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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(11)2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772681

RESUMO

We describe the case of a 32-year-old man from Cape Verde having headache and increasing visual loss. Clinical and radiological investigations disclosed a massive destructive lesion involving the anterior and central skull base, orbit and nasoethmoid region initially interpreted as a malignant small round cell tumour. Surgical biopsies were negative for neoplasm, showing an intense inflammatory infiltrate together with fungus, later characterised as Aspergillus flavus spp. The patient was immunocompetent with no evidence of congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies. Invasive fungal infections in immunocompetent patients are rare and can be a diagnostic challenge. The best diagnostic clues include the patient's origin from tropical climates, imaging features and the identification of fungal hyphae on pathology specimens. Although a devastating disease in immunocompromised patients, craniocerebral aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients carries a better prognosis. Available literature supports the combined used of 'conservative' surgical resection and antifungal therapy as the best treatment option.


Assuntos
Aspergilose , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas , Adulto , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergilose/diagnóstico , Aspergilose/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Base do Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem
2.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(2): E382-E385, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604577

RESUMO

Introduction: In recent times, improved diagnostic techniques have revealed an alarming number of cases of mucormycosis in immunocompetent individuals. The Saksenaea species, is a rare cause of mucormycosis, and is often associated with skin and subcutaneous infection due to trauma in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent subjects. The purpose of this study was therefore, through a review of the literature, to investigate the problem of infections caused by Saksenaea Erythrospora, evaluating the clinical manifestations of the infection, the triggering factors, the therapies and patients' outcomes, implementing and updating what already reported in literature. Methods: A research of peer-reviewed literature in the electronic databases MEDLINE (PubMed) and Scopus was conducted in the period June 2020-January 2021 using the key word "Saksenaea erythrospora". Studies in Italian, English, French, Spanish focused on cases of Saksenaea erythrospora were included, without time restrictions. Studies that provided ambiguous or insufficient data were excluded. Results: Bibliographic research yielded 23 publications; 7 were included in the review. The studies were published between 2011 and 2015 and involved a total of 11 patients of average age 37.9 years (SD 17.23) hospitalized in several hospitals in: USA, India, Argentina, Colombia, Thailand. 6 patients were women, 5 men. All patients had an almost normal immune status. The causes of the infection were: injections, traumas, surgery. Two patients, despite surgical and medical therapy, died. Conclusions: Our review partially updated what already published, because only one new study was found. Serious necrotizing infections from Saksenaea erythrospora have been observed in recent years and a early identification and timely management are essential to reduce morbidity and mortality. A greater awareness and education about the risks deriving from carrying out surgical procedures abroad, especially in precarious hygiene situations, could be additional effective weapons to reduce the incidence of these infections.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Mucorales , Mucormicose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Masculino , Mastectomia , Mucormicose/imunologia
4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 148(5): 1176-1191, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varies significantly among persons of similar age and is higher in males. Age-independent, sex-biased differences in susceptibility to severe COVID-19 may be ascribable to deficits in a sexually dimorphic protective attribute that we termed immunologic resilience (IR). OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine whether deficits in IR that antedate or are induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection independently predict COVID-19 mortality. METHODS: IR levels were quantified with 2 novel metrics: immune health grades (IHG-I [best] to IHG-IV) to gauge CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell count equilibrium, and blood gene expression signatures. IR metrics were examined in a prospective COVID-19 cohort (n = 522); primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Associations of IR metrics with outcomes in non-COVID-19 cohorts (n = 13,461) provided the framework for linking pre-COVID-19 IR status to IR during COVID-19, as well as to COVID-19 outcomes. RESULTS: IHG-I, tracking high-grade equilibrium between CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell counts, was the most common grade (73%) among healthy adults, particularly in females. SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with underrepresentation of IHG-I (21%) versus overrepresentation (77%) of IHG-II or IHG-IV, especially in males versus females (P < .01). Presentation with IHG-I was associated with 88% lower mortality, after controlling for age and sex; reduced risk of hospitalization and respiratory failure; lower plasma IL-6 levels; rapid clearance of nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 burden; and gene expression signatures correlating with survival that signify immunocompetence and controlled inflammation. In non-COVID-19 cohorts, IR-preserving metrics were associated with resistance to progressive influenza or HIV infection, as well as lower 9-year mortality in the Framingham Heart Study, especially in females. CONCLUSIONS: Preservation of immunocompetence with controlled inflammation during antigenic challenges is a hallmark of IR and associates with longevity and AIDS resistance. Independent of age, a male-biased proclivity to degrade IR before and/or during SARS-CoV-2 infection predisposes to severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Resistência à Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Interleucina-6/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Carga Viral
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 167, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539963

