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1.
J Vet Sci ; 24(1): e11, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36726276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are commonly used to assess in vitro immune responses. However, PBMC isolation is a time-consuming procedure, introduces technical variability, and requires a relatively large volume of blood. By contrast, whole blood assay (WBA) is faster, cheaper, maintains more physiological conditions, and requires less sample volume, laboratory training, and equipment. OBJECTIVES: Herein, this study aimed to develop a porcine WBA for in vitro evaluation of immune responses. METHODS: Heparinized whole blood (WB) was diluted (non-diluted, 1/2, 1/8, and 1/16) in RPMI-1640 media, followed by phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin. After 24 h, cells were stained for interferon (IFN)-γ secreting T-cells followed by flow cytometry, and the supernatant was analyzed for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. In addition, diluted WB was stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), reference strain KCTC3557 (RS), field isolate (FI), of heat-killed (HK) Streptococcus suis, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). RESULTS: The frequency of IFN-γ+CD3+ T-cells and concentration of TNF-α in the supernatant of WB increased with increasing dilution factor and were optimal at 1/8. WB TNF-α and interleukin (IL)-10 cytokine levels increased significantly following stimulation with LPS or poly I:C. Further, FI and RS induced IL-10 production in WB. Additionally, PRRSV strains increased the frequency of IFN-γ+CD4-CD8+ cells, and IFN-γ was non-significantly induced in the supernatant of re-stimulated samples. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that the WBA is a rapid, reliable, and simple method to evaluate immune responses and WB should be diluted to trigger immune cells.


Assuntos
Leucócitos Mononucleares , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Suínos , Animais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Citocinas , Imunidade , Poli I
2.
J Immunother Cancer ; 11(1)2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PC) has a poor prognosis, and most patients present with either locally advanced or distant metastatic disease. Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a non-thermal method of ablation used clinically in locally advanced PC, but most patients eventually develop distant recurrence. We have previously shown that IRE alone is capable of generating protective, neoantigen-specific immunity. Here, we aim to generate meaningful therapeutic immune effects by combining IRE with local (intratumoral) delivery of a CD40 agonistic antibody (CD40Ab). METHODS: KPC46 organoids were generated from a tumor-bearing male KrasLSL-G12D-p53LSL-R172H-Pdx-1-Cre (KPC) mouse. Orthotopic tumors were established in the pancreatic tail of B6/129 F1J mice via laparotomy. Mice were randomized to treatment with either sham laparotomy, IRE alone, CD40Ab alone, or IRE followed immediately by CD40Ab injection. Metastatic disease and immune infiltration in the liver were analyzed 14 days postprocedure using flow cytometry and multiplex immunofluorescence imaging with spatial analysis. Candidate neoantigens were identified by mutanome profiling of tumor tissue for ex vivo functional analyses. RESULTS: The combination of IRE+CD40 Ab improved median survival to greater than 35 days, significantly longer than IRE (21 days) or CD40Ab (24 days) alone (p<0.01). CD40Ab decreased metastatic disease burden, with less disease in the combination group than in the sham group or IRE alone. Immunohistochemistry of liver metastases revealed a more than twofold higher infiltration of CD8+T cells in the IRE+CD40 Ab group than in any other group (p<0.01). Multiplex immunofluorescence imaging revealed a 4-6 fold increase in the density of CD80+CD11c+ activated dendritic cells (p<0.05), which were spatially distributed throughout the tumor unlike the sham group, where they were restricted to the periphery. In contrast, CD4+FoxP3+ T-regulatory cells (p<0.05) and Ly6G+myeloid derived cells (p<0.01) were reduced and restricted to the tumor periphery in the IRE+CD40 Ab group. T-cells from the IRE+CD40 Ab group recognized significantly more peptides representing candidate neoantigens than did T-cells from the IRE or untreated control groups. CONCLUSIONS: IRE can induce local tumor regression and neoantigen-specific immune responses. Addition of CD40Ab to IRE improved dendritic cell activation and neoantigen recognition, while generating a strong systemic antitumor T-cell response that inhibited metastatic disease progression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Imunidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos/uso terapêutico , Eletroporação/métodos
3.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 435, 2023 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36702831

