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1.
AMIA Annu Symp Proc ; 2022: 456-465, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35854759

RESUMO

Autism is among the most common neurodevelopmental conditions. Timely diagnosis and access to therapeutic resources are essential for positive prognoses, yet long queues and unevenly dispersed resources leave many untreated. Without granular estimates of autism prevalence by geographic area, it is difficult to identify unmet needs and mechanisms to address them. Mining a dataset of 53M children using meaningful geographic regions, we computed autism prevalence across the country. We then performed comparative analysis against 50,000 resources to identify the type and extent of gaps in access to autism services. We find a steady increase in autism diagnoses from K-5, supporting delayed diagnosis of autism, and consistent under-diagnosis of females. We find a significant inverse relationship between prevalence and availability of resources (p < 0.001). While more work is needed to characterize additional trends including racial and ethnicity-based disparities, the identification of resource gaps can direct and prioritize new innovations.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Criança , Atenção à Saúde , Etnicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Informática , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 5642284, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35774434

RESUMO

This paper presents an in-depth study on the new mode of intelligent multidistance teaching of English with the help of virtual scenes of the Internet of Things. The virtual simulation technology is integrated into the traditional IoT teaching, and the professional education of IoT application technology is tapped; from the analysis of the current situation of IoT skills teaching and the feasibility of carrying out virtual simulation teaching, the "four-driven" design principle is proposed, and the teaching design is combined with the virtual simulation technology teaching, and the case design of the skill-based virtual simulation technology teaching of experience, demonstration, interaction, and assessment in the virtual environment is given. This paper presents the case design of virtual simulation teaching in a virtual environment with experience, demonstration, interaction, and assessment, and the multidimensional effect evaluation of IoT skills teaching and researches the application of virtual simulation to IoT skills teaching through the above four aspects. In this paper, a framework for distributed collaborative computing is built using an asynchronous message queue MQ, which enables multiple nodes to serve a task through task splitting. The DeepCluster module can effectively cluster the time series by deep representation learning and obtain the typical variation of time series patterns. In the task offloading module of the framework, a task offloading decision algorithm based on a value-constrained multi 0-1 backpacking model is designed to minimize task processing latency with an optimal offloading solution. The system test results show that the proposed distributed computing framework and offloading decision algorithm can significantly reduce the processing latency of large tasks.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Informática , Simulação por Computador , Inteligência
3.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 290: 858-861, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35673140

RESUMO

Social distancing and "lockdown" measures introduced by the COVID-19 pandemic created barriers to recruitment and engagement of community members in research activities. Information technology tools were quickly introduced to allow for virtual participation of stakeholders in research. Vulnerable populations, namely communities with limited access to resources or at a higher risk to experience bias or discrimination, were less likely to engage in such virtual research initiatives. Informatics tools have the potential to support these populations, but existing disparities require a careful consideration of engagement strategies. We discuss three case studies of ongoing research projects targeting vulnerable populations and highlight the role of informatics in facilitating engagement. Target populations include family caregivers of hospice patients, low-income older adults and patients with dementia and their families. We describe strategies to overcome unique challenges introduced by the pandemic, and ways to build a more resilient future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , Cuidadores , Humanos , Informática , Pandemias , Populações Vulneráveis
4.
J Chem Phys ; 156(20): 204903, 2022 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35649865

RESUMO

The artificial intelligence-based prediction of the mechanical properties derived from the tensile test plays a key role in assessing the application profile of new polymeric materials, especially in the design stage, prior to synthesis. This strategy saves time and resources when creating new polymers with improved properties that are increasingly demanded by the market. A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model for tensile strength at break is presented in this work. The QSPR methodology applied here is based on machine learning tools, visual analytics methods, and expert-in-the-loop strategies. From the whole study, a QSPR model composed of five molecular descriptors that achieved a correlation coefficient of 0.9226 is proposed. We applied visual analytics tools at two levels of analysis: a more general one in which models are discarded for redundant information metrics and a deeper one in which a chemistry expert can make decisions on the composition of the model in terms of subsets of molecular descriptors, from a physical-chemical point of view. In this way, with the present work, we close a contribution cycle to polymer informatics, providing QSPR models oriented to the prediction of mechanical properties related to the tensile test.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Polímeros , Informática , Polímeros/química , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade
5.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 19(7): 823-828, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654145

RESUMO

Communication failures are a documented cause of malpractice litigation against radiologists. As imaging volumes have increased, and with them the number of findings requiring further workup, radiologists are increasingly expected to communicate with ordering clinicians. However, communication may be unsuccessful for a variety of reasons that expose radiologists to potential malpractice risk. Informatics solutions have the potential to improve communication and decrease this risk. We discuss human-powered, purely automated, and hybrid approaches to closing the communications loop. In addition, we describe the Patient Test Results Information Act (Pennsylvania Act 112) and its implications for closing the loop on noncritical actionable findings.


