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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252088, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345543

RESUMO

Abstract Acacia mangium is a pioneer species with fast growth and frequently used in the recovery of degraded areas. The objectives were to evaluate insects and spiders, their ecological indices and interactions on A. mangium saplings in a tropical degraded area in recovering process. The experimental design was completely randomized with 24 replications, with treatments represented by the first and second years after A. mangium seedling planted. Numbers of leaves/branch, branches/sapling, and ground cover by A. mangium saplings, Hemiptera: Phenacoccus sp. and Pachycoris torridus; Hymenoptera: Tetragonisca angustula and Trigona spinipes, Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus sp. and Cephalotes sp.; Blattodea: Nasutitermes sp. and Neuroptera: Chrysoperla sp.; abundance, species richness of pollinating insects, tending ants, and the abundance of Sternorrhyncha predators were greatest in the second year after planting. Numbers of Hemiptera: Aethalium reticulatum, Hymenoptera: Camponotus sp., Cephalotes sp., Polybia sp., T. angustula, T. spinipes, tending ants, pollinating insects, Sternorrhyncha predators and species richness of tending ants were highest on A. mangium saplings with greatest numbers of leaves or branches. The increase in the population of arthropods with ground cover by A. mangium saplings age increase indicates the positive impact by this plant on the recovery process of degraded areas.


Resumo Acacia mangium é uma espécie pioneira, de rápido crescimento e utilizada na recuperação de áreas degradadas. Os objetivos foram avaliar insetos e aranhas, seus índices ecológicos e interações com plantas de A. mangium em área tropical degradada em processo de recuperação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 24 repetições, com os tratamentos representados pelos primeiro e segundo anos após a plantio de A. mangium. Os números de folhas/galhos, galhos/plantas e cobertura do solo por plantas de A. mangium, de Hemiptera: Phenacoccus sp. e Pachycoris torridus; Hymenoptera: Tetragonisca angustula e Trigona spinipes, Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus sp. e Cephalotes sp.; Blattodea: Nasutitermes sp. e Neuroptera: Chrysoperla sp.; a abundância, riqueza de espécies de insetos polinizadores, formigas cuidadoras e a abundância de predadores de Sternorrhyncha foram maiores no segundo ano após o plantio. Os números de Hemiptera: Aethalium reticulatum, Hymenoptera: Camponotus sp., Cephalotes sp., Polybia sp., T. angustula, T. spinipes, formigas cuidadoras, insetos polinizadores, predadores de Sternorrhyncha e a riqueza de espécies de formigas cuidadoras foram maiores em plantas de A. mangium com maior altura e número de folhas ou galhos. O aumento populacional de artrópodes e da cobertura do solo com o processo de envelhecimento das plantas de A. mangium indicam impacto positivo dessa planta na recuperação de áreas degradadas.


Assuntos
Animais , Aranhas , Acacia , Insetos , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253598, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355857

RESUMO

Abstract Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae) trees are widely distributed throughout the Cerrado ecosystem. The fruits of C. brasiliense trees are used by humans for food and as the main income source in many communities. C. brasiliense conservation is seriously threatened due to habitat loss caused by the land-use change. Sucking insects constitute an important ecological driver that potentially impact C. brasiliense survival in degraded environments. In addition, insects sampling methodologies for application in studies related to the conservation of C. brasiliense are poorly developed. In this study, sucking insects (Hemiptera) and their predators were recorded in three vertical strata of Caryocar brasiliense canopies. The distribution of sucking species showed vertical stratification along the canopy structure of C. brasiliense. The basal part of the canopy had the highest numbers of sucking insects Aphis gossypii (Glover 1877) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Bemisia tabaci (Genn. 1889) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), and their predators Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), spiders (Araneae), and Zelus armillatus (Lep. & Servi., 1825) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Predators' distribution follows the resource availability and preferred C. brasiliense tree parts with a higher abundance of prey.


