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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253948, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355909

RESUMO

Abstract The assessment of the comparative effect of biosal (phytopesticide), deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin (pyrethroids) were made against two fodder pests, Hermolaus modestus and Hermolaus ocimumi by filter paper impregnation method. The activity of total protein contents, GPT (glutamic-pyruvic transaminase) and GOT (glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase) were affected in Hermolaus modestus and Hermolaus ocimumi against biosal, deltamethrin, and lambda cyhalothrin. The activity of total protein contents in H. modestus was 31.053%, 4.607%, and 24.575%, against biosal, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The activity of total protein contents was observed as 24.202%, 15.25%, and 56.036% against deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and biosal, respectively in H. ocimumi. The activity of GOT was observed as 98.675% for biosal 33.95% for deltamethrin and 83.619% for lambda-cyhalothrin in H. modestus. The GOT activity was estimated in H. ocimumi as 78.831%, 47.645%, and 71.287% against biosal, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The efficacy of GPT enzyme against biosal, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin was calculated as 89.26%, 73.07%, and 47.58%, respectively in H. modestus. The H. ocimumi showed GPT activity as 77.58% for biosal, 68.84% for deltamethrin, and 52.67% for lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively.


Resumo A avaliação do efeito comparativo do biosal (fitopesticida), deltametrina e lambda-cialotrina (piretróides) foi feita contra duas pragas forrageiras, Hermolaus modestus e Hermolaus ocimumi, pelo método de impregnação com papel de filtro. A atividade do conteúdo de proteína total, GPT (transaminase glutâmico-pirúvica) e GOT (oxaloacetato transaminase glutâmico) foram afetados em Hermolaus modestus e Hermolaus ocimumi contra biosal, deltametrina e lambda cialotrina. A atividade do conteúdo de proteína total em H. modestus foi 31.053%, 4.607% e 24.575%, contra biosal, deltametrina e lambda-cialotrina, respectivamente. A atividade do conteúdo de proteína total foi observada como 24.202%, 15.25% e 56,036% contra deltametrina, lambda-cialotrina e biosal, respectivamente em H. ocimumi. A atividade do GOT foi observada em 98.675% para o biosal, 33,95% para a deltametrina e 83.619% para a lambda-cialotrina em H. modestus. A atividade do GOT foi estimada em H. ocimumi como 78.831%, 47.645% e 71.287% contra biosal, deltametrina e lambda-cialotrina, respectivamente. A eficácia da enzima GPT contra biosal, deltametrina e lambda-cialotrina foi calculada como 89.26%, 73.07% e 47.58%, respectivamente em H. modestus. A H. ocimumi apresentou atividade GPT de 77.58% para biosal, 68.84% para deltametrina e 52.67% para lambda-cialotrina, respectivamente.


Assuntos
Animais , Piretrinas , Inseticidas , Heterópteros , Alanina Transaminase , Ração Animal , Nitrilas
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254479, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355910

RESUMO

Abstract Earias vittellaFabricius, 1794 (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) is deliberated to be one of the most destructive pests of cotton and okra vegetation in the world including Asia. The pest has established resistance to various synthetic insecticides. The use of bio-pesticide is one of the unconventional approaches to develop a vigorous ecosystem without harming non- target pests and beneficial natural insect fauna. In the present study, the toxicity levels of Citrullus colocynthis seed extract have been evaluated against the populations of E. vittellaunder standardized laboratory conditions. The toxic effects of C. colocynthis on development periods, protein contents and esterase activity of the life stages of E. vittella were also evaluated. The toxicity levels of methanol, ethanol, hexane, water and profenofos were evaluated on the 1st instar larvae of E. vittella. LC30 and LC80 concentrations exhibited the effectiveness of methanol-based C. colocynthis seed extract against 1st instar larvae of E. vitella. The enhanced larval and pupal periods were revealed in treated samples during the comparison with untreated samples. The intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate in the LC30 and LC80 concentrations exposed larvae remained less than the control treatment. Fecundity, the esterase activity and protein contents were declined in LC30 and LC80 treated samples as compared to the control. The present findings suggest that C. colosynthis extracts based botanical insecticides are beneficial, ecosystem sustainable and can be integrated with insect management programs from environment safety perspective.


Resumo Earias vittella Fabricius, 1794 (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) é considerada uma das pragas mais destrutivas de algodão e quiabo no mundo, incluindo a Ásia. Essa praga estabeleceu resistência a vários inseticidas sintéticos. O uso de biopesticidas é uma das abordagens não convencionais para desenvolver um ecossistema saudável sem prejudicar as pragas não alvo e a fauna natural benéfica de insetos. No presente estudo, os níveis de toxicidade do extrato de semente de Citrullus colocynthis foram avaliados nas populações de E. vittella em condições de laboratório padronizadas. Os efeitos tóxicos de C. colocynthis nos períodos de desenvolvimento, conteúdo de proteína e atividade esterase das fases de vida de E. vittella também foram avaliados. Os níveis de toxicidade de metanol, etanol, hexano, água e profenofós foram avaliados em larvas de 1º instar de E. vittella. As concentrações de LC30 e LC80 apresentaram eficácia do extrato de sementes de C. colocynthis à base de metanol contra larvas de 1º instar de E. vittella. Os períodos larval e pupal aumentados foram revelados nas amostras tratadas durante a comparação com as amostras não tratadas. A taxa intrínseca de aumento e a taxa reprodutiva líquida nas concentrações de larvas expostas LC30 e LC80 permaneceram menores do que o tratamento controle. A fecundidade, a atividade da esterase e o conteúdo de proteína diminuíram nas amostras tratadas com LC30 e LC80 em comparação com o controle. As presentes descobertas sugerem que os extratos de C. colocynthis à base de inseticidas botânicos são benéficos, sustentáveis ​​para o ecossistema e podem ser integrados com programas de manejo de insetos do ponto de vista da segurança ambiental.


