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1.
BMC Biol ; 20(1): 255, 2022 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To survive and thrive, many animals, including humans, have evolved goal-directed behaviors that can respond to specific physiological needs. An example is thirst, where the physiological need to maintain water balance drives the behavioral basic instinct to drink. Determining the neural basis of such behaviors, including thirst response, can provide insights into the way brain-wide systems transform sensory inputs into behavioral outputs. However, the neural basis underlying this spontaneous behavior remains unclear. Here, we provide a model of the neural basis of human thirst behavior. RESULTS: We used fMRI, coupled with functional connectivity analysis and serial-multiple mediation analysis, we found that the physiological need for water is first detected by the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), which then regulates the intention of drinking via serial large-scale spontaneous thought-related intrinsic network interactions that include the default mode network, salience network, and frontal-parietal control network. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that the transformation in humans of sensory inputs for a single physiological need, such as to maintain water balance, requires large-scale intrinsic brain networks to transform this input into a spontaneous human behavioral response.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Sede , Humanos , Animais , Sede/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Instinto , Água
2.
Hist Psychol ; 25(3): 290-291, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925731

RESUMO

Cheiron's Book Prize Committee is pleased to announce that the recipient of the 2022 Prize is Nadine Weidman, Lecturer on the History of Science at Harvard University, for her book Killer Instinct: The Popular Science of Human Nature in Twentieth-Century America. In other news from the Society for the History of Psychology, Marjorie Lorch has recently published an article on how the concept of a matched control group was initially developed in neuropsychological testing. Lorch, M. P. (2022). Defining 'normal': Methodological issues in Aphasia and intelligence research. Cortex, 153, 224-234. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Características Humanas , Humanos , Instinto , Inteligência , Psicologia/história , Sociedades Científicas
3.
Int J Psychoanal ; 103(4): 558-580, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35997055

RESUMO

This article explores the psychical expression of autoimmunity in the analytic situation; it is informed by biological theories of autoimmunity in contemporary immunology. Several of my patients developed autoimmune conditions in the course of their analyses, leading me to consider the role of psychical change in disrupting one's somatopsychic equilibrium. In the psychoanalytic literature, autoimmunity is used metaphorically for attack against what is foreign or unwanted in ourselves. Contemporary immunology, however, suggests a somewhat different metaphor. "Self-reactive" cells present in the body may attack self unless suppressed by inhibitory mechanisms. Biologically, limited self-destructiveness is necessary, but in autoimmune disease it becomes excessive and pathological. I suggest that the presence of biological "self-reactivity" implies an inherent self-destructiveness in line with Freud's thinking on the death instinct; the notion that this self-destructiveness also has adaptive aspects may contribute to our understanding of Freud's ideas. In three vignettes I illustrate clinical application of a modified metaphor of autoimmunity, finding that not only is the fusion of life and death instincts important for psychic development, but so is defusion when contained within the analytic relationship. The analytic task is to restore the balance between constructive and pathological self-destructiveness. Implications regarding controversies in psychosomatic theory are briefly considered.


Assuntos
Psicanálise , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Autoimunidade , Teoria Freudiana , Humanos , Instinto , Teoria Psicanalítica
4.
Semin Immunopathol ; 44(5): 569-579, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35786740

RESUMO

In the past two decades, work on the microbiota-gut-brain axis has led to a renewed appreciation for the interconnectedness between body systems in both clinical and scientific circles. In the USA alone, millions of adults are burdened with non-communicable chronic diseases whose putative etiologies were previously thought to be restricted to either the gut or brain, such as inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, and autism spectrum disorder. However, the recent explosion of research into the impacts of the gut microbiome on diverse aspects of human health has revealed the potentially critical importance of reciprocal interactions between the gut microbiota, the immune system, and the brain in diverse diseases and disorders. In this review, we revisit the history of gut-brain interactions in science and medicine, which dates back to at least the eighteenth century, and outline how concepts in this field have shifted and evolved across eras. Next, we highlight the modern resurgence of gut-brain axis research, focusing on neuro-immune-microbiota interactions and recent progress towards a mechanistic understanding of the diverse impacts of the microbiome on human health. Finally, we offer a forward-looking perspective on the future of microbiota-gut-brain research, which may eventually reveal new paths towards the treatment of diverse diseases influenced by the complex connections between the microbiota and the brain.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Encéfalo , Humanos , Instinto
5.
Nat Hum Behav ; 6(6): 753, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35595973

Assuntos
Altruísmo , Instinto , Humanos
6.
Elife ; 112022 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420543