Resumo Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae) é amplamente distribuído por todo o ecossistema de cerrado. Os frutos de C. brasiliense são utilizados na alimentação humana e constitui uma importante fonte de renda para muitas comunidades. A perda de habitat provocada pelas mudanças de uso da terra coloca em risco a conservação de C. brasiliense. Insetos sugadores constituem um importante fator ecológico que, potencialmente, afeta o fitness de C. brasiliense em ambientes degradados. Além disso, as metodologias de amostragem de insetos para aplicação em estudos relacionados à conservação de C. brasiliense são pouco desenvolvidas. Neste estudo, o número de insetos sugadores (Hemiptera) e seus predadores foram avaliados em três estratos verticais do dossel de C. brasiliense. A distribuição das espécies sugadoras apresentou estratificação vertical ao longo da estrutura do dossel. O estrato basal do dossel apresentou o maior número de insetos sugadores Aphis gossypii (Glover 1877) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) e Bemisia tabaci (Genn. 1889) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), e seus predadores Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), aranhas (Araneae) e Zelus armillatus (Lep. & Servi., 1825) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Os predadores distribuíram-se de acordo com a disponibilidade de recursos, ocorrendo em maior número nas partes do dossel com maior abundância de suas presas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Afídeos , Malpighiales , Árvores , Ecossistema , Insetos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254095, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355860

RESUMO

Abstract In northern central Chile, ephemeral pools constitute shallow isolated water bodies with a favourable habitat for fauna adapted to seasonal changes. Based on the limited knowledge about the fauna—particularly insects—associated to these ecosystems, the objective of this study was to characterize the richness, composition, structure and similarity of the insect communities associated with ephemeral pools in Huentelauquén (29º S, Coquimbo Region, Chile). By using pitfall traps, 10,762 individuals were captured, represented by 7 orders, 27 families, and 51 species. Coleoptera and Hymenoptera were the best represented orders, with Neuroptera, Orthoptera and Plecoptera being poorly represented groups. The non-parametric estimators evaluated showed wealth values above those observed for all the studied pools, and their accumulation curves suggest the existence of an incomplete species inventory in the studied community. Additionally, the hierarchical and ordering analysis showed groupings of pools located in the northwest and southeast of Huentelauquén. Preliminarily we found a negative correlation between the area of the pools and the richness (species) and abundance of insects. Additional studies (on other arthropod groups and other seasons of the year) could provide a better understanding of the local processes of extinction and colonization of the species inhabiting these fragile coastal environments.


Resumo No norte central do Chile, lagoas efêmeras constituem corpos de água isolados e pouco profundos, com um habitat favorável para a fauna adaptada as mudanças sazonais que as zonas úmidas estão sujeitas. Com relação a estes ecossistemas, sabe-se pouco sobre sua fauna, principalmente a de insetos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar a riqueza, composição, estrutura e similaridade das comunidades de insetos que habitam as lagoas temporárias de Huentelauquén (29º S, Região de Coquimbo, Chile). Usando armadilhas de interceptação, se capturou um total de 10.762 indivíduos, pertencentes a 7 ordens, 27 famílias e 51 espécies. Coleoptera e Hymenoptera foram as ordens mais representativas, enquanto Neuroptera, Orthoptera e Plecoptera foram grupos pouco representativos. Os estimadores não paramétricos avaliados mostraram valores de riqueza superiores ao observados para todas as lagoas estudadas, e suas curvas de acumulação parecem indicar que o inventario da comunidade estudada está incompleto. A análise hierárquica e de ordenamento revelou agrupamentos de lagoas correspondentes a zona nordeste e sudeste de Huentelauquén. Preliminarmente encontramos uma correlação negativa entre a área de lagoas efêmeras e a riqueza (espécies) e abundância de insetos. É necessário realizar estudos adicionais (sobre outros grupos de artrópodes e em outras estações do ano) para melhor compreensão dos processos locais de extinção e colonização das espécies que habitam estes frágeis ambientes costeiros estudados.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Besouros , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano , Chile , Biodiversidade , Insetos
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253218, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355863

RESUMO

Abstract Indices are used to help on decision-making. This study aims to develop and test an index, which can determine the loss (e.g., herbivorous insects) and solution (e.g., natural enemies) sources. They will be classified according to their importance regarding the ability to damage or to reduce the source of damage to the system when the final production is unknown. Acacia auriculiformis (Fabales: Fabaceae), a non-native pioneer species in Brazil with fast growth and rusticity, is used in restoration programs, and it is adequate to evaluate a new index. The formula was: Percentage of the Importance Indice-Production Unknown (% I.I.-PU) = [(ks1 x c1 x ds1)/Σ (ks1 x c1 x ds1) + (ks2 x c2 x ds2) + (ksn x cn x dsn)] x 100. The loss sources Aethalion reticulatum L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera), Stereoma anchoralis Lacordaire, 1848 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and Tettigoniidae, and solution sources Uspachus sp. (Araneae: Salticidae), Salticidae (Araneae), and Pseudomyrmex termitarius (Smith, 1877) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) showed the highest % I.I.-PU on leaves of A. auriculiformis saplings. The number of Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was reduced per number of Salticidae; that of A. reticulatum that of Uspachus sp.; and that of Cephalocoema sp. (Orthoptera: Proscopiidae) that of P. termitarius on A. auriculiformis saplings. However, the number of Aleyrodidae was increased per number of Cephalotes sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and that of A. reticulatum that of Brachymyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on A. auriculiformis saplings. The A. reticulatum damage was reduced per number of Uspachus sp., but the Aleyrodidae damage was increased per number of Cephalotes sp., totaling 23.81% of increase by insect damages on A. auriculiformis saplings. Here I show and test the % I.I.-PU. It is an new index that can detect the loss or solution sources on a system when production is unknown. It can be applied in some knowledge areas.


