: 105617, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857640

RESUMO

Unlike pandemic GII.4 norovirus, GII.6 norovirus shows limited sequence variation in its major capsid protein VP1. In this study, we investigated the VP1 expression profiles, binding abilities, and cross-blocking effects of three GII.6 norovirus strains derived from three distinct variants. Norovirus VP1 was expressed using a recombinant baculovirus expression system and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, salivary histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)-virus like particles (VLPs) binding and binding blockade assays. Mass spectrometry revealed the expected molecular weight (MW) of full-length proteins and degraded or cleaved fragments of all three VP1 proteins. Peptide mapping showed loss of 2 and 3 amino acids from the N- and C-terminus, respectively. Further, the co-expression of VP1 and VP2 proteins did not lead to extra fragmentation during mass spectrometry. Salivary HBGA-VLP binding assay revealed similar binding patterns of the three GII.6 VP1 proteins. Salivary HBGA-VLP binding blockade assay induced cross-blocking effects. Our results demonstrate similar binding abilities against salivary HBGAs and specific cross-blocking effects for GII.6 norovirus strains derived from distinct variants, suggesting that fewer GII.6 strains from different evolutionary variants are needed for the development of norovirus vaccines.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo , Norovirus , Norovirus/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Humanos , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Ligação Proteica
11.
Arch Virol ; 169(7): 138, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847856

RESUMO

Human norovirus (HuNoV) is responsible for most cases of gastroenteritis worldwide, but information about the prevalence and diversity of HuNoV infections in lower-income settings is lacking. In order to provide more information about the burden and distribution of norovirus in Nigeria, we systematically reviewed original published research articles on the prevalence of HuNoV in Nigeria by accessing databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and African Journals Online (AJOL). The protocol for the review was registered on PROSPERO (registration number CRD42022308857). Thirteen relevant articles were included in the review, and 10 of them were used for meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of HuNoV-associated gastroenteritis among children below 5 years of age in Nigeria, determined using the random-effects model, was 10.9% (95% CI, 6.7-16.7%). Among children below the age of 5 presenting with HuNoV infections, the highest prevalence was in children ≤2 years old (n = 127, 83%). The prevalence of HuNoV infections was seen to decrease with increasing age. In addition, HuNoV was detected in asymptomatic food handlers, bats, and seafoods. A total of 85 sequences of HuNoV isolates from Nigeria have been determined, and based on those sequences, the most prevalent norovirus genogroup was GII (84%). Genotypes GII.4 and GI.3 were the most frequently identified genotypes, with GII.4 constituting 46% of all of the HuNoVs identified in Nigeria. These results suggest a risk associated with cocirculation of emerging variants with known genotypes because of their recombination potential. Larger molecular epidemiological studies are still needed to fully understand the extent and pattern of circulation of HuNoVs in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/classificação , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Prevalência , Recém-Nascido
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13871, 2024 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879558

RESUMO

Enteric viral pathogens are associated with a significant burden of childhood morbidity and mortality. We investigated the relationship between viral pathogens and child growth among under-5 children. We analyzed data from 5572/22,567 children enrolled in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study across seven study sites (2007-2011). Multiple linear regression was used to examine the association between the viral pathogens and changes of length/height-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-age (WAZ), and weight-for-length/height (WHZ) z-scores, stratified by diarrheal symptoms and adjusted for potential covariates. Rotavirus (18.51%) and norovirus (7.33%) were the most prevalent enteric viral pathogens among symptomatic and asymptomatic under-5 children, respectively. Infection with individual enteric viral pathogens hurts child growth in asymptomatic children. However, the relationship with HAZ was less clear and statistically non-significant. On the other hand, the combined viral pathogens demonstrated a strong negative influence on child growth [WAZ: ß coef.: - 0.10 (95%, CI - 0.15, - 0.05); P < 0.001 and WHZ: ß: - 0.12 (95% CI - 0.17, - 0.07); P < 0.001] among asymptomatic children. Infection with any viral pathogen was associated with growth shortfalls [HAZ: ß: - 0.05 (95% CI - 0.09, 0.00); P = 0.03 and WAZ: ß: - 0.11 (95% CI - 0.16, - 0.07); P < 0.001 and WHZ: ß: - 0.13 (95% CI - 0.18, - 0.09); P < 0.001], though the relationship with HAZ was less evident and became statistically non-significant in older children. Notably, among symptomatic children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea, individual enteric viral pathogens, as well as the combined effects of these pathogens [WHZ: ß: 0.07; (95% CI 0.01, 0.14); P = 0.03] and the presence of any virus [HAZ: ß: 0.09 (95% CI 0.05, 0.13) & WAZ: ß: 0.08 (95% CI 0.03, 0.12); P < 0.001], exhibited positive effects on child growth. While previous studies hypothesized that several viral pathogens had a conflicting controversial role in child growth, we find clear indications that enteric viral pathogens are associated with growth shortfalls, specifically among asymptomatic children. These findings highlight the need for preventive strategies targeting children with enteric viral pathogens, which could address the consequences of growth faltering.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Diarreia , Infecções por Rotavirus , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , África Subsaariana/epidemiologia , Ásia Meridional/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Diarreia/virologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Norovirus , Rotavirus , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia
13.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1406133, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38894991