Assuntos
Animais , Citrullus colocynthis , Inseticidas , Mariposas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ecossistema , Larva
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247676, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345527

RESUMO

Abstract Development of insecticides resistance mainly hinge with managements techniques for the control of Jassid, Amrasca biguttutla biguttutla. Five insecticides were applied against field collected and laboratory rared jassid populations during the years of 2017 to 2019 to profile their resistance level against field population of jassid through leaf dip method. Very low resistance level was found in jassid against confidor whereas high level of resistance was observed by pyriproxyfen against other test insecticides. Gradual resistance was observed against diafenthiuron. It is concluded that for the management of Jassid repetition of same insecticide should be avoided. The use of confidor may be reduced to overcome resistance against Jassid.


Resumo Desenvolvimento da resistência a inseticidas principalmente em dobradiça com técnicas de manejo para o controle de jassid, Amrasca biguttutla biguttutla. Cinco inseticidas foram aplicados contra populações de jassídeos coletados em campo e em laboratório durante os anos de 2017 a 2019 para traçar o perfil de seu nível de resistência contra populações de jassídeos em campo através do método de imersão nas folhas. Nível de resistência muito baixo foi encontrado em jassid contra confidor, enquanto alto nível de resistência foi observado por piriproxifeno contra outros inseticidas de teste. Resistência gradual foi observada contra o diafenthiuron. Conclui-se que, para o manejo do jassid, a repetição do mesmo inseticida deve ser evitada. O uso de confidor pode ser reduzido para superar a resistência contra jassid.


Assuntos
Animais , Hemípteros , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Resistência a Inseticidas , Laboratórios
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250373, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339376

RESUMO

Abstract Honey is a suitable matrix for the evaluation of environmental contaminants including organochlorine insecticides. The present study was conducted to evaluate residues of fifteen organochlorine insecticides in honey samples of unifloral and multifloral origins from Dir, Pakistan. Honey samples (5 g each) were extracted with GC grade organic solvents and then subjected to Rotary Evaporator till dryness. The extracts were then mixed with n-Hexane (5 ml) and purified through Column Chromatography. Purified extracts (1μl each) were processed through Gas Chromatograph coupled with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) for identification and quantification of the insecticides. Of the 15 insecticides tested, 46.7% were detected while 53.3% were not detected in the honey samples. Heptachlor was the most prevalent insecticide with a mean level of 0.0018 mg/kg detected in 80% of the samples followed by β-HCH with a mean level of 0.0016 mg/kg detected in 71.4% of the honey samples. Honey samples from Acacia modesta Wall. were 100% positive for Heptachlor with a mean level of 0.0048 mg/kg followed by β-HCH with a mean level of 0.003 mg/kg and frequency of 83.3%. Minimum levels of the tested insecticides were detected in the unifloral honey from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Methoxychlor, Endosulfan, Endrin and metabolites of DDT were not detected in the studied honey samples. Some of the tested insecticides are banned in Pakistan but are still detected in honey samples indicating their use in the study area. The detected levels of all insecticides were below the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) and safe for consumers. However, the levels detected can cause mortality in insect fauna. The use of banned insecticides is one of the main factors responsible for the declining populations of important insect pollinators including honeybees.


Resumo O mel é uma matriz adequada para a avaliação de contaminantes ambientais, incluindo inseticidas organoclorados. O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar resíduos de 15 inseticidas organoclorados em amostras de mel de origem unifloral e multifloral de Dir, Paquistão. Amostras de mel (5 g cada) foram extraídas com solventes orgânicos de grau GC e, em seguida, submetidas ao evaporador rotativo até a secura. Os extratos foram então misturados com n-hexano (5 ml) e purificados por cromatografia em coluna. Os extratos purificados (1μl cada) foram processados através de cromatógrafo gasoso acoplado a detector de captura de elétrons (GC-ECD) para identificação e quantificação dos inseticidas. Dos 15 inseticidas testados, 46,7% foram detectados enquanto 53,3% não foram detectados nas amostras de mel. O heptacloro foi o inseticida mais prevalente com um nível médio de 0,0018 mg / kg detectado em 80% das amostras, seguido por β-HCH com um nível médio de 0,0016 mg / kg detectado em 71,4% das amostras de mel. Amostras de mel da parede de Acacia modesta foram 100% positivos para heptacloro com um nível médio de 0,0048 mg / kg seguido por β-HCH com um nível médio de 0,003 mg / kg e frequência de 83,3%. Níveis mínimos dos inseticidas testados foram detectados no mel unifloral de Ziziphus jujuba da usina. Metoxicloro, Endosulfan, Endrin e metabólitos do DDT não foram detectados nas amostras de mel estudadas. Alguns dos inseticidas testados são proibidos no Paquistão, mas ainda são detectados em amostras de mel, indicando seu uso na área de estudo. Os níveis detectados de todos os inseticidas estavam abaixo dos Níveis Máximos de Resíduos (MRLs) e seguros para os consumidores. No entanto, os níveis detectados podem causar mortalidade na fauna de insetos. O uso de inseticidas proibidos é um dos principais fatores responsáveis pelo declínio das populações de importantes insetos polinizadores, incluindo as abelhas.


Assuntos
Animais , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Mel/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Abelhas , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Endossulfano/análise
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e240842, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339375

RESUMO

Abstract This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar várias atividades mosquitocidas do extrato n-hexano de planta inteira de Chenopodium botrys contra Culex quinquefasciatus. O extrato mostrou atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora de oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus. Durante as atividades larvicida e pupicida, a concentração letal de 24 horas (CL50) do extrato contra larvas de 2º estádio, larvas de 4º estádio e pupa foi de 324,6, 495,6 e 950,8 ppm, respectivamente. Durante o bioensaio com frasco do CDC (Centros para Controle e Prevenção de Doenças) para adulticida, o tempo médio de desativação (KDT50) na concentração de 1,25% foi de 123,4 minutos. Durante o bioensaio de impregnação com papel de filtro para a atividade adulticida do extrato, o valor KDT50 na concentração de 0,138 mg / cm2 foi de 48,6 minutos. O extrato foi fracionado em 14 frações através de cromatografia em coluna de gel de sílica que foram então combinadas em seis frações com base em um valor de fator de retenção (Rf) semelhante. Essas frações foram selecionadas quanto à atividade adulticida por meio da aplicação do bioensaio com garrafa do CDC. A fração obtida através da fase móvel de n-hexanos-clorofórmio 60:40% a 50:50% com valor de 0,5 Rf apresentou atividade adulticida de 100% na concentração de 0,2%. Durante a atividade de dissuasão da oviposição, a maior concentração de extrato (1000 ppm) apresentou repelência efetiva de 71,3 ± 4,4% e índice de atividade de oviposição de 0,6 ± 0,1. Durante a atividade de inibição da emergência de adultos, o valor médio de inibição da emergência (EI50) foi de 312,3 ppm. A partir do resultado da presente investigação, conclui-se que o extrato de n-hexano da planta inteira de C. botrys possui fortes atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora da oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Assuntos
Animais , Culex , Chenopodium , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Hexanos , Larva
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248122, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355851