RESUMO

The limited benefits of immunotherapy against glioblastoma (GBM) is closely related to the paucity of T cells in brain tumor bed. Both systemic and local immunosuppression contribute to the deficiency of tumor-infiltrating T cells. However, the current studies focus heavily on the local immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment but not on the co-existence of systemic immunosuppression. Here, we develop a nanostructure named Nano-reshaper to co-encapsulate lymphopenia alleviating agent cannabidiol and lymphocyte recruiting cytokine LIGHT. The results show that Nano-reshaper increases the number of systemic T cells and improves local T-cell recruitment condition, thus greatly increasing T-cell infiltration. When combined with immune checkpoint inhibitor, this therapeutic modality achieves 83.3% long-term survivors without recurrence in GBM models in male mice. Collectively, this work unveils that simultaneous reprogramming of systemic and local immune function is critical for T-cell based immunotherapy and provides a clinically translatable option for combating brain tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Glioblastoma/patologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Terapia de Imunossupressão , Imunidade , Microambiente Tumoral
4.
Funct Integr Genomics ; 23(1): 48, 2023 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36700974

RESUMO

The immune checkpoint molecule CD70 and its receptor CD27 constitute the signal transduction axis, which is abnormally expressed in many solid tumors and is crucial for T cell co-stimulation and immune escape. Tumor cells regulate CD27 expression in the tumor microenvironment by expressing CD70, which promotes immune escape. Although current research evidence suggests a link between CD70 and tumors, no pan-cancer analysis is available. Using the Cancer Genome Atlas, Gene Expression Omnibus datasets, and online databases, we first explored the potential carcinogenic role of the CD70-CD27 signaling axis in human malignancies. Furthermore, qRT-PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and a T cell-mediated tumor cell killing assay were used to assess the biological function of the CD70-CD27 signaling axis. CD70 expression is upregulated in most cancers and has an obvious correlation with the prognosis of tumor patients. The expression of CD70 and CD27 is associated with the level of regulatory T cell (Treg) infiltration. In addition, T cell receptor signaling pathways, PI3K-AKT, NF-κB, and TNF signaling pathways are also involved in CD70-mediated immune escape. CD70 mainly regulates tumor immune escape by regulating T cell-mediated tumor killing, with Tregs possibly being its primary T cell subset. Our first pan-cancer study provides a relatively comprehensive understanding of the carcinogenic role of the CD70-CD27 signaling axis in different tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Humanos , Ligante CD27/genética , Ligante CD27/metabolismo , Imunidade , Neoplasias/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Microambiente Tumoral , Membro 7 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo
5.
Phytomedicine ; 109: 154579, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Morus alba fruits (MAF) belong to the Moraceae family, which are known to be effective in treating diabetic, autoimmune, and hormonal diseases owing to its low toxicity. MAF, as excerpted from Donguibogam, a representative Korean medical encyclopedia protected by UNESCO, has been widely used to treat lumbago, arthritis, and diabetes. Based on these effects, MAF is investigated for unidentified effects of atopic dermatitis, characterized by complex etiology of skin barrier dysfunction, inflammation, and chronic pruritus. METHODS: The antioxidant, inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties of MAF and its bioactive compounds have been widely reported. According to an examination of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene-induced AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice, AD symptoms, such as increased dermatitis score, scratching frequency, immunoglobulin E, trans-epidermal water loss, epidermal thickness, and infiltration of mast cells, were relieved by topical MAF administration. They effectively attenuated cytokines and chemokines, such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-1ß, tumor necrosis factor-α, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), thymic- and activation-regulated chemokine, normal T cell expression, and macrophage-derived chemokine secretion at the mRNA level in TNF-α/IFN-γ induced HaCaT (human immortalized keratinocyte) cells. RESULTS: Both in vivo and in vitro models, MAF increased the expression of filaggrin, involucrin, and loricrin, as well as inhibited the activation of Janus kinase 2, signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins 1, and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-jun N-terminal kinase, and p38. Moreover, MAF reduced the expression of TSLP and periostin, which play important roles in skin pruritus as chronic pruritogenic factors. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that MAF could be used as a potential treatment for AD-like skin lesions by regulating the inflammatory response, improving physical skin barriers, and relieving symptomatic pruritus.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Frutas , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Pele , Citocinas/metabolismo , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Imunidade
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36614330

RESUMO

Oxidative stress and immune response play an important role in the development of several cancers, including melanoma. Ion channels are aberrantly expressed in tumour cells and regulate neoplastic transformation, malignant progression, and resistance to therapy. Ion channels are localized in the plasma membrane or other cellular membranes and are targets of oxidative stress, which is particularly elevated in melanoma. At the same time, ion channels are crucial for normal and cancer cell physiology and are subject to multiple layers of regulation, and therefore represent promising targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we analyzed the effects of oxidative stress on ion channels on a molecular and cellular level and in the context of melanoma progression and immune evasion. The possible role of ion channels as targets of alternative therapeutic strategies in melanoma was discussed.