RESUMO

Background: The outbreak of norovirus represents a significant public health emergency within densely populated, impoverished, and underdeveloped areas and countries. Our objective is to conduct an epidemiology study of a norovirus outbreak that occurred in a kindergarten located in rural western China. We aim to raise awareness and garner increased attention towards the prevention and control of norovirus, particularly in economically underdeveloped regions. Methods: Retrospective on-site epidemiological investigation results, including data on school layout, case symptoms, onset time, disposal methods and sample testing results, questionnaire surveys, and case-control study were conducted in a kindergarten to analyze the underlying causes of the norovirus outbreak. Results: A total of 15 cases were identified, with an attack rate of 44.12% (15/34). Among them, 10 cases were diagnosed through laboratory tests, and 5 cases were diagnosed clinically. Vomiting (100%, 15/15) and diarrhea (93.33%, 14/15) were the most common symptoms in the outbreak. Case control study revealed that cases who had close contact (<1 m) with the patient's vomitus (OR = 5.500) and those who had close contact with similar patients (OR = 8.000) had significantly higher ORs compared to the control participants. The current study demonstrated that improper handling of vomitus is positively associated with norovirus outbreak. The absence of standardized disinfection protocols heightens the risk of norovirus outbreaks. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study represents the first investigation into a norovirus outbreak in rural areas of western China. We aspire that amidst rapid economic development, a greater emphasis will be placed on the prevention and control of infectious diseases in economically underdeveloped areas and countries.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Surtos de Doenças , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , População Rural , Humanos , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia , Gastroenterite/economia , Pré-Escolar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Anal Biochem ; 692: 115576, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38796118

RESUMO

Regular monitoring of Norovirus presence in environmental and food samples is crucial due to its high transmission rates and outbreak potential. For detecting Norovirus GI, reverse transcription qPCR method is commonly used, but its sensitivity can be affected by assay performance. This study shows significantly reduced assay performance in digital PCR or qPCR when using primers targeting Norovirus GI genome 5291-5319 (NC_001959), located on the hairpin of the predicted RNA structure. It is highly recommended to avoid this region in commercial kit development or diagnosis to minimizing potential risk of false negatives.


Assuntos
Norovirus , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/análise , Humanos , Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia
16.
Virus Res ; 346: 199408, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38797342

RESUMO

Noroviruses are a group of non-enveloped single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus belonging to Caliciviridae family. They can be transmitted by the fecal-oral route from contaminated food and water and cause mainly acute gastroenteritis. Outbreaks of norovirus infections could be difficult to detect and investigate. In this study, we developed a simple threshold detection approach based on variations of the P2 domain of the capsid protein. We obtained sequences from the norovirus hypervariable P2 region using Sanger sequencing, including 582 pairs of epidemiologically-related strains from 35 norovirus outbreaks and 6402 pairs of epidemiologically-unrelated strains during the four epidemic seasons. Genetic distances were calculated and a threshold was performed by adopting ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve which identified transmission clusters in all tested outbreaks with 80 % sensitivity. In average, nucleotide diversity between outbreaks was 67.5 times greater than the diversity within outbreaks. Simple and accurate thresholds for detecting norovirus transmissions of three genotypes obtained here streamlines molecular investigation of norovirus outbreaks, thus enabling rapid and efficient responses for the control of norovirus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Proteínas do Capsídeo , Surtos de Doenças , Genótipo , Norovirus , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/classificação , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Caliciviridae/transmissão , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Humanos , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Gastroenterite/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Variação Genética
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 547, 2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822241

RESUMO

Noroviruses are the second leading cause of death in children under the age of 5 years old. They are responsible for 200 million cases of diarrhoea and 50,000 deaths in children through the word, mainly in low-income countries. The objective of this review was to assess how the prevalence and genetic diversity of noroviruses have been affected by the introduction of rotavirus vaccines in Africa. PubMed, Web of Science and Science Direct databases were searched for articles. All included studies were conducted in Africa in children aged 0 to 5 years old with gastroenteritis. STATA version 16.0 software was used to perform the meta-analysis. The method of Dersimonian and Laird, based on the random effects model, was used for the statistical analyses in order to estimate the pooled prevalence's at a 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity was assessed by Cochran's Q test using the I2 index. The funnel plot was used to assess study publication bias. A total of 521 studies were retrieved from the databases, and 19 were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled norovirus prevalence's for pre- and post-vaccination rotavirus studies were 15% (95 CI, 15-18) and 13% (95 CI, 09-17) respectively. GII was the predominant genogroup, with prevalence of 87.64% and 91.20% respectively for the pre- and post-vaccination studies. GII.4 was the most frequently detected genotype, with rates of 66.84% and 51.24% respectively for the pre- and post-vaccination studies. This meta-analysis indicates that rotavirus vaccination has not resulted in a decrease in norovirus infections in Africa.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Variação Genética , Norovirus , Infecções por Rotavirus , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Humanos , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Lactente , África/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/classificação , Norovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido , Prevalência , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/classificação , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Arch Virol ; 169(6): 131, 2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38819530