RESUMO

Preys use their memory - where they sensed a predatory threat and whether a safe shelter is nearby - to dynamically control their survival instinct to avoid harm and reach safety. However, it remains unknown which brain regions are involved, and how such top-down control of innate behavior is implemented at the circuit level. Here, using adult male mice, we show that the anterior hypothalamic nucleus (AHN) is best positioned to control this task as an exclusive target of the hippocampus (HPC) within the medial hypothalamic defense system. Selective optogenetic stimulation and inhibition of hippocampal inputs to the AHN revealed that the HPC→AHN pathway not only mediates the contextual memory of predator threats but also controls the goal-directed escape by transmitting information about the surrounding environment. These results reveal a new mechanism for experience-dependent, top-down control of innate defensive behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Medo , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Hipocampo , Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Instinto , Masculino , Camundongos , Vias Neurais/fisiologia
7.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 35(2): 394-397, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35379727

RESUMO

The rate of overdose deaths has increased dramatically over the past 2 decades. Recently, efforts have been made to expand access to medications for opioid use disorder, such as buprenorphine, by removing X-waiver training requirements. However, relieving such barriers has also raised concern about increasing diversion rates for buprenorphine use, defined as the use of buprenorphine for some purpose or by someone other than it was originally intended. Historically, diversion has been addressed through the criminalization of buprenorphine possession without a prescription. We argue that while buprenorphine diversion is not to be condoned, the benefits of such actions greatly outweigh the harms. Thus, criminalization of diverted buprenorphine represents a dangerous and wasteful response that threatens the progress made through expanded access to this lifesaving medication.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Overdose de Drogas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Instinto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico
8.
J Exp Biol ; 225(6)2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320357

RESUMO

The subjugation strategy employed by the jewel wasp is unique in that it manipulates the behavior of its host, the American cockroach, rather than inducing outright paralysis. Upon envenomation directly into the central complex (CX), a command center in the brain for motor behavior, the stung cockroach initially engages in intense grooming behavior, then falls into a lethargic sleep-like state referred to as hypokinesia. Behavioral changes evoked by the sting are due at least in part to the presence of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the venom. In insects, dopamine receptors are classified as two families, the D1-like and the D2-like receptors. However, specific roles played by dopamine receptor subtypes in venom-induced behavioral manipulation by the jewel wasp remain largely unknown. In the present study, we used a pharmacological approach to investigate roles of D1-like and D2-like receptors in behaviors exhibited by stung cockroaches, focusing on grooming. Specifically, we assessed behavioral outcomes of focal CX injections of dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists. Both specific and non-specific compounds were used. Our results strongly implicate D1-like dopamine receptors in venom-induced grooming. Regarding induction of hypokinesia, our findings demonstrate that dopamine signaling is necessary for induction of long-lasting hypokinesia caused by brain envenomation.


Assuntos
Baratas , Vespas , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Baratas/fisiologia , Dopamina/farmacologia , Agonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipocinesia/induzido quimicamente , Instinto , Receptores Dopaminérgicos , Receptores de Dopamina D1 , Venenos de Vespas/efeitos adversos , Vespas/fisiologia
9.
Croat Med J ; 63(1): 101-103, 2022 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35230012

Assuntos
Hormônios , Instinto , Humanos
10.
Curr Opin Neurobiol ; 73: 102526, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344844

RESUMO

While aggression is often conceptualized as a highly stereotyped, innate behavior, individuals within a species exhibit a surprising amount of variability in the frequency, intensity, and targets of their aggression. While differences in genetics are a source of some of this variation across individuals (estimates place the heritability of behavior at around 25-30%), a critical driver of variability is previous life experience. A wide variety of social experiences, including sexual, parental, and housing experiences can facilitate "persistent" aggressive states, suggesting that these experiences engage a common set of synaptic and molecular mechanisms that act on dedicated neural circuits for aggression. It has long been known that sex steroid hormones are powerful modulators of behavior, and also, that levels of these hormones are themselves modulated by experience. Several recent studies have started to unravel how experience-dependent hormonal changes during adulthood can create a cascade of molecular, synaptic, and circuit changes that enable behavioral persistence through circuit level remodeling. Here, we propose that sex steroid hormones facilitate persistent aggressive states by changing the relationship between neural activity and an aggression "threshold".