Assuntos
Canais Iônicos , Melanoma , Humanos , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Imunidade , Estresse Oxidativo
7.
Cancer Discov ; 13(1): 23-40, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36620880

RESUMO

Breast cancer, the most common type of cancer affecting women, encompasses a collection of histologic (mainly ductal and lobular) and molecular subtypes exhibiting diverse clinical presentation, disease trajectories, treatment options, and outcomes. Immunotherapy has revolutionized treatment for some solid tumors but has shown limited promise for breast cancers. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the complex interactions between tumor and immune cells in subtypes of breast cancer at the cellular and microenvironmental levels. We aim to provide a perspective on opportunities for future immunotherapy agents tailored to specific features of each subtype of breast cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: Although there are currently over 200 ongoing clinical trials testing immunotherapeutics, such as immune-checkpoint blockade agents, these are largely restricted to the triple-negative and HER2+ subtypes and primarily focus on T cells. With the rapid expansion of new in vitro, in vivo, and clinical data, it is critical to identify and highlight the challenges and opportunities unique for each breast cancer subtype to drive the next generation of treatments that harness the immune system.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Imunoterapia , Imunidade , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 243, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604521

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of different anesthetic methods on postoperative immune function in patients undergoing gastrointestinal tumor resection. Ninety patients undergoing laparoscopic gastrointestinal tumor resection were divided into 3 groups. Patients in the GA group were anesthetized by total intravenous anesthesia. The GE group was anesthetized by general anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia. The GN group was anesthetized by general anesthesia combined with bilateral Transversus Abdominis Plane block (TAP) and rectus sheath nerve blocks. General anesthesia is total intravenous anesthesia in all three groups. Blood samples were taken to test the changes of peripheral lymphocyte subtype analysis, and levels of plasma cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine. Also, the dosage of anesthetic drugs, recovery time, and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were recorded. Postoperative immune indexes, including CD4 count, CD8 count, B, and NK cells, in the GE group were significantly higher than those in NA and GA groups (P < 0.01). Perioperative stress indices, including epinephrine levels, norepinephrine level and aldosterone level, in the GE group were significantly lower than in the GA group and GN group (P < 0.01). The intraoperative/total sufentanil dosage and remifentanil dosage in the GE group were significantly lower than those in the GA and GN groups (P < 0.01). The VAS scores in the GE group were significantly better than those in GA and GN groups (P < 0.01). General anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia attenuates the increase in inflammatory mediators. Its possible mechanisms include reducing perioperative stress response and reducing perioperative opioid use.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais , Bloqueio Nervoso , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória , Músculos Abdominais/inervação , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/cirurgia , Epinefrina , Norepinefrina , Imunidade
9.
Viruses ; 15(1)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680261

RESUMO

The immunological mechanisms involved in the development of congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) have yet to be fully clarified. This study aims to assess the immuno-inflammatory profile of mothers and their children who have been diagnosed with CZS. Blood samples, which were confirmed clinically using the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), were collected from children with CZS and their mothers (CZS+ group). Samples were also collected from children who did not develop CZS and had a negative PRNT result and from their mothers (CZS- group). The data demonstrated a correlation between the leukocyte profile of CZS+ children and their mothers, more evident in monocytes. Monocytes from mothers of CZS+ children showed low expression of HLA and elevated hydrogen peroxide production. CZS+ children presented standard HLA expression and a higher hydrogen peroxide concentration than CZS- children. Monocyte superoxide dismutase activity remained functional. Moreover, when assessing the monocyte polarization, it was observed that there was no difference in nitrite concentrations; however, there was a decrease in arginase activity in CZS+ children. These data suggest that ZIKV infection induces a maternal immuno-inflammatory background related to the child's inflammatory response after birth, possibly affecting the development and progression of congenital Zika syndrome.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Gravidez , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Imunidade , Brasil
10.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0278853, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656850