RESUMO

Abstract Being vector of West Nile Virus and falariasis the control of Culex quinquefasciatus is likely to be essential. Synthetic insecticide treatment is looking most effective for vectors mosquito control. However, these products are toxic to the environment and non-target organisms. Consequently, ecofriendly control of vectors mosquito is needed. In this regard botanical insecticide is looking more fruitful. Therefore, the present research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of methanolic extract and various fractions, including, n-hexane, ethyl-acetate, chloroform, and aqueous fraction, obtained from methanolic extract of Ailanthus altissima, Artemisia scoparia, and Justicia adhatoda using separating funnel against larval, pupal, and adult stages of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations (31.25-1000 ppm) of methanolic extract and its fractions for 24 hours of exposure period. For knock-down bioassay (filter paper impregnation bioassay) different concentration of the methanolic extract and its various fractions (i.e. 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1mg/mL) were applied for 1 hour exposure period. The results were statistically analysed using standard deviation, probit analysis, and linear regression. The R2 values of larvae, pupae, and adult range from 0.4 to 0.99. The values of LC50 (concentration causing 50% mortality) for late 3rd instar larvae after 24 hours exposure period range from 93-1856.7 ppm, while LC90 values range from 424 -7635.5ppm. The values of LC50for pupae range form 1326.7-6818.4ppm and and values of LC90 range from 3667.3-17427.9ppm, respectively. The KDT50 range from 0.30 to 2.8% and KDT90 values range from1.2 to 110.8%, respectively. In conclusion, Justicia adhatoda may be effective for controlling populations of vector mosquito.


Resumo Por ser o vetor do vírus do Nilo Ocidental e da falaríase, o controle de Culex quinquefasciatus Say é provavelmente essencial. O tratamento com inseticida sintético parece ser mais eficaz para o controle dos mosquitos vetores. No entanto, esses produtos são tóxicos para o meio ambiente e organismos não visados. Consequentemente, o controle ecológico dos mosquitos vetores é necessário. Nesse sentido, o inseticida botânico parece mais produtivo. Portanto, a presente pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar a eficácia do extrato metanólico e de várias frações, incluindo n-hexano, acetato de etila, clorofórmio e fração aquosa, obtidos do extrato metanólico de Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit. e Justicia adhatoda L. usando funil de separação contra os estágios larval, pupal e adulto de C. quinquefasciatus. As larvas e pupas de C. quinquefasciatus foram expostas a várias concentrações (31,25-1000 ppm) de extrato metanólico, e suas frações por 24 horas de período de exposição. Para o bioensaio knock-down (bioensaio de impregnação de papel de filtro), diferentes concentrações do extrato metanólico e suas várias frações (ou seja, 0,0625, 0,125, 0,25, 0,5 e 1 mg / mL) foram aplicadas por um período de exposição de 1 hora. Os resultados foram analisados ​​estatisticamente usando desvio padrão, análise Probit e regressão linear. Os valores de R2 de larvas, pupas e adultos variaram de 0,4 a 0,99. Os valores de LC50 (concentração que causa 50% de mortalidade) para larvas de terceiro estádio tardio após 24 horas de período de exposição variaram de 93-1856,7 ppm, enquanto os valores de LC90 variaram de 424-7635,5ppm. Os valores de LC50 para pupas variaram de 1326,7-6818,4 ppm e os valores de LC90 variaram de 3667,3-17427,9 ppm, respectivamente. O KDT50 variou de 0,30 a 2,8% e os valores de KDT90 variaram de 1,2 a 110,8%, respectivamente. Por fim, a espécie J. adhatoda pôde ser eficaz para controlar populações de mosquitos vetores.


Assuntos
Animais , Culex , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Anopheles , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Mosquitos Vetores , Larva
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246230, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339369

RESUMO

Abstract Dengue fever vectored by the mosquito Aedes aegypti is one of the most rapidly spreading insect-borne diseases. Current reliance of dengue vector control is mostly on chemical insecticides. Growing insecticide resistance in the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, limits the effectiveness of vector control through chemical insecticides. These chemical insecticides also have negative environmental impacts on animals, plants and human health. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms and are found to be less damaging to the environment as compared to chemical insecticides. In the present study, entomopathogenic potential of local strains of fungi isolated from soil was assessed for the control of dengue vector. Local fungal isolates presents better alternative to introducing a foreign biocontrol strain, as they may be better adapted to environmental conditions of the area to survive and may have more entomopathogenic efficacy against target organism. Larvicidal efficacy of Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium proliferatum was evaluated against Aedes aegypti. Local strains of F. equiseti (MK371718) and F. proliferatum (MK371715) were isolated from the soil of Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan by using insect bait method. Larvicidal activity of two Fusarium spp. was tested against forth instar larvae of A. aegypti in the laboratory, using concentrations 105, 106, 107 and 108 conidia /ml. LC50 values for F. equiseti after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure were recorded as 3.8x 108, 2.9x107, 2.0x107, and 7.1x106 conidia /ml respectively while LC50 values for F. proliferatum were recorded as 1.21x108, 9.6x107, 4.2x107, 2.6x107 conidia /ml respectively after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure. The results indicate that among two fungal strains F. equiseti was found to be more effective in terms of its larvicidal activity than F. proliferatum against larvae of A. aegypti.