RESUMO

Multifocal tuberculosis is rare in immunocompetent subjects. It is characterized by the involvement of at least two extra-pulmonary sites, associated or not with lung disease. It is often difficult to diagnose. We here report a case of multifocal tuberculosis in a non-immunocompromised black African subject at the Hubert Koutoukou Maga National Hospital and University Center (CNHU-HKM) in Cotonou, Benin. The study involved a 23-year-old man, with no particular previous history, admitted with diffuse abdominal pain associated with alteration of general state. Clinical examination showed severe malnutrition and medium-volume ascites. Imaging tests (chest X-ray, ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scan) showed multiple lung, liver, pancreatic, bone, lymph nodes and colic lesions suggesting multimetastatic tumor. Colonoscopy then showed budding lesion of the cecum. GeneXpert test showed Koch´s bacilli. The anatomo-pathological examination of colic biopsies and GeneXpert sputum test confirmed multifocal tuberculosis. The patient received antituberculosis treatment and nutritional support. However he died. Multifocal tuberculosis is a serious disease that is difficult to diagnose. Then it is frequently mis-diagnosed in tropical areas, especially when it occurs in immunocompetent patients.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Benin , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Colonoscopia , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Masculino , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Tuberculose/terapia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Mycoses ; 64(11): 1402-1411, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is associated with high mortality, the epidemiology and pathophysiology of which is poorly understood, especially in non-HIV populations. OBJECTIVES: We aim to explore the incidence, clinical risk factors, immunological profiles and potential influence of leukotriene A4 hydroxylase (LTA4H) on non-HIV CM IRIS populations. METHODS: In this observational cohort study, 101 previously untreated non-HIV CM patients were included. We obtained data for clinical variables, 27 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokines levels and LTA4H genotype frequencies. Changes of CSF cytokines levels before and at IRIS occurrence were compared. RESULTS: Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome was identified in 11 immunocompetent males, generating an incidence of 10.9% in non-HIV CM patients. Patients with higher CrAg titres (> 1:160) were more likely to develop IRIS, and titre of 1:1280 is the optimum level to predict IRIS occurrence. Baseline CSF cytokines were significantly higher in IRIS group, which indicated a severe host immune inflammation response. Four LTA4H SNPs (rs17525488, rs6538697, rs17525495 and rs1978331) exhibited significant genetic susceptibility to IRIS in overall non-HIV CM, while five cytokines were found to be associated with rs1978331, and baseline monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) became the only cytokine correlated with both IRIS and LTA4H SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that non-HIV CM patients with high fungal burden and severe immune inflammation response were more likely to developed IRIS. LTA4H polymorphisms may affect the pathogenesis of IRIS by regulating the level of baseline CSF MCP-1.


Assuntos
Epóxido Hidrolases/genética , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/complicações , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/epidemiologia , Meningite Criptocócica/complicações , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Citocinas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/imunologia , Imunocompetência , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Clin Invest ; 131(16)2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396985

RESUMO

Although immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been a remarkable advancement in bladder cancer treatment, the response rate to single-agent ICIs remains suboptimal. There has been substantial interest in the use of epigenetic agents to enhance ICI efficacy, although precisely how these agents potentiate ICI response has not been fully elucidated. We identified entinostat, a selective HDAC1/3 inhibitor, as a potent antitumor agent in our immune-competent bladder cancer mouse models (BBN963 and BBN966). We demonstrate that entinostat selectively promoted immune editing of tumor neoantigens, effectively remodeling the tumor immune microenvironment, resulting in a robust antitumor response that was cell autonomous, dependent upon antigen presentation, and associated with increased numbers of neoantigen-specific T cells. Finally, combination treatment with anti-PD-1 and entinostat led to complete responses and conferred long-term immunologic memory. Our work defines a tumor cell-autonomous mechanism of action for entinostat and a strong preclinical rationale for the combined use of entinostat and PD-1 blockade in bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunocompetência/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/imunologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201751