Assuntos
Imperícia , Comunicação , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Humanos , Informática , Responsabilidade Legal , Radiologistas
6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 290: 447-451, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35673054

RESUMO

Approximately 2 million Americans live with opioid use disorder (OUD), most of whom also have chronic pain. The economic burden of chronic pain and prescription opioid misuse runs into billions of dollars. Patients on prescription opioids for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) are at increased risk for OUD and overdose. By adhering to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) opioid prescribing guidelines, primary care providers (PCPs) have the potential to improve patient outcomes. But numerous provider, patient, and practice-specific factors challenge adherence to guidelines in primary care. Many of the barriers may be mediated by informatics interventions, but gaps in knowledge and unmet needs exist. This narrative review examines the risk assessment and harm reduction process in a socio-technical context to highlight the gaps in knowledge and unmet needs that can be mediated through informatics intervention.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Informática , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Padrões de Prática Médica , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos
7.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 290: 457-459, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35673056

RESUMO

For immunosuppressed or transplanted patients, appropriate triage is a timely topic, especially in the Emergency Department (ED) of a high-volume referral center. We implemented a new Program called Rapid Clinical Care by Internal Medicine Specialists, as a preferential care route for these patients, which combines the proposed informatics framework in the field of total quality management in the healthcare units, as an example of digital technologies that can improve processes in the clinical routine. Our study aimed to describe waiting-time and attention-time in ED and to explore the effect on patients' clinical outcomes after discharge. Findings were: shortened waiting time (median of 8 minutes versus 21, p<0.001), improved ED on-call time (median of 2 hours compared to 4, p<0.001), and greater follow-up after discharge, measured as 1-week scheduled-visits rate (69% with 95%CI 63-75; compared to 43% with 95%CI 35-51; p<0.001).


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Triagem , Humanos , Informática , Alta do Paciente , Encaminhamento e Consulta
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10558, 2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732681

RESUMO

In the development of polymer materials, it is an important issue to explore the complex relationships between domain structure and physical properties. In the domain structure analysis of polymer materials, 1H-static solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectra can provide information on mobile, rigid, and intermediate domains. But estimation of domain structure from its analysis is difficult due to the wide overlap of spectra from multiple domains. Therefore, we have developed a materials informatics approach that combines the domain modeling ( http://dmar.riken.jp/matrigica/ ) and the integrated analysis of meta-information (the elements, functional groups, additives, and physical properties) in polymer materials. Firstly, the 1H-static ssNMR data of 120 polymer materials were subjected to a short-time Fourier transform to obtain frequency, intensity, and T2 relaxation time for domains with different mobility. The average T2 relaxation time of each domain is 0.96 ms for Mobile, 0.55 ms for Intermediate (Mobile), 0.32 ms for Intermediate (Rigid), and 0.11 ms for Rigid. Secondly, the estimated domain proportions were integrated with meta-information such as elements, functional group and thermophysical properties and was analyzed using a self-organization map and market basket analysis. This proposed method can contribute to explore structure-property relationships of polymer materials with multiple domains.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Polímeros , Informática , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Polímeros/química
9.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 928: 175096, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697148

RESUMO

Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a functional phenolic acid widely used in food and medicine-related fields. It has been proved to be effective in the treatment of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). However, the exact mechanism by which CGA prevents ALD, especially from the crosstalk between gut and liver, has not been previously reported. This work was aimed to explore the protective effects of CGA against ALD and its relationships to gut-liver axis abnormalities. Experimental results showed the increased (p < 0.05) serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), low density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels of mice fed with ethanol were ameliorated by supplementing with CGA. Moreover, CGA promoted the production of n-butyric acid by nearly 3 times (1.78 vs 0.62 nM, p < 0.01), a short-chain fatty acid that helps maintain the integrity of the intestinal barrier. Furthermore, CGA alleviated microbial dysbiosis, evidenced by the increased relative abundances of beneficial bacteria Muribaculaceae, Bacteroides, Alloprevotella, and Parabacteroides, and decreased that of opportunistic pathogens Eubacterium_nodatum, Eubacterium_ruminantium, and Anaerotruncus. Correlation analysis further elucidated the microbiota altered after CGA intervention was positively correlated with short-chain fatty acids and antioxidant indexes, while negatively correlated with inflammatory cytokines. In summary, these findings suggested the hepatoprotective effect of CGA was ascribed to the modulation of gut-liver axis homeostasis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas , Animais , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Ácido Clorogênico/uso terapêutico , Disbiose/microbiologia , Informática , Fígado , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
10.
J Chem Inf Model ; 62(9): 2009-2010, 2022 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35527682