Resumo A dengue transmitida pelo mosquito Aedes aegypti é uma das doenças transmitidas por insetos de propagação mais rápida. A dependência atual do controle do vetor da dengue é principalmente de inseticidas químicos. O aumento da resistência a inseticidas no principal vetor do mosquito, Aedes aegypti, limita a eficácia do controle do vetor por meio de inseticidas químicos. Esses inseticidas químicos também têm impactos ambientais negativos sobre os animais, plantas e saúde humana. Os agentes de micobiocontrole são organismos que ocorrem naturalmente e são menos prejudiciais ao meio ambiente em comparação com os inseticidas químicos. No presente estudo, avaliou-se o potencial entomopatogênico de cepas locais de fungos isolados do solo para o controle do vetor da dengue. Isolados de fungos locais apresentam melhor alternativa para a introdução de uma cepa de biocontrole estrangeira, pois podem ser mais bem adaptados às condições ambientais da área para sobreviver e podem ter maior eficácia entomopatogênica contra o organismo-alvo. A eficácia larvicida de Fusarium equiseti e Fusarium proliferatum foi avaliada contra Aedes aegypti. Cepas locais de F. equiseti (MK371718) e F. proliferatum (MK371715) foram isoladas do solo de Changa Manga Forest, Paquistão, usando o método de isca para insetos. Atividade larvicida de dois Fusarium spp. foi testado contra larvas de quarto ínstar de A. aegypti em laboratório, nas concentrações 105, 106, 107 e 108 conídios / ml. Os valores de LC50 para F. equiseti após 24 h, 48 h, 72 h e 96 h de exposição foram registrados como 3,8x 108, 2,9x107, 2,0x107 e 7,1x106 conídios / ml, respectivamente, enquanto os valores de LC50 para F. proliferatum foram registrados como 1,21x108, 9,6 x107, 4,2x107, 2,6x107 conídios / ml, respectivamente, após 24 h, 48 h, 72 h e 96 h de exposição. Os resultados indicam que entre duas cepas de fungos F. equiseti se mostrou mais eficaz em termos de atividade larvicida do que F. proliferatum contra larvas de A. aegypti.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Aedes , Fusarium , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Paquistão , Solo , Extratos Vegetais , Florestas , Mosquitos Vetores , Larva
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248154, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339365

RESUMO

Abstract The cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key cotton crop pest in Brazil. Adverse climatic factors, such as high temperatures and low soil moisture, dehydrate oviposited cotton squares (bud flowers) on the ground and cause high mortality of its offspring within these plant structures. The objective of this research was to evaluate the mortality of the cotton boll weevil in drip and sprinkler irrigated cotton crops. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with two treatments: drip (T1) and sprinkler (T2, control) irrigated cotton crops with sixteen replications. Each parcel had one emergence cage, installed between two cotton rows per irrigation system, with 37 cotton squares with opened oviposition punctures and yellowish bracts, to capture adult cotton boll weevils. The average number of boll weevils that emerged from the cotton squares and the causes of mortality at different development stages were determined per treatment. Third-generation life tables of the boll weevil were prepared using the natural mortality data in drip and sprinkler irrigation treatments and plus actual, apparent and indispensable mortality rates and the lethality of each mortality cause. We conclude that the application of water directly to the root zone of the plants in a targeted manner, using the drip irrigation system, can cause high mortality of the cotton boll weevil immature stages inside cotton squares fallen on the ground. This is because the cotton squares fallen on the drier and hotter soil between the rows of drip-irrigated cotton dehydrates causing the boll weevils to die. This is important because it can reduce its population density of the pest and, consequently, the number of applications of chemical insecticides for its control. Thus, contributing to increase the viability of cotton production, mainly in areas of the Brazilian semiarid region where the cotton is cultivated in organic system.


Resumo O bicudo-do-algodoeiro, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), é uma praga-chave da cultura do algodão no Brasil. Fatores climáticos adversos, como altas temperaturas e baixa umidade do solo, desidratam os botões florais de algodão ovipositados caídos ao solo e causam alta mortalidade de seus descendentes dentro dessas estruturas vegetais.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a mortalidade do bicudo-do-algodoeiro em lavouras de algodão irrigadas por gotejamento e aspersão. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com dois tratamentos: cultivo de algodão irrigado por gotejamento (T1) e aspersão (T2, testemunha) com dezesseis repetições. Cada parcela possuía uma gaiola de emergência, instalada entre duas fileiras de algodão por sistema de irrigação, com 37 botões florais de algodão com orifícios de oviposição, brácteas abertas e amarelecidas, para captura do bicudo adulto. O número médio de bicudos que emergiu dos botões florais de algodão e as causas de mortalidade, em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento, foram determinados por tratamento. As tabelas de vida de terceira geração do bicudo-do-algodoeiro foram preparadas usando os dados de mortalidade natural em tratamentos de irrigação por gotejamento e aspersão e as taxas de mortalidade reais, aparentes e indispensáveis e a letalidade de cada causa de mortalidade. Concluímos que a aplicação de água diretamente na zona radicular das plantas de forma direcionada, utilizando o sistema de irrigação por gotejamento, pode causar altas mortalidade dos estágios imaturos do bicudo-do-algodoeiro nos botões florais de algodão caídos no solo. Isso ocorre porque os botões florais de algodão caídos no solo mais seco e mais quente entre as fileiras do algodão irrigado por gotejamento desidratam, causando a morte dos bicudos. Isso é importante por poder reduzir a densidade populacional desse inseto e, consequentemente, o número de aplicações de inseticidas químicos para seu controle. Assim, contribuindo para aumentar a viabilidade da produção de algodão, principalmente em áreas do semiárido brasileiro em sistema orgânico.