RESUMO

Noroviruses (NoVs) are the chief cause of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide. By employing the major capsid protein VP1 of a GII.6 NoV strain as an immunogen, we generated two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with wide-spectrum binding activities against NoV genogroup II (GII) VP1 proteins. One mAb (10G7) could bind to native and denatured GII-specific VP1 proteins. The other mAb (10F2) could bind to all tested native GII VP1 proteins, but not to denatured GII.3, GII.4, GII.7, or GII.17 VP1 proteins. Using GII.6/GII.4 fusion proteins, the mAb 10F2 binding region was confirmed to be located in the C-terminal P1 domain. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on peptides covering the P domain did not detect any binding. Using a panel of VP1 proteins with swapped regions, deletions, and mutations, the mAb 10F2 binding region was determined to be located between residues 496 and 513. However, the residue(s) responsible for its varied binding affinity for different denatured GII VP1 proteins remain to be identified. In summary, two NoV GII-specific cross-reactive mAbs were generated, and their binding regions were determined. Our results might facilitate the detection and immunogenic study of NoVs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Proteínas do Capsídeo , Epitopos , Norovirus , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Epitopos/genética , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/genética , Camundongos , Humanos , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Reações Cruzadas
19.
J Clin Virol ; 173: 105697, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38820917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Molecular syndromic panels can improve rapidity of results and ease clinical laboratory workflow, although caution has been raised for potential false-positive results. Upon implementation of a new panel for infectious diarrhea (BioFire® FilmArray® Gastrointestinal [GI] Panel, bioMérieux) in our clinical laboratory, a higher than expected number of stool samples with norovirus were detected. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate positive percent agreement and the false-positive rate of norovirus detected by the multiplex BioFire GI panel compared to a singleplex commercial assay. STUDY DESIGN: From October 2023 to January 2024, all prospective stool samples with a positive norovirus result by BioFire had melting curves reviewed manually using the BioFire FilmArray Torch System. Stool samples further underwent testing by a supplementary real-time RT-PCR assay (Xpert® Norovirus, Cepheid) for comparative analysis. RESULTS: Of the 50 stool samples with norovirus detected by BioFire, 18 (36 %) tested negative by Xpert (deemed "false-positives"). Furthermore, melting curve analysis revealed nearly all of these samples had atypical melting curve morphologies for the "Noro-1" target on BioFire (16/18, 89 %), which was statistically significant (Odds Ratio 173.2, 95 % CI [22.2, 5326.9], p < 0.0001). Stool samples with multiple pathogens detected by BioFire including norovirus were not more likely to produce false-positive norovirus results (Odds Ratio 1, 95 % CI [0.3, 3.3], p = 1). CONCLUSIONS: Although not described in the manufacturer's Instructions for Use, we propose routine manual review of melting curves for the BioFire GI panel prior to reporting, to mitigate potential false-positive norovirus results.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Fezes , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Norovirus/genética , Humanos , Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Reações Falso-Positivas , Fezes/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Gastroenterite/virologia , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Temperatura de Transição , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Diarreia/virologia , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Idoso , Adolescente , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Lactente
20.
Virulence ; 15(1): 2360133, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38803081

RESUMO

Norovirus (NV) infection causes acute gastroenteritis in children and adults. Upon infection with NV, specific CD8+ T cells, which play an important role in anti-infective immunity, are activated in the host. Owing to the NV's wide genotypic variability, it is challenging to develop vaccines with cross-protective abilities against infection. To aid effective vaccine development, we examined specific CD8+ T-cell responses towards viral-structural protein (VP) epitopes, which enable binding to host susceptibility receptors. We isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 196 participants to screen and identify predominant core peptides towards NV main and small envelope proteins using ex vivo and in vitro intracellular cytokine staining assays. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) restriction characteristics were detected using next-generation sequencing. Three conservative immunodominant VP-derived CD8+ T-cell epitopes, VP294-102 (TDAARGAIN), VP2153-161 (RGPSNKSSN), and VP1141-148 (FPHIIVDV), were identified and restrictively presented by HLA-Cw * 0102, HLA-Cw * 0702, and HLA-A *1101 alleles, separately. Our findings provide useful insights into the development of future vaccines and treatments for NV infection.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Infecções por Caliciviridae , Proteínas do Capsídeo , Epitopos de Linfócito T , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Humanos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Infecções por Caliciviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Norovirus/imunologia , Norovirus/genética , Adulto , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Masculino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Gastroenterite/imunologia , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Adolescente , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Epitopos Imunodominantes/imunologia , Pré-Escolar , Idoso
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