RESUMO

Bronchopneumonia is a common respiratory disease in livestock. Mannheimia haemolytica is considered the main causative pathogen leading to lung damage in sheep, with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and ParaInfluenza virus type 3, combined with adverse physical and physiological stress, being predisposing factors. A balance of humoral and cellular immunity is thought to be important for protection against developing respiratory disease. In the current study, we compared the ability of the trehalose glycolipid adjuvant C18Brar (C18-alkylated brartemicin analogue) and three commercially available adjuvant systems i.e., Quil-A, Emulsigen-D, and a combination of Quil-A and aluminium hydroxide gel, to stimulate antibody and cellular immune responses to antigens from inactivated whole cells of M. haemolytica and M. ovipneumoniae in sheep. C18Brar and Emulsigen-D induced the strongest antigen-specific antibody responses to both M. haemolytica and M. ovipneumoniae, while C18Brar and Quil-A promoted the strongest antigen-specific IL-17A responses. The expression of genes with known immune functions was determined in antigen-stimulated blood cultures using Nanostring nCounter technology. The expression levels of CD40, IL22, TGFB1, and IL2RA were upregulated in antigen-stimulated blood cultures from animals vaccinated with C18Brar, which is consistent with T-cell activation. Collectively, the results demonstrate that C18Brar can promote both antibody and cellular responses, notably Th17 immune responses in a ruminant species.


Assuntos
Mannheimia haemolytica , Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae , Doenças dos Ovinos , Ovinos , Animais , Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae/genética , Trealose , Linfócitos T , Anticorpos , Imunidade
11.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1023, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658194

RESUMO

The beneficial effects attributed to Bifidobacterium are largely attributed to their immunomodulatory capabilities, which are likely to be species- and even strain-specific. However, their strain-specificity in direct and indirect immune modulation remain largely uncharacterized. We have shown that B. pseudolongum UMB-MBP-01, a murine isolate strain, is capable of suppressing inflammation and reducing fibrosis in vivo. To ascertain the mechanism driving this activity and to determine if it is specific to UMB-MBP-01, we compared it to a porcine tropic strain B. pseudolongum ATCC25526 using a combination of cell culture and in vivo experimentation and comparative genomics approaches. Despite many shared features, we demonstrate that these two strains possess distinct genetic repertoires in carbohydrate assimilation, differential activation signatures and cytokine responses signatures in innate immune cells, and differential effects on lymph node morphology with unique local and systemic leukocyte distribution. Importantly, the administration of each B. pseudolongum strain resulted in major divergence in the structure, composition, and function of gut microbiota. This was accompanied by markedly different changes in intestinal transcriptional activities, suggesting strain-specific modulation of the endogenous gut microbiota as a key to immune modulatory host responses. Our study demonstrated a single probiotic strain can influence local, regional, and systemic immunity through both innate and adaptive pathways in a strain-specific manner. It highlights the importance to investigate both the endogenous gut microbiome and the intestinal responses in response to probiotic supplementation, which underpins the mechanisms through which the probiotic strains drive the strain-specific effect to impact health outcomes.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Camundongos , Animais , Suínos , Bifidobacterium , Intestinos , Imunidade
12.
Viruses ; 15(1)2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680285