RESUMO

Cylindromatosis (CYLD) is a deubiquitinase (DUB) enzyme that was initially characterized as a tumor suppressor of adnexal skin tumors in patients with CYLD syndrome. Later, it was also shown that the expression of functionally inactive mutated forms of CYLD promoted tumor development and progression of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). However, the ability of wild-type CYLD to inhibit skin tumorigenesis in vivo in immunocompetent mice has not been proved. Herein, we generated transgenic mice that express the wild type form of CYLD under the control of the keratin 5 (K5) promoter (K5-CYLDwt mice) and analyzed the skin properties of these transgenic mice by WB and immunohistochemistry, studied the survival and proliferating characteristics of primary keratinocytes, and performed chemical skin carcinogenesis experiments. As a result, we found a reduced activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway in the skin of K5-CYLDwt mice in response to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); accordingly, when subjected to insults, K5-CYLDwt keratinocytes are prone to apoptosis and are protected from excessive hyperproliferation. Skin carcinogenesis assays showed inhibition of tumor development in K5-CYLDwt mice. As a mechanism of this tumor suppressor activity, we found that a moderate increase in CYLD expression levels reduced NF-κB activation, which favored the differentiation of tumor epidermal cells and inhibited its proliferation; moreover, it decreased tumor angiogenesis and inflammation. Altogether, our results suggest that increased levels of CYLD may be useful for anti-skin cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Enzima Desubiquitinante CYLD/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/irrigação sanguínea , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células Cultivadas , Enzima Desubiquitinante CYLD/metabolismo , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Imunocompetência , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Camundongos Transgênicos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Ésteres de Forbol/toxicidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(28)2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244428

RESUMO

The emerging field of regenerative cell therapy is still limited by the few cell types that can reliably be differentiated from pluripotent stem cells and by the immune hurdle of commercially scalable allogeneic cell therapeutics. Here, we show that gene-edited, immune-evasive cell grafts can survive and successfully treat diseases in immunocompetent, fully allogeneic recipients. Transplanted endothelial cells improved perfusion and increased the likelihood of limb preservation in mice with critical limb ischemia. Endothelial cell grafts transduced to express a transgene for alpha1-antitrypsin (A1AT) successfully restored physiologic A1AT serum levels in mice with genetic A1AT deficiency. This cell therapy prevented both structural and functional changes of emphysematous lung disease. A mixture of endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes was injected into infarcted mouse hearts, and both cell types orthotopically engrafted in the ischemic areas. Cell therapy led to an improvement in invasive hemodynamic heart failure parameters. Our study supports the development of hypoimmune, universal regenerative cell therapeutics for cost-effective treatments of major diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Imunocompetência , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/imunologia , Pneumopatias/imunologia , Pneumopatias/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Animais , Células Endoteliais/transplante , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Membro Posterior/irrigação sanguínea , Membro Posterior/patologia , Isquemia/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miócitos Cardíacos/transplante , Transplante Homólogo , alfa 1-Antitripsina/metabolismo
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 594356, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248925

RESUMO

Background: The coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) pandemic reminds us of the importance of immune function, even in immunologically normal individuals. Multiple lifestyle factors are known to influence the immune function. Objective: The aim was to investigate the association between NK cell activity (NKA) and multiple factors including vitamin D, physical exercise, age, and gender. Methods: This was a cross-sectional association study using health check-up and NKA data of 2,095 subjects collected from 2016 to 2018 in a health check-up center in the Republic of Korea. NKA was measured using the interferon-γ (IFN-γ) stimulation method. The association of NKA with 25-(OH)-vitamin D (25(OH)D) and other factors was investigated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The average age of subjects was 48.8 ± 11.6 years (52.9% of subjects were female). Among 2,095 subjects, 1,427 had normal NKA (NKA ≥ 500 pg IFN-γ/mL), while 506 had low NKA (100 ≤ NKA < 500 pg/mL), and 162 subjects had very low NKA (NKA < 100 pg/mL). Compared to men with low 25(OH)D serum level (< 20 ng/mL), vitamin D replete men (30-39.9 ng/mL) had significantly lower risk of very low NKA (OR: 0.358; 95% CI: 0.138, 0.929; P = 0.035). In women, both low exercise (OR: 0.529; 95% CI: 0.299, 0.939; P = 0.030) and medium to high exercise (OR: 0.522; 95% CI: 0.277, 0.981; P = 0.043) decreased the risk compared to lack of physical exercise. Interestingly, in men and women older than 60 years, physical exercise significantly decreased the risk. Older-age was associated with increased risk of very low NKA in men, but not in women. Conclusion: Physical exercise and vitamin D were associated with NKA in a gender- and age-dependent manner. Age was a major risk factor of very low NKA in men but not in women.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , COVID-19/imunologia , Exercício Físico , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Células Cultivadas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Imunocompetência , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
11.
12.
Cancer Invest ; 39(6-7): 571-581, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148483