Resumo Índices são usados para ajudar na tomada de decisões. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver e testar um índice capaz de determinar fontes de perda (ex.: insetos herbívoros) e de solução (ex.: inimigos naturais). Eles serão classificados de acordo com sua importância quanto a habilidade de danificar ou reduzir danos no sistema, quando a produção final é desconhecida. Acacia auriculiformis (Fabales: Fabaceae), uma espécie pioneira não nativa do Brasil com rápido crescimento e rusticidade, usada em programas de restauração, é adequada para avaliar um novo índice. A fórmula foi: Porcentagem de Índice de Importância-Produção Desconhecida (% I.I.-PD) = [(ks1 x c1 x ds1)/Σ (ks1 x c1 x ds1) + (ks2 x c2 x ds2) + (ksn x cn x dsn)] x 100. As fontes de perda Aethalion reticulatum L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera), Stereoma anchoralis Lacordaire, 1848 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) e Tettigoniidae, e as fontes de solução Uspachus sp. (Araneae: Salticidae), Salticidae (Araneae) e Pseudomyrmex termitarius (Smith, 1877) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) apresentaram maiores % I.I.-PD nas folhas das mudas de A. auriculiformis. O número de Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) foi reduzido pelo número de Salticidae; o de A. reticulatum pelo de Uspachus sp.; e o de Cephalocoema sp. (Orthoptera: Proscopiidae) pelo de P. termitarius em mudas de A. auriculiformis. Entretanto, o número de Aleyrodidae foi aumentado pelo número de Cephalotes sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) e o de A. reticulatum pelo de Brachymyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) em mudas de A. auriculiformis. O dano de A. reticulatum foi reduzido pelo número de Uspachus sp., mas o dano de Aleyrodidae foi aumentado pelo número de Cephalotes sp., totalizando 23,81% de aumento de danos em mudas de A. auriculiformis. Aqui eu apresento e testo o % I.I.-PD. Ele é um novo índice capaz de detectar fontes de perda e de solução no sistema quando não se conhece a produção final. Ele pode ser aplicado em algumas áreas do conhecimento.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Besouros , Acacia , Hemípteros , Insetos
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248305, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339359

RESUMO

Abstract Fertilization with dehydrated sewage sludge can speed up the recovery process of degraded areas due to nutrients concentration, favoring the development of pioneer plants such as Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Beth (Fabales: Fabaceae) and the emergence of insects. This study aimed the evaluation of chewing, pollinating insects, predators, their ecological indices and relationships on A. auriculiformis plants fertilized with dehydrated sewage sludge. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments (with and without dehydrated sewage sludge) and 24 repetitions. The prevalence of chewing insects Parasyphraea sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Nasutitermes sp. (Blattodea: Termitidae), and Tropidacris collaris (Stoll, 1813) (Orthoptera: Romaleidae), defoliation, and ecological indices of abundance of Coleoptera and Orthoptera were observed on fertilized A. auriculiformis. Acacia auriculiformis plants, with a superior number of branches/tree, revealed greater abundance of Coleoptera and Orthoptera, species richness of pollinating insects, defoliation, numbers of Parasyphraea sp. and T. collaris. The ones with larger leaves/branches displayed greater abundance of species richness of Coleoptera and Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Therefore, the use of A. auriculiformis plants, fertilized with dehydrated sewage sludge, is promising in the recovery of degraded areas due to the ecological indices increase of chewing and pollinators insects and spiders in the analyzed area.