Assuntos
Animais , Besouros , Gorgulhos , Inseticidas , Oviposição , Produtos Agrícolas
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e240118, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278559

RESUMO

Abstract For many centuries human populations have been suffering and trying to fight with disease-bearing mosquitoes. Emerging and reemerging diseases such as Dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya affect billions of people around the world and recently has been appealing to control with chemical pesticides. Malathion (MT) is one of the main pesticides used against mosquitoes, the vectors of these diseases. This study aimed to assess cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of the malathion for the bioindicator Allium cepa L. using a multivariate and integrative approach. Moreover, an appendix table was compiled with all available literature of insecticides assessed by the Allium cepa system to support our discussion. Exposures during 48h to 0.5 mg mL-1 and 1.0 mg mL-1 MT were compared to the negative control (distilled water) and positive control (MMS solution at 10 mg L-1). The presence of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequency, and mitotic index abnormalities was evaluated. Anaphase bridges were the alterations with higher incidence and presented a significantly elevated rate in the concentration of 0.5 mg mL-1, including when compared to the positive control. The integrative discriminant analysis summarizes that MT in assessed concentrations presented effects like the positive control, corroborating its potential of toxicity to DNA. Therefore, it is concluded that MT in its pure composition and in realistic concentrations used, has genotoxic potential in the biological assessment of A. cepa cells. The multivariate integrative analysis was fundamental to show a whole response of all data, providing a global view of the effect of MT on DNA.


Resumo Por muitos séculos, as populações humanas sofrem e tentam combater os mosquitos transmissores de doenças. Doenças emergentes e reemergentes como Dengue, Zika e Chikungunya afetam bilhões de pessoas em todo o mundo e, recentemente, vem apelando ao controle com pesticidas químicos. O Malation (MT) é um dos principais pesticidas usados ​​contra mosquitos, vetores dessas doenças. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a citotoxicidade e a mutagenicidade do MT para o bioindicador Allium cepa L. usando uma abordagem multivariada e integrativa. Além disso, uma tabela suplementar foi compilada com toda a literatura disponível de inseticidas avaliada pelo sistema Allium cepa para apoiar nossa discussão. Exposições ao MT durante 48h a 0,5 mg mL-1 e 1,0 mg mL-1 foram comparadas a um controle negativo (água destilada) e um controle positivo (10 mg L-1 de MMS). Foram avaliadas a presença de aberrações cromossômicas, frequência de micronúcleos e anormalidades no índice mitótico. As pontes anafásicas foram as alterações com maior incidência e apresentaram uma taxa significativamente elevada na concentração de 0,5 mg mL-1, inclusive quando comparadas ao controle positivo. A análise discriminante integrativa resume que o MT nas concentrações avaliadas apresentou efeitos semelhantes ao controle positivo, corroborando seu potencial de toxicidade para o DNA. Portanto, conclui-se que o MT, em sua composição pura e nas concentrações realistas utilizadas, possui potencial genotóxico na avaliação biológica de células de A. cepa. A análise integrativa multivariada foi fundamental para mostrar uma resposta completa de todos os dados, fornecendo uma visão global do efeito da MT no DNA.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Zika virus , Infecção por Zika virus , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Raízes de Plantas , Cebolas , Mosquitos Vetores , Malation/toxicidade , Índice Mitótico
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247539, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278542

RESUMO

Abstract Numerous studies have investigated the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils from different Citrus species fruit peel, leaves and flowers. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition, larvicidal and antileishmanial activities of essential oil from Citrus reticulata fruit peel (CR-EO). CR-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. Limonene (85.7%), ɣ-terpinene (6.7%) and myrcene (2.1%) were identified as its major components. CR-EO showed high activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 = 8.23 µg/mL). CR-EO also exhibited high larvicidal activity against third instar Aedes aegypti larvae at a lethal concentration (LC50 = 58.35 µg/mL) and 100% mortality at 150 µg/mL. This study suggests, for the first time, the potential use of CR-EO against this important mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the genus Aedes.


Resumo Numerosos estudos têm investigado a composição química e as atividades biológicas de óleos essenciais extraídos de cascas dos frutos, folhas e flores de diferentes espécies de Citrus. Este trabalho tem como objetivo investigar a composição química e as atividades larvicida e leishmanicida in vitro do óleo essencial das cascas dos frutos de Citrus reticulata (CR-EO). CR-EO foi obtido pela técnica de extração em aparelho Clevenger e sua composição química foi determinada por CG-EM e CG-DIC. Limoneno (85,7%), ɣ-terpineno (6,7%) and mirceno (2,1%) foram identificados como os constituintes majoritários. CR-EO mostrou alta atividade contra as formas promastigota de Leishmania amazonensis (CI50 = 8,23 µg/mL). CR-EO também exibiu alta atividade larvicida contra as larvas do terceiro estágio do Aedes aegypti com concentração letal (CL50 = 58,35 µg/mL) e mortalidade de 100% em 150 µg/mL. Este estudo sugere, pela primeira vez, o uso potencial de CR-EO contra esta importante doença viral transmitida por mosquitos do gênero Aedes.


Assuntos
Animais , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Citrus , Aedes , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Frutas , Larva
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244647, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278527

RESUMO

Abstract The essential oil of citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) has several biological activities, among them the insect repellent action. Some studies showed that cinnamic acid esters can be applied as natural pesticides, insecticides and fungicides. In this context, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the production of esters from citronella essential oil with cinnamic acid via enzymatic esterification. Besides, the essential oil toxicity before and after esterification against Artemia salina and larvicidal action on Aedes aegypti was investigated. Esters were produced using cinnamic acid as the acylating agent and citronella essential oil (3:1) in heptane and 15 wt% NS 88011 enzyme as biocatalysts, at 70 °C and 150 rpm. Conversion rates of citronellyl and geranyl cinnamates were 58.7 and 69.0% for NS 88011, respectively. For the toxicity to Artemia salina LC50 results of 5.29 μg mL-1 were obtained for the essential oil and 4.36 μg mL-1 for the esterified oils obtained with NS 88011. In the insecticidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae, was obtained LC50 of 111.84 μg mL-1 for the essential oil of citronella and 86.30 μg mL-1 for the esterified oils obtained with the enzyme NS 88011, indicating high toxicity of the esters. The results demonstrated that the evaluated samples present potential of application as bioinsecticide.