RESUMO

In human beings, there are five reported variants of concern of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, in contrast to human beings, descriptions of infections of animals with specific variants are still rare. The aim of this study is to systematically investigate SARS-CoV-2 infections in companion animals in close contact with SARS-CoV-2-positive owners ("COVID-19 households") with a focus on the Delta variant. Samples, obtained from companion animals and their owners were analyzed using a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Animals were also tested for antibodies and neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2. Eleven cats and three dogs in nine COVID-19-positive households were RT-qPCR and/or serologically positive for the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant. For seven animals, the genetic sequence could be determined. The animals were infected by one of the pangolin lineages B.1.617.2, AY.4, AY.43 and AY.129 and between zero and three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected between the viral genomes of animals and their owners, indicating within-household transmission between animal and owner and in multi-pet households also between the animals. NGS data identified SNPs that occur at a higher frequency in the viral sequences of companion animals than in viral sequences of humans, as well as SNPs, which were exclusively found in the animals investigated in the current study and not in their owners. In conclusion, our study is the first to describe the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant transmission to animals in Switzerland and provides the first-ever description of Delta-variant pangolin lineages AY.129 and AY.4 in animals. Our results reinforce the need of a One Health approach in the monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 in animals.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Cães , Humanos , COVID-19/veterinária , Imunidade , Pangolins , Animais de Estimação , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Suíça/epidemiologia , Gatos
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 28, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neospora caninum infection is a major cause of abortion in cattle, which results in serious economic losses to the cattle industry. However, there are no effective drugs or vaccines for the control of N. caninum infections. There is increasing evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in many physiological and pathological processes, and dysregulated expression of host miRNAs and the biological implications of this have been reported for infections by various protozoan parasites. However, to our knowledge, there is presently no published information on host miRNA expression during N. caninum infection. METHODS: The expression profiles of miRNAs were investigated by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in caprine endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) infected with N. caninum at 24 h post infection (pi) and 48 hpi, and the functions of differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs were predicted by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses. The transcriptome data were validated by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. One of the upregulated DEmiRNAs, namely chi-miR-146a, was selected to study the effect of DEmiRNAs on the propagation of N. caninum tachyzoites in caprine EECs. RESULTS: RNA-seq showed 18 (17 up- and one downregulated) and 79 (54 up- and 25 downregulated) DEmiRNAs at 24 hpi and 48 hpi, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of 13 randomly selected DEmiRNAs (10 up- and three downregulated miRNAs) confirmed the validity of the RNA-seq data. A total of 7835 messenger RNAs were predicted to be potential targets for 66 DEmiRNAs, and GO and KEGG enrichment analysis of these predicted targets revealed that DEmiRNAs altered by N. caninum infection may be involved in host immune responses (e.g. Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway, transforming growth factor-ß signaling pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway) and metabolic pathways (e.g. lysine degradation, insulin signaling pathway, AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, Rap1 signaling pathway, calcium signaling pathway). Upregulated chi-miR-146a was found to promote N. caninum propagation in caprine EECs. CONCLUSIONS: This is, to our knowledge, the first report on the expression profiles of host miRNAs during infection with N. caninum, and shows that chi-miR-146a may promote N. caninum propagation in host cells. The novel findings of the present study should help to elucidate the interactions between host cells and N. caninum.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Neospora , Animais , Bovinos , MicroRNAs/genética , Transcriptoma , Cabras , Imunidade
14.
Cells ; 12(2)2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672163

RESUMO

Epilepsy and mental retardation are known to be associated with pathogenic mutations in a broad range of genes that are expressed in the brain and have a role in neurodevelopment. Here, we report on a family with three affected individuals whose clinical symptoms closely resemble a neurodevelopmental disorder. Whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous stop-gain mutation, p.Gln19*, in the BATF2 gene in the patients. The BATF2 transcription factor is predominantly expressed in macrophages and monocytes and has been reported to modulate AP-1 transcription factor-mediated pro-inflammatory responses. Transcriptome analysis showed altered base-level expression of interferon-stimulated genes in the patients' blood, typical for type I interferonopathies. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from all three patients demonstrated elevated responses to innate immune stimuli, which could be reproduced in CRISPR-Cas9-generated BATF2-/- human monocytic cell lines. BATF2 is, therefore, a novel disease-associated gene candidate for severe epilepsy and mental retardation related to dysregulation of immune responses, which underscores the relevance of neuroinflammation for epilepsy.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Fatores de Transcrição , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Imunidade , Fenótipo
15.
Cells ; 12(2)2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672204

RESUMO

The dopamine transporter (DAT) regulates the dimension and duration of dopamine transmission. DAT expression, its trafficking, protein-protein interactions, and its activity are conventionally studied in the CNS and within the context of neurological diseases such as Parkinson's Diseases and neuropsychiatric diseases such as drug addiction, attention deficit hyperactivity and autism. However, DAT is also expressed at the plasma membrane of peripheral immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, T-cells, and B-cells. DAT activity via an autocrine/paracrine signaling loop regulates macrophage responses to immune stimulation. In a recent study, we identified an immunosuppressive function for DAT, where blockade of DAT activity enhanced LPS-mediated production of IL-6, TNF-α, and mitochondrial superoxide levels, demonstrating that DAT activity regulates macrophage immune responses. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that in the DAT knockout mice, innate and adaptive immunity are perturbed. We found that genetic deletion of DAT (DAT-/-) results in an exaggerated baseline inflammatory phenotype in peripheral circulating myeloid cells. In peritoneal macrophages obtained from DAT-/- mice, we identified increased MHC-II expression and exaggerated phagocytic response to LPS-induced immune stimulation, suppressed T-cell populations at baseline and following systemic endotoxemia and exaggerated memory B cell expansion. In DAT-/- mice, norepinephrine and dopamine levels are increased in spleen and thymus, but not in circulating serum. These findings in conjunction with spleen hypoplasia, increased splenic myeloid cells, and elevated MHC-II expression, in DAT-/- mice further support a critical role for DAT activity in peripheral immunity. While the current study is only focused on identifying the role of DAT in peripheral immunity, our data point to a much broader implication of DAT activity than previously thought. This study is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Marc Caron who has left an indelible mark in the dopamine transporter field.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina , Dopamina , Camundongos , Animais , Dopamina/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos Knockout , Imunidade
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674504