Resumo A fertilização com lodo de esgoto desidratado pode acelerar o processo de recuperação de áreas degradadas devido à concentração de nutrientes, favorecendo o desenvolvimento de plantas pioneiras tais como Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Beth (Fabales: Fabaceae) e de seus insetos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os insetos mastigadores, polinizadores e predadores e seus índices e relações ecológicas em plantas de A. auriculiformis fertilizadas com lodo de esgoto desidratado, em área degradada, durante 24 meses. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizados com dois tratamentos (com e sem adubação com lodo de esgoto desidratado) e 24 repetições (uma repetição = uma planta). O maior número de insetos mastigadores Parasyphraea sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Nasutitermes sp. (Blattodea: Termitidae) e Tropidacris collaris (Stoll, 1813) (Orthoptera: Romaleidae), de desfolha, e do índice ecológico abundância de Coleoptera e de Orthoptera foram maiores em plantas de A. auriculiformis fertilizadas do que nas não fertilizadas com lodo de esgoto desidratado. Plantas de A. auriculiformis, com maior quantidade de galhos/árvore, apresentaram maiores abundâncias de Coleoptera e Orthoptera, riqueza de espécies de insetos polinizadores, desfolha e números de Parasyphraea sp. e T. collaris, e as com maior folhas/galho os de riqueza de espécies de Coleoptera e Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Por tanto, a utilização de A. auriculiformis, adubada com lodo de esgoto desidratado, é promissora na recuperação de áreas degradadas devido ao aumento dos índices ecológicos de insetos mastigadores, polinizadores e aranhas na área.


Assuntos
Animais , Acacia , Fabaceae , Esgotos , Fertilização , Insetos
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245862, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339337

RESUMO

Abstract Except for a few stick insects that are economically valuable, most species be considered to be forest pests, so it is extremely important to obtain plant host-use information of more stick insects. In this paper, the plant hosts of three species of stick insects were recorded for the first time. We also discovered these stick insects can feed upon the flowers or leaves of plants. Lopaphus unidentatus (Chen & He, 1995) (Phasmida: Lonchodidae) attacked Hypericum choisianum Wall. ex N. Robson, 1973 (Hypericaceae), Leurophasma dolichocercum Bi, 1995 (Phasmida: Aschiphasmatidae) attacked Antenoron filiforme (Thunb.) Roberty & Vautier, 1964 (Polygonaceae) and Megalophasma granulatum Bi, 1995 (Phasmida: Lonchodidae) attacked Debregeasia orientalis C. J. Chen, 1991 (Urticaceae). Finally, we were lucky enough to also obtain photographs of them mating and feeding.


Resumo Exceto por alguns insetos-pau que são economicamente valiosos, a maioria das espécies pode ser considerada praga florestal, por isso é extremamente importante obter informações sobre o uso de hospedeiros de plantas de mais insetos-pau. Neste artigo, as plantas hospedeiras de três espécies de bicho-pau foram registradas pela primeira vez. Também descobrimos que esses bichos-pau podem se alimentar de flores ou folhas de plantas. Lopaphus unidentatus (Chen & He, 1995) (Phasmida: Lonchodidae) atacou a parede de Hypericum choisianum. ex N. Robson, 1973 (Hypericaceae), Leurophasma dolichocercum Bi, 1995 (Phasmida: Aschiphasmatidae) atacou Antenoron filiforme (Thunb.) Roberty & Vautier, 1964 (Polygonaceae) e Megalophasma granulatum Bi, 1995 (Phasmida: Lonchodidae orientaled) atacou Chen, 1991 (Urticaceae). Finalmente, tivemos a sorte de também obter fotos deles se acasalando e se alimentando.


Assuntos
Animais , Plantas , Insetos , Tibet , Folhas de Planta , Flores
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243651, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285608

RESUMO

Abstract Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (Fabaceae), a non-native pioneer species in Brazil with fast growth and rusticity, is used in restoration programs. Our goal was to assess during a 24-month survey the pattern of arthropods (phytophagous insects, bees, spiders, and predator insects) on the leaf surfaces of A. auriculiformis saplings. Fourteen species of phytophagous, two of bees and eleven of predators were most abundant on the adaxial surface. The values of the ecological indexes (abundance, diversity, and species richness) and the rarefaction, and k-dominance curves of phytophagous, bees and arthropod predators were highest on the adaxial leaf surface of A. auriculiformis. The k-dominance and abundance of Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) (both leaf surfaces), the native stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (both leaf surfaces) and the ant Brachymyrmex sp. (adaxial surface) and Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (abaxial surface) were the highest between the taxonomic groups of phytophagous, bees, and predators, respectively on A. auriculiformis saplings. The ecological indexes and rarefaction, abundance, and k-dominance curves of phytophagous insects, bees, and predators were highest on the adaxial leaf surface. The preference of phytophagous insects for the adaxial leaf surface is probably due to the lower effort required to move on this surface. Understanding the arthropod preferences between leaf surfaces may help to develop sampling and pest management plans for the most abundant phytophagous insects on A. auriculiformis saplings. Also, knowledge on the preference pattern of bees and predators may be used to favour their conservation.