Resumo O óleo essencial de citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus) possui diversas atividades biológicas, entre elas a ação repelente a insetos. Alguns estudos mostraram que os ésteres do ácido cinâmico podem ser aplicados como pesticidas naturais, inseticidas e fungicidas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a produção de ésteres a partir do óleo essencial de citronela com ácido cinâmico via esterificação enzimática. Além disso, foi investigada a toxicidade do óleo essencial antes e após a esterificação contra Artemia salina e a ação larvicida sobre Aedes aegypti. Os ésteres foram produzidos utilizando ácido cinâmico como agente acilante e óleo essencial de citronela (3: 1) em heptano e 15% em peso da enzima NS 88011 como biocatalisadores, a 70 ° C e 150 rpm. As taxas de conversão de cinamatos de citronelil e geranil foram 58,7 e 69,0% para NS 88011, respectivamente. Para a toxicidade sobre Artemia salina foram obtidos CL50 de 5,29 μg mL-1 para o óleo essencial e 4,36 μg mL-1 para os óleos esterificados com NS 88011. Na atividade inseticida contra larvas de Aedes aegypti, obteve-se CL50 de 111,84 μg mL-1 para o óleo essencial de citronela e 86,30 μg mL-1 para os óleos esterificados com a enzima NS 88011, indicando alta toxicidade dos ésteres. Os resultados demonstraram que as amostras avaliadas apresentam potencial de aplicação como bioinseticida.


Assuntos
Animais , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Aedes , Cymbopogon , Repelentes de Insetos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Esterificação , Larva
12.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e260298, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920500

RESUMO

Whitefly is one of the most widespread agricultural pests in the world. Essential oils might be used to control this insect in an environmentally responsible way. The fumigant, repellent, and anti-oviposition activity of ethanol-extracted essential oils of Trachyspermum ammi, Withania coagulans, and Murraya koenigii against Bemisia tabaci was investigated in this study. In the experiment, three essential oil concentrations (2.5 mg/mL, 5 mg/mL, and 10 mg/mL) were used. Trachyspermum ammi had the highest percentage of whitefly death in laboratory experiments due to its fumigant toxicity; the same tendency was found in contact toxicity and repellent effect. Mortality percent rises as the concentration of essential oil increases with bioassay time. As the concentration of essential oil grows with bioassay time, so does the mortality rate. The most adult whiteflies escaped from the treated plants' greenhouse due to the highest essential oil concentration. The greatest repellency was found with Trachyspermum ammi essential oil at 10 mg/mL. The essential oil had the greatest anti-oviposition efficacy against whiteflies. Trachyspermum ammi possessed the most potent anti-oviposition deterrent, followed by Withania coagulans in second place. Murraya koenigii finished third with moderate anti-oviposition, which affects the number of eggs produced in comparison to the control. As a consequence, these three oils might be used as an effective and environmentally acceptable bio-insecticide to control B. tabaci.


Assuntos
Ammi , Apiaceae , Hemípteros , Repelentes de Insetos , Inseticidas , Murraya , Óleos Voláteis , Withania , Animais , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
13.
Malar J ; 21(1): 231, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria was endemic in Sri Lanka for centuries and was eliminated in 2012. It is widely assumed that the costs of elimination are generally greater than that of control. The costs of malaria elimination in Sri Lanka with that of malaria control in the past using periods in which starting transmission dynamics were similar were compared. METHODS: The expenditure of the Anti-Malaria Campaign (AMC), total and by budget category, during 2002-2010 is compared with that of malaria control during the period 1980-1989, using regression analyses and the Mann Whitney U statistic. RESULTS: The expenditure on malaria control and malaria elimination was similar ranging from 21 to 45 million USD per year when adjusted for inflation. In both periods, external funding for the malaria progamme constituted around 24% of the total budget; during the control phase in the 1980s, external funds came from bilateral agencies and were disbursed in accordance with government budget guidelines. In the elimination phase in the 2000s, most of external funding was from the Global Fund and had flexibility of disbursement. In the 1980s, most funds were expended on commodities-insecticides, diagnostics and medicines and their delivery; in the elimination phase, they were spent on programme management, human resources, technical assistance and monitoring and evaluation; monitoring and evaluation was not a budget line in the 1980s. Although the cost per case of malaria was considerably higher during the elimination phase than in the control phase, expenditure was not on individual cases but on general systems strengthening. CONCLUSION: Malaria elimination in Southeast Asia may not require more funding than malaria control. But sustained funding for an agile programme with flexibility in fund utilization and improved efficiencies in programme management with stringent monitoring and evaluation appears to be critically important.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Inseticidas , Malária , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
14.
Rev Sci Tech ; 41(1): 170-177, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925624

RESUMO

The globalisation of trade is opening the way to the spread of species in new regions where they may cause negative impacts. Invasive mosquito species such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are raising concern for their capacity to transmit several arboviruses of public health and veterinary importance. Currently available integrated vector management measures do not achieve satisfactory results when deployed against these urban mosquitoes. Moreover, insecticides are losing their effectiveness owing to the resistance developed by the target species. Policies regulating the use of insecticides are progressively restricting their market availability and this trend is expected to continue. Genetic control methods, such as the sterile insect technique (SIT), based on the use of irradiation to sterilise male mosquitoes, are showing good efficacy in pilot trials at local scales in some Aedes albopictus-colonised urban areas in Europe, without any negative effects. The main limitation is the cost, which may be significantly reduced through the introduction of automation in the mass rearing and drone technology in the field release. These technological advancements require substantial investments at a scale that can only be achieved with centralised production and extensive distribution, which in turn may be granted only if the authorisation frameworks, including the regulation of international transportation and aerial release in an urban setting, are clarified and matured.