Assuntos
Informática
11.
Health Informatics J ; 28(2): 14604582221093498, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35593170

RESUMO

Ensuring the accuracy of unstructured clinical notes is critical for patient care, research, and quality improvement. Understanding how trainees learn to document these notes and the challenges they encounter are important steps to developing educational and informatics solutions.Authors conducted focus groups to gather the perspectives of 40 medical students (MS) and family and emergency medicine (EM) residents on recording clinical notes in the electronic medical record (EMR). Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed.Thematic analysis with a deductive approach revealed: a lack of formal education, a shift from information gathering to documenting clinical reasoning with seniority, and barriers to charting development, including variable preceptor expectations and EMR design constraints.Participating trainees report gaps in education around the documentation of notes in the EMR. Future work should explore opportunities to reduce gaps, including more formal education, the creation of specific competencies, and improvements to the EMR.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Medicina de Emergência , Estudantes de Medicina , Documentação , Humanos , Informática
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(22): 6617-6623, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617526

RESUMO

Pesticides are widely used agrochemicals for crop protection. The need for novel pesticides becomes urgent as a result of the emergence of resistance and environmental toxicity. Pesticide informatics has been applied in different phase processes of pesticide target identification, active ingredient design, and impact evaluation. However, these valuable resources are scattered over the literature and web, limiting their availability. Here, we summarize and connect research on pesticide informatics resources. A pesticide informatics platform (PIP) was constructed to share these tools. We finally discuss the future direction of pesticide informatics, including pesticide contamination. We expect to share the pesticide informatics approaches and stimulate further research.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Agroquímicos/análise , Proteção de Cultivos , Informática , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/química
13.
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 209(Pt A): 1327-1338, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35461865

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence suggests that the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is strongly correlated with abnormalities of the gut-liver axis. Echinacea purpurea polysaccharide (EPP) is a homogeneous polysaccharide, which has been shown to mitigate ALD. However, the effects of EPP on gut microbiome and consequently on hepatic metabolism have yet to be explored. In this study, the microbiome and metabolomics were combined to explore the effects of EPP on gut microbiota and hepatic metabolism, and the relationship between both was further revealed by Spearman correlation analysis. Results exhibited EPP reversed alcohol-induced disturbances in gut microbiota, evidenced by increased abundance of Muribaculaceae, Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides and decreased abundance of Escherichia_Shigella and Enterococcus. Besides, EPP promoted the production of n-butyric acid, a short-chain fatty acid that maintains the integrity of the intestinal barrier. Moreover, EPP improved alterations in hepatic metabolites, and characteristic metabolites such as Berberine and Ponasterone as well as key metabolic pathways, particularly Nitrogen metabolism, were identified. Furthermore, correlation analysis suggested significant associations between gut microbes and hepatic metabolites, which in turn confirmed EPP alleviated ALD via the gut-liver axis. Therefore, these findings elucidated in-depth mechanisms of EPP against ALD and provided a new target for intervention in alcohol-related diseases.


Assuntos
Echinacea , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas , Animais , Informática , Fígado , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia
15.
F1000Res ; 11: 164, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35360826

RESUMO

Atmospheric nitrogen fixation carried out by microorganisms has environmental and industrial importance, related to the increase of soil fertility and productivity. The present work proposes the development of a new high precision system that allows the recognition of amino acid sequences of the nitrogenase enzyme (NifH) as a promising way to improve the identification of diazotrophic bacteria. For this purpose, a database obtained from UniProt built a processed dataset formed by a set of 4911 and 4782 amino acid sequences of the NifH and non-NifH proteins respectively. Subsequently, the feature extraction was developed using two methodologies: (i) k-mers counting and (ii) embedding layers to obtain numerical vectors of the amino acid chains. Afterward, for the embedding layer, the data was crossed by an external trainable convolutional layer, which received a uniform matrix and applied convolution using filters to obtain the feature maps of the model. Finally, a deep neural network was used as the primary model to classify the amino acid sequences as NifH protein or not. Performance evaluation experiments were carried out, and the results revealed an accuracy of 96.4%, a sensitivity of 95.2%, and a specificity of 96.7%. Therefore, an amino acid sequence-based feature extraction method that uses a neural network to detect N-fixing organisms is proposed and implemented. NIFtHool is available from: https://nifthool.anvil.app/.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Redes Neurais de Computação , Oxirredutases , Bactérias/enzimologia , Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Informática , Oxirredutases/genética , Filogenia
16.
Cancer Causes Control ; 33(6): 899-911, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380304