Resumo Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (Fabaceae), espécie pioneira com rápido crescimento e rusticidade, é utilizada em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, durante 24 meses, o padrão de distribuição de artrópodes (insetos fitófagos, abelhas, aranhas e insetos predadores) nas superfícies foliares de A. auriculiformis. Quatorze espécies de fitófagos, duas de abelhas e onze de predadores foram mais abundantes na superfície adaxial. Índices ecológicos (abundância, diversidade e riqueza de espécies) e curvas de rarefação e dominância-k de fitófagos, abelhas e artrópodes predadores foram maiores na face adaxial de folhas de A. auriculiformis. A dominância-k e a abundância de Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) (ambas as superfícies foliares), da abelha nativa sem ferrão Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (ambas as superfícies foliares) e das formigas Brachymyrmex sp. (superfície adaxial) e Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (superfície abaxial) foram as maiores entre os grupos taxonômicos de fitófagos polinizadores e predadores, respectivamente, em plantas jovens de A. auriculiformis. A abundância, diversidade e riqueza e as curvas de rarefação e dominância-k de artrópodes fitófagos, abelhas e predadores foram maiores nas superfícies adaxiais das folhas dessa árvore. A preferência pela superfície adaxial da folha se deve, provavelmente, ao menor esforço para se movimentarem na mesma. Compreender as preferências dos artrópodes pelas superfícies foliares pode auxiliar no desenvolvimento de planos de amostragem e manejo de pragas em A. auriculiformis. Além disso, o conhecimento da distribuição de abelhas e predadores pode favorecer a conservação desses insetos.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Artrópodes , Acacia , Abelhas , Folhas de Planta , Insetos
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243890, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278548

RESUMO

Abstract Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) is an omnivorous predator that finds different food resources in the corn plant: eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797), uredospores of Puccinia polysora (Underw, 1897), and pollen. Knowing the survival and food preferences of this predator is essential to define its relevance as a biological control agent. We hypothesize that the foraging behavior and predatory capacity of D. luteipes may be affected when several food resources, especially eggs of S. frugiperda, uredospores of P. polysora, and pollen are concurrently in the same plant. The survival of D. luteipes in the nymph stage and their preference among food resources, often available in corn plants, were determined. To verify the survival of D. luteipes, newly hatched nymphs were fed exclusively with 1- uredospores of P. polysora, 2- eggs of S. frugiperda, 3- corn pollen, 4- a combination of uredospores + eggs, and 5- artificial diet (control). In another experiment, nymphs and adults of D. luteipes with 24 and 48 hours of fasting were individually released in the center of a container with four diets: 1- uredospores of P. polysora, 2- eggs of S. frugiperda, 3- corn pollen, 4- artificial diet, and maintained for 10 minutes, to evaluate the food choice and feeding time. The exclusive feeding with S. frugiperda eggs caused low nymph survival (8%), but the combination of P. polysora uredospores + S. frugiperda eggs allowed 58.3% survival. D. luteipes preferred feeding during the nighttime and the most significant proportions of choices by nymphs and adults were for pollen and diet, with adults spending more time eating pollen. These findings indicate that the trophic choices of D. luteipes are relevant to understand its contribution as an agent to control pest insects and fungal diseases in corn.