RESUMO

We aimed to explore whether chronic psychological stress affects the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) immunotherapy in bladder cancer. The chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) process was applied during the administration of anti-PD-L1 for subcutaneous tumors in mice. Tumor regression was obviously shown in anti-PD-L1 therapy groups, while this effect was notably attenuated by CUMS. Additionally, increased infiltration of regulatory T-cells, decreased amount of CD8+ lymphocytes, and reduced levels of tumor-associated cytokines in tumor sites were observed in mice treated with anti-PD-L1 under CUMS. Therefore, chronic psychological stress could weaken the potency of anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy for bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Imunocompetência , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/imunologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/psicologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2304: 243-263, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028721

RESUMO

Multiphoton microscopy has provided us the ability to visualize cell behavior and biology in intact organs due to its superiority in reaching deep into tissues. Because skin draining lymph nodes are readily accessible via minimal surgery, it is possible to characterize the intricate interactions taking place in peripheral lymph nodes intravitally. Here we describe our protocol to visualize antigen-specific T cell-dendritic cell interactions in the popliteal lymph node of immunocompetent mice. With this method, behaviors of up to four cell types, such as T cells with different antigen specificities, T cells differentiated into different effector and regulatory lineages and dendritic cells originating from mice that bear mutations in functional genes can be imaged simultaneously.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno , Comunicação Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Movimento Celular , Células Dendríticas/transplante , Imunocompetência , Microscopia Intravital , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica , Software , Linfócitos T/transplante
14.
Food Funct ; 12(13): 5949-5958, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031685

RESUMO

Acylation has become one of the most widely used methods to improve the lipid solubility and bioavailability of flavonoids. In this study, puerarin acid esters (PAES) with different chain lengths were synthesized via biocatalytic acylation. This was the first study to evaluate the digestion and transport profiles and immunocompetence of PAES. The relationship between the digestion and transport profiles and potential immunocompetence of the acylated derivatives in Caco-2 cell monolayers was also explored. Puerarin and PAES remained stable in gastric phases, whereas different degrees of hydrolysis of PAES were found in the intestine. PAES with less than 12 carbon chains were positively correlated with the degree of hydrolysis, while those with more than 12 carbon chains showed higher resistance to hydrolysis by the artificial human digestive juice. The apparent permeability coefficients of puerarin, puerarin acetate, puerarin propanoate, puerarin butyrate, puerarin hexanoate, puerarin octanate and puerarin laurate were 1.62 ± 0.09, 1.70 ± 0.15, 1.89 ± 0.19, 1.86 ± 0.18, 2.29 ± 0.12, 4.06 ± 1.01 and 2.32 ± 0.88 × 10-6 cm s-1, respectively, in Caco-2 cell monolayers. The results of the immune factor assays indicated that puerarin propanoate, puerarin hexanoate and puerarin myristate could significantly promote the secretion of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10. These findings suggested that a better absorption could be predicted after oral intake using PAES. Meanwhile, the concentration of esters and their metabolites (puerarin) found in the digestion and transport profiles directly affected their potential immunocompetence.


Assuntos
Digestão , Imunocompetência/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflavonas/química , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Acilação , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Citocinas , Ácidos Graxos , Flavonoides , Humanos , Permeabilidade , Solubilidade
16.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 324, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991248

RESUMO

Nanotechnology, an emerging and promising technology, has been implicated to revolutionize the poultry industry. The main aspect of nanotechnology was to modify or alter the particle size into nanometers and thereby alter the physical as well as chemical features of the particular molecules. Selenium (Se), an essential trace element, can play an immense role in the maintenance of diverse physiological functions, body metabolism and cellular homeostasis, and the performance of poultry. Selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) are of growing importance due to its nutrients digestibility, medicinal therapy, targeted drug delivery system, and production of vaccines. Se-nanoparticles are having importance due to its high bioavailability and digestive efficiency. Se-NPs have been implicated to increase relative weights of immune-related organs (burse and thymus) to enhance immunity and thereby modulate egg production as well as the reproductive performance of birds. The present review is highlighted on the significant role of nano-selenium on reproductive performance and immunocompetence in poultry as comparative advantages over conventional sources of Se in poultry diets.