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A disconnect often exists between those with the expertise to manage and analyze complex, multi-source data sets, and the clinical, social services, advocacy, and public health professionals who can pose the most relevant questions and best apply the answers. We describe development and implementation of a cancer informatics infrastructure aimed at broadening the usability of community cancer data to inform cancer control research and practice; and we share lessons learned. METHODS: We built a multi-level database known as The Ohio Cancer Assessment and Surveillance Engine (OH-CASE) to link data from Ohio's cancer registry with community data from the U.S. Census and other sources. Space-and place-based characteristics were assigned to individuals according to residential address. Stakeholder input informed development of an interface for generating queries based on geographic, demographic, and disease inputs and for outputting results aggregated at the state, county, municipality, or zip code levels. RESULTS: OH-CASE contains data on 791,786 cancer cases diagnosed from 1/1/2006 to 12/31/2018 across 88 Ohio counties containing 1215 municipalities and 1197 zip codes. Stakeholder feedback from cancer center community outreach teams, advocacy organizations, public health, and researchers suggests a broad range of uses of such multi-level data resources accessible via a user interface. CONCLUSION: OH-CASE represents a prototype of a transportable model for curating and synthesizing data to understand cancer burden across communities. Beyond supporting collaborative research, this infrastructure can serve the clinical, social services, public health, and advocacy communities by enabling targeting of outreach, funding, and interventions to narrow cancer disparities.


Assuntos
Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Neoplasias , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Informática , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa
18.
Nurs Outlook ; 70(3): 374-376, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35469594

RESUMO

Given the longstanding inequities clarified by the pandemic, the time has come for nursing informatics to adopt the goals of social justice and equity as its primary focus. Social justice informatics (SJI) is an emerging field that leverages the power of data, information, and technology in pursuit of advancing equity through collaboration with diverse communities. We propose that an SJI orientation should be adopted to change the paradigms of power by placing communities at the center of the work and ensuring future informatics work is free from unintended consequences. However, to support this, legacy practices and policies will need to be replaced, which is discussed using the exemplar of academic systems. While this process will not be easy, it is hoped that by committing to and refining the vision presented here we will create a society that more accurately reflects our shared values of equity and prosperity.


Assuntos
Informática , Justiça Social , Humanos
19.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 49(10): 3547-3556, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362796

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Risk of second primary malignancy (SPM) after radioiodine (RAI) therapy has been continuously debated. The aim of this study is to identify the risk of SPM in thyroid cancer (TC) patients with RAI compared with TC patients without RAI from matched cohort. METHODS: Retrospective propensity-matched cohorts were constructed across 4 hospitals in South Korea via the Observational Health Data Science and Informatics (OHDSI), and electrical health records were converted to data of common data model. TC patients who received RAI therapy constituted the target group, whereas TC patients without RAI therapy constituted the comparative group with 1:1 propensity score matching. Hazard ratio (HR) by Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the risk of SPM, and meta-analysis was performed to pool the HRs. RESULTS: Among a total of 24,318 patients, 5,374 patients from each group were analyzed (mean age 48.9 and 49.2, women 79.4% and 79.5% for target and comparative group, respectively). All hazard ratios of SPM in TC patients with RAI therapy were ≤ 1 based on 95% confidence interval(CI) from full or subgroup analyses according to thyroid cancer stage, time-at-risk period, SPM subtype (hematologic or non-hematologic), and initial age (< 30 years or ≥ 30 years). The HR within the target group was not significantly higher (< 1) in patients who received over 3.7 GBq of I-131 compared with patients who received less than 3.7 GBq of I-131 based on 95% CI. CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference of the SPM risk between TC patients treated with I-131 and propensity-matched TC patients without I-131 therapy.


Assuntos
Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Adulto , Ciência de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Informática , Radioisótopos do Iodo/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/radioterapia
20.
J Surg Educ ; 79(4): 839-844, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35414475

RESUMO

Value-based, outcome-oriented care supported with innovative technology is the future of surgery. We established a novel fellowship in Perioperative Administration, Quality, and Informatics. The aim is to equip future surgeon scholars with the requisite knowledge base and skillset to serve as institutional leaders capable of transforming surgical healthcare delivery. The model was designed as a project-based, "operations-focused" education with supplemental didactics and mentored by surgical leaders and institutional executives. We describe our initial experience, successes, and challenges such that a similar model may be replicated elsewhere.


Assuntos
Bolsas de Estudo , Liderança , Currículo , Informática
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