Resumo Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) é um predador onívoro, que encontra na planta do milho diferentes recursos alimentares: ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797), uredósporos de Puccinia polysora (Underw, 1897) e pólen. Para definição da relevância desse predador como agente de controle biológico, conhecer a sobrevivência e preferência alimentar é essencial. Nós hipotetizamos que o comportamento de forrageamento e a capacidade de predação de D. luteipes podem ser afetados quando uma mesma planta oferece ovos, uredósporos e pólen, concomitantemente. A sobrevivência de D. luteipes na fase de ninfa e sua preferência entre os recursos alimentares, frequentemente disponíveis nas plantas de milho, foram determinados. Para verificar a sobrevivência de D. luteipes, ninfas recém eclodidas foram alimentadas exclusivamente com 1- uredósporos de P. polysora, 2- ovos de S. frugiperda, 3- pólen de milho, 4- combinação de uredósporos + ovos e 5- dieta artificial (controle). Em outro experimento, ninfas e adultos de D. luteipes com 24 e 48 horas de jejum foram liberadas individualmente, em recipientes contendo quatro dietas: 1- uredósporos de P. polysora, 2- ovos de S. frugiperda, 3- pólen de milho, 4- dieta artificial e mantidas durante 10 min, sendo avaliados a escolha pelo alimento e o tempo de alimentação. A alimentação exclusiva com ovos de S. frugiperda ocasionou baixa sobrevivência das ninfas (8%), porém a combinação de uredósporos de P. polysora + ovos de S. frugiperda possibilitou sobrevivência de 58,3%. D. luteipes preferiu se alimentar durante o período noturno e as maiores proporções de escolhas das ninfas e dos adultos ocorreram no pólen e na dieta, sendo que os adultos gastaram mais tempo se alimentando de pólen. Estas descobertas indicam que as escolhas tróficas de D. luteipes são relevantes para compreender sua contribuição como agente de controle de insetos-praga e doença fúngicas em milho.


Assuntos
Animais , Comportamento Predatório , Insetos , Spodoptera , Zea mays , Larva , Ninfa
10.
J R Soc Interface ; 19(191): 20210909, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642428

RESUMO

This paper provides a systematic and critical review of dynamic experimental rigs used for insect wing aerodynamics research. The goal is to facilitate meaningful comparison of data from existing rigs and provide insights for designers of new rigs. The scope extends from simple one degree of freedom rotary rigs to multi degrees of freedom rigs allowing various rotation and translation motions. Experimental methods are characterized using a consistent set of parameters that allows objective comparison of different approaches. A comprehensive catalogue is presented for the tested flow conditions (assessed through Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio), wing morphologies (assessed through aspect ratio, planform shape and thickness to mean chord ratio) and kinematics (assessed through motion degrees of freedom). Links are made between the type of aerodynamic characteristics being studied and the type of experimental set-up used. Rig mechanical design considerations are assessed, and the aerodynamic measurements obtained from these rigs are discussed.


Assuntos
Voo Animal , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Insetos , Asas de Animais
11.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(6): 325, 2022 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644827

RESUMO

Insect flight is a complex physiological process that involves sensory and neuroendocrinal control, efficient energy metabolism, rhythmic muscle contraction, and coordinated wing movement. As a classical study model for insect flight, locusts have attracted much attention from physiologists, behaviorists, and neuroendocrinologists over the past decades. In earlier research, scientists made extensive efforts to explore the hormone regulation of metabolism related to locust flight; however, this work was hindered by the absence of molecular and genetic tools. Recently, the rapid development of molecular and genetic tools as well as multi-omics has greatly advanced our understanding of the metabolic, molecular, and neuroendocrinal basis of long-term flight in locusts. Novel neural and molecular factors modulating locust flight and their regulatory mechanisms have been explored. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms underlying phase-dependent differences in locust flight have also been revealed. Here, we provide a systematic review of locust flight physiology, with emphasis on recent advances in the neuroendocrinal, genetic, and molecular basis. Future research directions and potential challenges are also addressed.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Gafanhotos/genética , Gafanhotos/metabolismo , Insetos , Contração Muscular
12.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 616: 115-121, 2022 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665607

RESUMO

The genus Flavivirus includes pathogenic tick- and mosquito-borne flaviviruses as well as non-pathogenic insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFVs). Phylogenetic analysis based on whole amino acid sequences has indicated that lineage II ISFVs have similarities to pathogenic flaviviruses. In this study, we used reactive analysis with immune serum against Psorophora flavivirus (PSFV) as a lineage IIa ISFV, and Barkeji virus (BJV) as a lineage IIb ISFV, to evaluate the antigenic similarity among lineage IIa and IIb ISFVs, and pathogenic mosquito-borne flaviviruses (MBFVs). Binding and antibody-dependent enhancement assays showed that anti-PSFV sera had broad cross-reactivity with MBFV antigens, while anti-BJV sera had low cross-reactivity. Both of the lineage II ISFV antisera were rarely observed to neutralize MBFVs. These results suggest that lineage IIa ISFV PSFV has more antigenic similarity to MBFVs than lineage IIb ISFV BJV.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Flavivirus , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Insetos , Filogenia
13.
J Therm Biol ; 107: 103273, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701029