Assuntos
Selênio , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Imunocompetência , Aves Domésticas , Reprodução
17.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(7): e263-e265, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990523

RESUMO

COVID-19 spread globally and caused over 97 million cases with more than 2 million deaths. There is still ongoing discussion on the duration of infectious interval SARS-CoV-2 infection. Symptomatic children had longer virus shedding and there are some reports of prolonged infectious virus shedding in adults particularly patients having an immunocompromised status. A missense mutation, D614G, in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, which has emerged as a predominant clade in Europe and is spreading worldwide that can result in higher viral loads in patients. Herein, we described the longest infectious virus shedding in a previously healthy child infected with SARS-CoV-2 expressing spike D614G substitution.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adolescente , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Portador Sadio/virologia , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Carga Viral
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9723, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958631

RESUMO

Dengue (DEN) is the most prevalent arbovirus among humans, and four billion people live at risk of infection. The clinical manifestations of DEN are variable, and the disease may present subclinically or asymptomatically. A quarter of patients develop classical dengue (CD) or severe dengue (SD), which is potentially lethal and involves vascular permeability changes, severe hemorrhage and organ damage. The involvement of the liver is a fairly common feature in DEN, and alterations range from asymptomatic elevation of transaminases to acute liver failure. Since its introduction in Brazil in 1990, two strains of Dengue virus (DENV) serotype 2 (DENV-2) have been detected: Lineage I, which is responsible for an outbreak in 1991, and Lineage II, which caused an epidemic greater than the previous one and had a different epidemiological profile. To date, studies on different strains of the same serotype/genotype and their association with disease severity are scarce. In addition, one of the greatest challenges regarding the study of DEN pathogenesis and the development of drug and vaccine therapies is the absence of an animal model that reproduces the disease as it occurs in humans. The main goals of this study were to assess BALB/c mouse susceptibility experimentally infected by two distinct DENV-2 strains and characterize possible differences in the clinical signs and alterations induced in the liver resulting from those infections. Mice infected by the two DENV-2 lineages gained less weight than uninfected mice; however, their livers were slightly heavier. Increased AST and AST levels were observed in infected mice, and the number of platelets increased in the first 72 h of infection and subsequently decreased. Mice infected with both lineages presented leukocytosis but at different times of infection. The histopathological changes induced by both lineages were similar and comparable to the changes observed in DEN fatal cases. The viral genome was detected in two liver samples. The results demonstrate the susceptibility of BALB/c mice to both DENV-2 lineages and suggest that the changes induced by those strains are similar, although for some parameters, they are manifested at different times of infection.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/patogenicidade , Fígado/virologia , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Peso Corporal , Vírus da Dengue/classificação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunocompetência , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Tamanho do Órgão
20.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 104, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression during liver transplantation (LT) enables the prevention and treatment of organ rejection but poses a risk for severe infectious diseases. Immune modulation and antimicrobials affect the plasma microbiome. Thus, determining the impact of immunosuppression on the microbiome may be important to understand immunocompetence, elucidate the source of infection, and predict the risk of infection in LT recipients. We characterized the plasma microbiome of LT recipients at early post-LT and assessed the association between the microbiome and clinical events. RESULTS: In this study, 51 patients who received LT at Nagoya University Hospital from 2016 to 2018 were enrolled. Plasma samples were retrospectively collected at the following time points: 1) within a week after LT; 2) 4 ± 1 weeks after LT; 3) 8 ± 1 weeks after LT; and 4) within 2 days after a positive blood culture. A total of 111 plasma samples were analyzed using shotgun next-generation sequencing (NGS) with the PATHDET pipeline. Relative abundance of Anelloviridae, Nocardiaceae, Microbacteriaceae, and Enterobacteriaceae significantly changed during the postoperative period. Microbiome diversity was higher within a week after LT than that at 8 weeks after LT. Antimicrobials were significantly associated with the microbiome of LT recipients. In addition, the proportion of Enterobacteriaceae was significantly increased and the plasma microbiome diversity was significantly lower in patients with acute cellular rejection (ACR) than non-ACR patients. Sequencing reads of bacteria isolated from blood cultures were predominantly identified by NGS in 8 of 16 samples, and human herpesvirus 6 was detected as a causative pathogen in one recipient with severe clinical condition. CONCLUSIONS: The metagenomic NGS technique has great potential in revealing the plasma microbiome and is useful as a comprehensive diagnostic procedure in clinical settings. Temporal dynamics of specific microorganisms may be used as indirect markers for the determination of immunocompetence and ACR in LT recipients.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Transplante de Fígado , Microbiota , Plasma , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/microbiologia , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Japão , Microbiota/genética , Microbiota/imunologia , Plasma/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
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