La mondialisation des échanges ouvre une voie d'accès à la propagation d'espèces exotiques dans de nouvelles régions, avec parfois des effets négatifs. Les moustiques appartenant à des espèces envahissantes comme Aedes aegypti et Aedes albopictus suscitent à cet égard une certaine inquiétude en raison de leur capacité à transmettre plusieurs arbovirus importants pour la santé publique et vétérinaire. Les mesures disponibles de gestion intégrée des vecteurs ne donnent pas de résultats satisfaisants contre ces moustiques, à l'habitat principalement urbain. En outre, les insecticides perdent en efficacité à mesure que les espèces cibles acquièrent une résistance. La réglementation actuelle sur l'utilisation des insecticides vise à restreindre graduellement la disponibilité de ces produits sur le marché, tendance qui devrait se poursuivre. Les méthodes de contrôle génétique telles que la technique de l'insecte stérile (TIS), qui repose sur l'utilisation de moustiques mâles rendus stériles par irradiation, ont présenté une efficacité satisfaisante lors d'essais pilotes effectués à l'échelle locale dans certaines zones urbaines d'Europe colonisées par Aedes albopictus, sans induire d'effets indésirables. La principale limitation de cette méthode est son coüt, mais celui-ci peut être significativement réduit en automatisant les procédures d'élevage de masse et en utilisant des drones pour les lâchers sur le terrain. Ces avancées technologiques nécessitent d'importants investissements à très grande échelle, qui ne sont réalisables qu'en centralisant la production et en élargissant la distribution ; à son tour, cette perspective ne peut être garantie qu'à travers une clarification et rationalisation des cadres réglementaires régissant les autorisations nécessaires, en particulier concernant les transports internationaux et les lâchers aériens au-dessus des zones urbaines.


La mundialización del comercio está abriendo las puertas a la diseminación de especies en nuevas regiones, donde su presencia puede tener efectos negativos. Hay especies invasoras de mosquito, como Aedes aegypti o Aedes albopictus, que suscitan inquietud por su capacidad de transmitir varios arbovirus de importancia para la salud pública y veterinaria. Las medidas de lucha integrada contra vectores que existen actualmente no ofrecen resultados satisfactorios contra estos mosquitos urbanos. Además, los insecticidas están perdiendo eficacia debido a las resistencias adquiridas por las especies destinatarias. Las políticas que regulan el uso de insecticidas están restringiendo progresivamente su disponibilidad comercial, tendencia que presumiblemente va a perdurar. La aplicación experimental a escala local de métodos de control genético como la técnica del insecto estéril (sterile insect technique, SIT), basada en el uso de radiación para esterilizar a mosquitos macho, está resultando eficaz en ciertas zonas urbanas de Europa colonizadas por Aedes albopictus, sin que se observe ningún efecto negativo. La principal limitación es el costo, que cabe reducir sustancialmente introduciendo la automatización en la cría masiva y empleando drones para las sueltas sobre el terreno. Estos avances tecnológicos exigen inversiones cuantiosas, de tal magnitud que solo son factibles si se plantea una producción centralizada y una distribución a gran escala, procesos que a su vez solo serán aprobados si previamente se aclaran y perfeccionan los regímenes de autorización, incluida la regulación del transporte internacional y de la suelta aérea en medios urbanos.


Assuntos
Aedes , Inseticidas , Aedes/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Espécies Introduzidas , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores
15.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272514, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921304

RESUMO

Sulfoxaflor is a new insecticide which acts on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) in a similar way to neonicotinoids. However, sufloxaflor (SFX) is thought to act in a different manner and is thus proposed as an alternative in crop protection. The goal of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of SFX and its sublethal effect on the honeybee Apis mellifera after acute exposure. In toxicological assay studies, the LD50 value and sublethal dose (corresponding to the NOEL: no observed effect level) were 96 and 15 ng/bee, respectively. Using the proboscis extension response paradigm, we found that an SFX dose of 15 ng/bee significantly impairs learning and memory retrieval when applied 12 h before conditioning or 24 h after olfactory conditioning. SFX had no effect on honeybee olfactory performance when exposure happened after the conditioning. Relative quantitative PCR experiments performed on the six nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits demonstrated that they are differently expressed in the honeybee brain after SFX exposure, whether before or after conditioning. We found that intoxicated bees with learning defects showed a strong expression of the Amelß1 subunit. They displayed overexpression of Amelα9 and Amelß2, and down-regulation of Amelα1, Amelα3 and Amelα7 subunits. These results demonstrated for the first time that a sublethal dose of SFX could affect honeybee learning and memory performance and modulate the expression of specific nAChR subunits in the brain.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Receptores Nicotínicos , Animais , Abelhas/genética , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Aprendizagem , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Piridinas , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Compostos de Enxofre/farmacologia
16.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272311, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921368

RESUMO

Western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, LeConte, is an insect pest that poses a significant threat to the productivity of modern agriculture, causing significant economic and crop losses. The development of genetically modified (GM) crops expressing one or more proteins that confer tolerance to specific insect pests, such as WCR, was a historic breakthrough in agricultural biotechnology and continues to serve as an invaluable tool in pest management. Despite this, evolving resistance to existing insect control proteins expressed in current generation GM crops requires continued identification of new proteins with distinct modes of action while retaining targeted insecticidal efficacy. GM crops expressing insecticidal proteins must undergo extensive safety assessments prior to commercialization to ensure that they pose no increased risk to the health of humans or other animals relative to their non-GM conventional counterparts. As part of these safety evaluations, a weight of evidence approach is utilized to assess the safety of the expressed insecticidal proteins to evaluate any potential risk in the context of dietary exposure. This study describes the food and feed safety assessment of Vpb4Da2, a new Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein that confers in planta tolerance to WCR. Vpb4Da2 exhibits structural and functional similarities to other insect control proteins expressed in commercialized GM crops. In addition, the lack of homology to known toxins or allergens, a lack of acute toxicity in mice, inactivation by conditions commonly experienced in the human gut or during cooking/food processing, and the extremely low expected dietary exposure to Vpb4Da2 provide a substantial weight of evidence to demonstrate that the Vpb4Da2 protein poses no indication of a risk to the health of humans or other animals.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Besouros , Inseticidas , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva , Camundongos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
17.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3862, 2022 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790746

RESUMO

The cause of malaria transmission has been known for over a century but it is still unclear whether entomological measures are sufficiently reliable to inform policy decisions in human health. Decision-making on the effectiveness of new insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and the indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) have been based on epidemiological data, typically collected in cluster-randomised control trials. The number of these trials that can be conducted is limited. Here we use a systematic review to highlight that efficacy estimates of the same intervention may vary substantially between trials. Analyses indicate that mosquito data collected in experimental hut trials can be used to parameterize mechanistic models for Plasmodium falciparum malaria and reliably predict the epidemiological efficacy of quick-acting, neuro-acting ITNs and IRS. Results suggest that for certain types of ITNs and IRS using this framework instead of clinical endpoints could support policy and expedite the widespread use of novel technologies.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas , Malária , Animais , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11537, 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35798826