RESUMO

We determine the thermal responses for 11 species from four genera of New Zealand cicadas. Thermal responses are remarkably similar regardless of environment or elevation inhabited by the species. The thermal responses of New Zealand cicadas do not show the same variability as cicada species in similarly diverse environments in Africa, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America nor the correlation to elevation as seen in some North American cicadas. Behavioral thermoregulation appears to be the mechanism permitting the distribution of species into specific habitats so that diverging thermal adaptation was not necessary as speciation occurred. The first example of a cicada using conductive heat transfer to thermoregulate is provided. These data show an evolutionary divergence from what otherwise have been convergent thermal adaptation patterns in a variety of cicadas separated by large geographic distances and species phylogeny.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Ecossistema , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Insetos , Nova Zelândia
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9827, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701655

RESUMO

In associative learning in mammals, it is widely accepted that learning is determined by the prediction error, i.e., the error between the actual reward and the reward predicted by the animal. However, it is unclear whether error-based learning theories are applicable to the learning occurring in other non-mammalian species. Here, we examined whether overexpectation, a phenomenon that supports error-based learning theories, occurs in crickets. Crickets were independently trained with two different conditioned stimuli (CSs), an odour and a visual pattern, that were followed by an appetitive unconditioned stimulus (US). Then the two CSs were presented simultaneously as a compound, followed by the same US. This treatment resulted in a reduced conditioned response to the odour CS when tested immediately after training. However, the response to the CS was partially recovered after 1 day. These results are the first to show overexpectation and its spontaneous recovery in an invertebrate species. While the results showing overexpectation are in agreement with the prediction by the Rescorla-Wagner model, a major form of error-based learning theories, the ones showing spontaneous recovery are not. Our results suggest that conventional error-based learning models account for some, but not for all essential features of Pavlovian conditioning in crickets.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Clássico , Condicionamento Psicológico , Animais , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Insetos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Mamíferos , Recompensa
15.
Sci Robot ; 7(67): eabl6334, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35704608

RESUMO

Autonomous robots are expected to perform a wide range of sophisticated tasks in complex, unknown environments. However, available onboard computing capabilities and algorithms represent a considerable obstacle to reaching higher levels of autonomy, especially as robots get smaller and the end of Moore's law approaches. Here, we argue that inspiration from insect intelligence is a promising alternative to classic methods in robotics for the artificial intelligence (AI) needed for the autonomy of small, mobile robots. The advantage of insect intelligence stems from its resource efficiency (or parsimony) especially in terms of power and mass. First, we discuss the main aspects of insect intelligence underlying this parsimony: embodiment, sensory-motor coordination, and swarming. Then, we take stock of where insect-inspired AI stands as an alternative to other approaches to important robotic tasks such as navigation and identify open challenges on the road to its more widespread adoption. Last, we reflect on the types of processors that are suitable for implementing insect-inspired AI, from more traditional ones such as microcontrollers and field-programmable gate arrays to unconventional neuromorphic processors. We argue that even for neuromorphic processors, one should not simply apply existing AI algorithms but exploit insights from natural insect intelligence to get maximally efficient AI for robot autonomy.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Robótica , Algoritmos , Animais , Insetos , Resolução de Problemas
16.
Immunol Lett ; 247: 46-51, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667452

RESUMO

Recent advances in insect-pathogen interactions have started to reveal the role of insect tissues and organs as natural infection routes for parasites and microbial pathogens. Here we summarize this information highlighting the micro- and macro-parasites that enter insects through distinct infection routes and link them to innate immune activity. We also examine whether the infection route determines the insect immune response and if the resulting immunological and physiological processes underpinning these different routes of infection are clearly distinct. Understanding how the infection route is associated with the robustness in insect host defense will help us identify conserved evolutionary and ecological patterns in order to design novel strategies for the management of destructive agricultural pests and disease vectors.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata , Insetos , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Insetos/parasitologia
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 906294, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35757717

RESUMO

Integrins are a large group of cell-surface proteins that are classified as transmembrane proteins. Integrins are classified into different types based on sequence variations, leading to structural and functional diversity. They are broadly distributed in animals and have a wide range of biological functions such as cell-to-cell communication, intracellular cytoskeleton organization, cellular signaling, immune responses, etc. Integrins are among the most abundant cell surface proteins in insects, exhibiting their indispensability in insect physiology. Because of their critical biological involvement in physiological processes, they appear to be a novel target for designing effective pest control strategies. In the current literature review, we first discuss the discovery and expression responses of integrins against various types of pathogens. Secondly, we examine the specific biological roles of integrins in controlling microbial pathogens, such as phagocytosis, encapsulation, nodulation, immune signaling, and so on. Finally, we describe the possible uses of integrins to control agricultural insect pests.