RESUMO

Lung cancer has the highest mortality among all types of cancer; during its development, cells can acquire neural and endocrine properties that affect tumor progression by releasing several factors, some acting as immunomodulators. Neuroendocrine phenotype correlates with invasiveness, metastasis, and low survival rates. This work evaluated the effect of neuroendocrine differentiation of adenocarcinoma on the mouse immune system. A549 cells were treated with FSK (forskolin) and IBMX (3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine) for 96 h to induce neuroendocrine differentiation (NED). Systemic effects were assessed by determining changes in circulating cytokines and immune cells of BALB/c mice immunized with PBS, undifferentiated A549 cells, or neuroendocrine A549NED cells. A549 cells increased circulating monocytes, while CD4+CD8- and CD4+CD8+ T cells increased in mice immunized with neuroendocrine cells. IL-2 and IL-10 increased in mice that received untreated A549 cells, suggesting that the immune system mounts a regulated response against adenocarcinoma, which did not occur with A549NED cells. Cocultures demonstrated the cytotoxic capacity of PBMCs when confronted with A549 cells, while in the presence of neuroendocrine cells they not only were unable to show cytolytic activity, but also lost viability. Neuroendocrine differentiation seems to mount less of an immune response when injected in mice, which may contribute to the poor prognosis of cancer patients affected by this pathology.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Camundongos , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Imunidade , Diferenciação Celular
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674510

RESUMO

Rab44 was recently identified as an atypical Rab GTPase that possesses EF-hand and coiled-coil domains at the N-terminus, and a Rab-GTPase domain at the C-terminus. Rab44 is highly expressed in immune-related cells such as mast cells, macrophages, osteoclasts, and granulocyte-lineage cells in the bone marrow. Therefore, it is speculated that Rab44 is involved in the inflammation and differentiation of immune cells. However, little is known about the role of Rab44 in inflammation. In this study, we showed that Rab44 was upregulated during the early phase of differentiation of M1- and M2-type macrophages. Rab44-deficient mice exhibited impaired tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-10 production after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. The number of granulocytes in Rab44-deficient mice was lower, but the lymphocyte count in Rab44-deficient mice was significantly higher than that in wild-type mice after LPS stimulation. Moreover, Rab44-deficient macrophages showed impaired nickel-induced toxicity, and Rab44-deficient mice showed impaired nickel-induced hypersensitivity. Upon nickel hypersensitivity induction, Rab44-deficient mice showed different frequencies of immune cells in the blood and ears. Thus, it is likely that Rab44 is implicated in immune cell differentiation and inflammation, and Rab44 deficiency induces impaired immune responses to nickel allergies.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Níquel , Camundongos , Animais , Níquel/toxicidade , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Hipersensibilidade/genética , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Inflamação , Imunidade
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674636