RESUMO

Studies have estimated the impact of the environment on malaria incidence although few have explored the differential impact due to malaria control interventions. Therefore, the objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of indoor residual spraying (IRS) on the relationship between malaria and environment (i.e. rainfall, temperatures, humidity, and vegetation) using data from a dynamic cohort of children from three sub-counties in Uganda. Environmental variables were extracted from remote sensing sources and averaged over different time periods. General linear mixed models were constructed for each sub-counties based on a log-binomial distribution. The influence of IRS was analysed by comparing marginal effects of environment in models adjusted and unadjusted for IRS. Great regional variability in the shape (linear and non-linear), direction, and magnitude of environmental associations with malaria risk were observed between sub-counties. IRS was significantly associated with malaria risk reduction (risk ratios vary from RR = 0.03, CI 95% [0.03-0.08] to RR = 0.35, CI95% [0.28-0.42]). Model adjustment for this intervention changed the magnitude and/or direction of environment-malaria associations, suggesting an interaction effect. This study evaluated the potential influence of IRS in the malaria-environment association and highlighted the necessity to control for interventions when they are performed to properly estimate the environmental influence on malaria. Local models are more informative to guide intervention program compared to national models.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Malária , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Incidência , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos , Uganda/epidemiologia
19.
Malar J ; 21(1): 214, 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quality assurance (QA) of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) delivered to malaria-endemic countries is conducted by measuring physiochemical parameters, but not bioefficacy against malaria mosquitoes. This study explored utility of cone bioassays for pre-delivery QA of pyrethroid ITNs to test the assumption that cone bioassays are consistent across locations, mosquito strains, and laboratories. METHODS: Double-blinded bioassays were conducted on twenty unused pyrethroid ITNs of 4 brands (100 nets, 5 subsamples per net) that had been delivered for mass distribution in Papua New Guinea (PNG) having passed predelivery inspections. Cone bioassays were performed on the same net pieces following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines at the PNG Institute of Medical Research (PNGIMR) using pyrethroid susceptible Anopheles farauti sensu stricto (s.s.) and at Ifakara Health Institute (IHI), Tanzania using pyrethroid susceptible Anopheles gambiae s.s. Additionally, WHO tunnel tests were conducted at IHI on ITNs that did not meet cone bioefficacy thresholds. Results from IHI and PNGIMR were compared using Spearman's Rank correlation, Bland-Altman (BA) analysis and analysis of agreement. Literature review on the use of cone bioassays for unused pyrethroid ITNs testing was conducted. RESULTS: In cone bioassays, 13/20 nets (65%) at IHI and 8/20 (40%) at PNGIMR met WHO bioefficacy criteria. All nets met WHO bioefficacy criteria on combined cone/tunnel tests at IHI. Results from IHI and PNGIMR correlated on 60-min knockdown (KD60) (rs = 0.6,p = 0.002,n = 20) and 24-h mortality (M24) (rs = 0.9,p < 0.0001,n = 20) but BA showed systematic bias between the results. Of the 5 nets with discrepant result between IHI and PNGIMR, three had confidence intervals overlapping the 80% mortality threshold, with averages within 1-3% of the threshold. Including these as a pass, the agreement between the results to predict ITN failure was good with kappa = 0.79 (0.53-1.00) and 90% accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these study findings, the WHO cone bioassay is a reproducible bioassay for ITNs with > 80% M24, and for all ITNs provided inherent stochastic variation and systematic bias are accounted for. The literature review confirms that WHO cone bioassay bioefficacy criteria have been previously achieved by all pyrethroid ITNs (unwashed), without the need for additional tunnel tests. The 80% M24 threshold remains the most reliable indicator of pyrethroid ITN quality using pyrethroid susceptible mosquitoes. In the absence of alternative tests, cone bioassays could be used as part of pre-delivery QA.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas , Malária , Piretrinas , Animais , Bioensaio/métodos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Laboratórios , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Piretrinas/farmacologia
20.
Malar J ; 21(1): 208, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35778744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The WHO cone test is one of three tests currently used to evaluate the efficacy of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs). It generates two test outputs, knockdown and 24-h mortality, both indicative of immediate toxicity but that reveal little about the nature of mosquito and ITN interaction or how results translate to real-world settings. METHODS: A human arm held 5 mm behind the net surface acted as a host attractant during cone tests and a smartphone was used to capture mosquito behaviour in the cone. Post-exposure blood feeding and survival for nine days were recorded; ingested blood meal size was determined by measuring excreted haematin. Four strains of Anopheles gambiae (insecticide susceptible: Kisumu and N'gousso; insecticide resistant: Banfora and VK7) were tested with and without the host attractant using untreated, Permanet 2.0 and Olyset nets. Video recordings were scan sampled every five seconds to record mosquito positions on either the net, in flight or in contact with the cone. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyse all data except survival within nine days which was analysed using Weighted Cox Regression. RESULTS: Net contact was the most frequently recorded behaviour in all Anopheles spp. strains on all nets. Adding the human host as attractant triggered excitatory behaviours: in all strains, the magnitude of net contact was significantly decreased compared to tests without a host. ITN exposure altered the observed behaviour of the two susceptible strains, which exhibited a decreased response to the host during ITN tests. The resistant strains did not alter their behaviour during ITN tests. Significantly less net contact was observed during Olyset Net tests compared to Permanet 2.0. The host presence affected survival after exposure: Banfora and VK7 mosquitoes exposed to Permanet 2.0 with a host lived longer compared to tests performed without a host. However, mosquitoes that blood-fed and survived long enough to digest the blood meal did not exhibit significantly reduced longevity regardless of the presence of the host attractant. CONCLUSIONS: Simple modifications to the WHO cone test and extension of post-test monitoring beyond the current 24 h enable detailed behavioural characterizations of individual ITNs to be compiled. The effects observed from testing with a host and including blood feeding suggest that more representative estimates of true of ITN efficacy are gained with these modifications than when using the current testing protocol.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas , Animais , Anopheles/fisiologia , Bioensaio/métodos , Humanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
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