Assuntos
Insetos , Integrinas , Animais , Fagocitose , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Biol Lett ; 18(6): 20220007, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642382

RESUMO

Parental care can protect offspring from predators but can also create opportunities for parents to vector parasites to their offspring. We hypothesized that the risk of infection by maternally vectored parasites would increase with the frequency of mother-offspring contact. Ammophila spp. wasps (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) build nests in which they rear a single offspring. Ammophila species exhibit varied offspring provisioning behaviours: some species enter the nest once to provision a single, large caterpillar, whereas others enter the nest repeatedly to provision with many smaller caterpillars. We hypothesized that each nest visit increases the risk of offspring parasitism by Paraxenos lugubris (Strepsiptera: Xenidae), whose infectious stages ride on the mother wasp (phoresy) to reach the vulnerable Ammophila offspring. We quantified parasitism risk by external examination of museum-curated Ammophila specimens-the anterior portion of P. lugubris protrudes between the adult host's abdominal sclerites and reflects infection during the larval stage. As predicted, Ammophila species that receive larger numbers of provisions incur greater risks of parasitism, with nest provisioning behaviour explaining ca 90% of the interspecific variation in mean parasitism. These findings demonstrate that parental care can augment, rather than reduce, the risk of parasite transmission to offspring.


Assuntos
Insetos/fisiologia , Vespas/parasitologia , Animais , Comportamento de Nidação , Vespas/fisiologia
19.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(6)2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35737055

RESUMO

The silkworm's Cat L-like gene, which encodes a lysosomal cathepsin L-like cysteine protease, is thought to be part of the insect's innate immunity via an as-yet-undetermined mechanism. Assuming that the primary function of Cat L-like is microbial degradation in mature phagosomes, we hypothesise that the suppression of the Cat L-like gene expression would increase Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacteraemia and toxicity in knockdown insects. Here, we performed a functional analysis of Cat L-like in larvae that were fed mulberry leaves contaminated with a commercial biopesticide formulation based on Bt kurstaki (Btk) (i.e., Dipel) to investigate its role in insect defence against a known entomopathogen. Exposure to sublethal doses of Dipel resulted in overexpression of the Cat L-like gene in insect haemolymph 24 and 48 h after exposure. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated suppression of Cat L-like expression significantly increased the toxicity of Dipel to exposed larvae. Moreover, Btk replication was higher in RNAi insects, suggesting that Cat L-like cathepsin may be involved in a bacterial killing mechanism of haemocytes. Finally, our results confirm that Cat L-like protease is part of the antimicrobial defence of insects and suggest that it could be used as a target to increase the insecticidal efficacy of Bt-based biopesticides.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Bombyx , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Bombyx/genética , Catepsina L/genética , Insetos , Larva/genética , Interferência de RNA , Reprodução
20.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 97, 2022 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herbivorous insects acquire their gut microbiota from diverse sources, and these microorganisms play significant roles in insect hosts' tolerance to plant secondary defensive compounds. Camellia weevil (Curculio chinensis) (CW) is an obligate seed parasite of Camellia oleifera plants. Our previous study linked the CW's gut microbiome to the tolerance of the tea saponin (TS) in C. oleifera seeds. However, the source of these gut microbiomes, the key bacteria involved in TS tolerance, and the degradation functions of these bacteria remain unresolved. RESULTS: Our study indicated that CW gut microbiome was more affected by the microbiome from soil than that from fruits. The soil-derived Acinetobacter served as the core bacterial genus, and Acinetobacter sp. was putatively regarded responsible for the saponin-degradation in CW guts. Subsequent experiments using fluorescently labeled cultures verified that the isolate Acinetobacter sp. AS23 can migrate into CW larval guts, and ultimately endow its host with the ability to degrade saponin, thereby allowing CW to subsist as a pest within plant fruits resisting to higher concentration of defensive chemical. CONCLUSIONS: The systematic studies of the sources of gut microorganisms, the screening of taxa involved in plant secondary metabolite degradation, and the investigation of bacteria responsible for CW toxicity mitigation provide clarified evidence that the intestinal microorganisms can mediate the tolerance of herbivorous insects against plant toxins. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Camellia , Saponinas , Gorgulhos , Animais , Bactérias , Insetos , Solo , Gorgulhos/microbiologia
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