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to observe the effect of high selenium on the antioxidant and immune functions of growing goats based on transcriptome sequencing. Eighteen goats were randomly divided into three groups: (1) the control (CON) group was fed a basal diet, and (2) the treatment 1 group (LS) and treatment 2 group (HS) were fed a basal diet with 2.4 and 4.8 mg/kg selenium-yeast (SY), respectively. The results indicate that HS treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the apparent digestibility of either extract and significantly increased (p < 0.05) total antioxidant capacity, whereas it significantly (p < 0.05) decreased plasma aspartate aminotransferase and malondialdehyde relative to the control group. The LS treatment had significantly (p < 0.05) increased glutathione S-transferase and catalase compared to CON. A total of 532 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the CON and HS were obtained using transcriptome sequencing. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis identified upregulated (p < 0.05) DEGs mainly related to vascular smooth muscle contraction, alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, the VEGF signalling pathway, and proteoglycans in cancer; downregulated (p < 0.05) DEGs mainly related to the NOD-like receptor signalling pathway, influenza A, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, haematopoietic cell lineage, and African trypanosomiasis. Ontology analyses of the top genes show that the identified DEGs are mainly involved in the regulation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor production for biological processes, the external side of the plasma membrane for cellular components, and carbohydrate derivative binding for molecular functions. Seven genes are considered potential candidate genes for regulating antioxidant activity, including selenoprotein W, 1, glutathione peroxidase 1, glutathione S-transferase A1, tumour necrosis factor, tumour necrosis factor superfamily member 10, tumour necrosis factor superfamily member 8, and tumour necrosis factor superfamily member 13b. The experimental observations indicate that dietary supplementation with 4.8 mg/kg SY can enhance antioxidant and immune functions by improving muscle immunity, reducing the concentrations of inflammatory molecules, and modulating antioxidant and inflammatory signalling pathways in growing goats.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Selênio , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Cabras/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Imunidade
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674691

RESUMO

The skeletal muscle has a very remarkable ability to regenerate upon injury under physiological conditions; however, this regenerative capacity is strongly diminished in physio-pathological conditions, such as those present in diseased or aged muscles. Many muscular dystrophies (MDs) are characterized by aberrant inflammation due to the deregulation of both the lymphoid and myeloid cell populations and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Pathological inflammation is also observed in old muscles due to a systemic change in the immune system, known as "inflammaging". Immunomodulation represents, therefore, a promising therapeutic opportunity for different skeletal muscle conditions. However, the use of immunomodulatory drugs in the clinics presents several caveats, including their low stability in vivo, the need for high doses to obtain therapeutically relevant effects, and the presence of strong side effects. Within this context, the emerging field of nanomedicine provides the powerful tools needed to control the immune response. Nano-scale materials are currently being explored as biocarriers to release immunomodulatory agents in the damaged tissues, allowing therapeutic doses with limited off-target effects. In addition, the intrinsic immunomodulatory properties of some nanomaterials offer further opportunities for intervention that still need to be systematically explored. Here we exhaustively review the state-of-the-art regarding the use of nano-sized materials to modulate the aberrant immune response that characterizes some physio-pathological muscle conditions, such as MDs or sarcopenia (the age-dependent loss of muscle mass). Based on our learnings from cancer and immune tolerance induction, we also discuss further opportunities, challenges, and limitations of the emerging field of nano-immunomodulation.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Sarcopenia , Humanos , Idoso , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Sarcopenia/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Imunidade
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674897

RESUMO

Host regulatory immune response is involved in the hepatic inflammatory process caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). We aimed to determine if HCV clearance with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) changes the hepatic fibrosis stage, biochemical parameters of liver injury, and inflammatory/immune responses. Sample: 329 chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, 134 of them treated with DAAs. Liver fibrosis was evaluated by transient elastography (FibroScan), biochemical and cellular parameters were determined by standard methods, cytokine concentration by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA), and genetic polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) or endpoint genotyping. Before DAA treatment, severe fibrosis or cirrhosis (F3/4) was associated with higher values of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and genotypes transforming growth factor-beta-509 C/T_CC (TGF-ß-509 C/T_CC), interleukine-10-1082 T/C_CC (IL-10-1082 T/C_CC), and IL-10-592 G/T_GT. After DAA treatment, fewer F3/4 patients and lower values of TNF-α were found. Patients with TNF-α-308 G/A_GG and IL-10-592 G/T_GT were at risk for F3/4. Lack of improvement of liver fibrosis was associated with lower baseline values of platelet count for genotypes TNF-α-308 G/A_GG and haplotype TT/GG of IL-10-1082 T/C and IL-10-592 G/T. Our study showed decreased liver fibrosis/inflammation and normalization of liver injury biomarkers after DAA treatment. It also points to the importance of suppressing the pro-inflammatory response by DAAs in the resolution of hepatitis C, contributing to the improvement of liver damage evaluated by transient elastography.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Humanos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Interleucina-10/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/uso terapêutico , Polimorfismo Genético , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Hepatite C/complicações , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Hepacivirus/genética , Imunidade
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