Assuntos
Agressão , Instinto , Adulto , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Humanos
11.
Cell ; 185(3): 414-416, 2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35120661

RESUMO

The factors and mechanisms that shape the composition and function of closely related members in a complex microbial community are largely unknown. The study by Park and colleagues reveals that the fitness of various Bacteroidales species and strains in the gut microbiome is regulated by butyrate in a glycan-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Butiratos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bacteroidetes , Instinto , Açúcares
12.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 272(3): 531-533, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33944999

RESUMO

Suicidal behavior is a globally widespread psychiatric disorder with a high rate of mortality. Suicide causes psychological and economic hardships for the families and societies, necessitating the development of effective prevention and treatment programs. However, a clear understanding of the neural basis of suicidal behavior would be essential to develop clinically effective therapies. To date, several neurobiological studies have reported the genetic and epigenetic factors, brain regions, and neurotransmitters involved in suicidal behavior; but, a clear understanding of the origins of self-destructive tendencies is lacking. The high prevalence of self-destructive tendency, a potential hallmark of suicidal behavior presents a biological enigma in light of the evolutionarily pervasive struggle for existence and survival (self-preservation instinct). The potential neural correlates of suicidality and survival behavior have been separately investigated. Several regions of prefrontal cortex were implicated in suicide, while the survival circuits regulating the life-processes (defense, thermoregulation, energy and nutrition, fluid balance, and reproduction) include hypothalamus, amygdala, and parabrachial nucleus, among other structures. Future research to understand the possible influence of malfunctioning survival circuits in suicide could provide valuable insights into suicidal behavior. In addition, understanding the possible evolutionary significance of suicidal traits can help us understand the mechanisms of evolution, and also serve towards alleviation of social stigma around suicide. Thus, future research to unravel the biological correlates of survival vs. suicidal instincts, equipped with high-resolution neuroimaging techniques, would be clinically and socially advantageous towards suicide prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Suicídio , Humanos , Instinto , Fatores de Risco , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/psicologia
13.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 78(23): 7289-7307, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687319

RESUMO

Individuals of many species fight with conspecifics to gain access to or defend critical resources essential for survival and reproduction. Such intraspecific fighting is evolutionarily selected for in a species-, sex-, and environment-dependent manner when the value of resources secured exceeds the cost of fighting. One such example is males fighting for chances to mate with females. Recent advances in new tools open up ways to dissect the detailed neural circuit mechanisms that govern intraspecific, particularly inter-male, aggression in the model organism Mus musculus (house mouse). By targeting and functional manipulating genetically defined populations of neurons and their projections, these studies reveal a core neural circuit that controls the display of reactive male-male attacks in mice, from sensory detection to decision making and action selection. Here, we summarize these critical results. We then describe various modulatory inputs that route into the core circuit to afford state-dependent and top-down modulation of inter-male attacks. While reviewing these exciting developments, we note that how the inter-male attack circuit converges or diverges with neural circuits that mediate other forms of social interactions remain not fully understood. Finally, we emphasize the importance of combining circuit, pharmacological, and genetic analysis when studying the neural control of aggression in the future.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso , Núcleos Septais/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Ventromedial/fisiologia , Animais , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Instinto , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Sistema Nervoso , Neurônios/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia
14.
J Neurosci ; 41(47): 9732-9741, 2021 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649953

RESUMO

Animals perform a series of actions in a fixed order during ritualistic innate behaviors. Although command neurons and sensory pathways responding to external stimuli that trigger these behaviors have been identified, how each action is induced in a fixed order in response to multimodal sensory stimuli remains unclear. Here, the sexually dimorphic lateral antennal lobe tract projection neuron 4 (lPN4) in male Drosophila melanogaster mediates the expression of a fixed behavioral action pattern at the beginning of the courtship ritual, in which a male taps a female body and then extends a wing unilaterally to produce a courtship song. We found that blocking the synaptic output of lPN4 caused an increase in the ratio of male flies that extended a wing unilaterally without tapping the female body, whereas excitation of lPN4 suppressed the transition from the tapping phase to the unilateral wing extension phase. Real-time calcium imaging showed that lPN4 is activated by a volatile pheromone, palmitoleic acid, whose responses were inhibited by simultaneous gustatory stimulation with female cuticular hydrocarbons, showing the existence of an "AND-gate" for multimodal sensory inputs during male courtship behaviors. These results suggest that the function of lPN4 is to suppress unilateral wing extension while responding to a female smell, which is released by appropriate contact chemosensory inputs received when tapping a female. As the female smell also promotes male courtship behaviors, the olfactory system is ready to simultaneously promote and suppress the progress of courtship actions while responding to a female smell.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although it has been 80 years since Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen introduced how multiple acts comprising separate innate behaviors are released in a fixed order according to external stimuli, the neural circuits responsible for such fixed action patterns remain largely unknown. The male courtship behavior of Drosophila melanogaster is a good model to investigate how such a fixed behavioral sequence is determined in the brain. Here, we show that lateral antennal lobe tract projection neuron 4 (lPN4) in D. melanogaster functions as an "AND-gate" for volatile and contact chemosensory inputs, mediating the expression of tapping behaviors before unilateral wing extension during male courtship rituals.


Assuntos
Corte , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Instinto , Neurônios/fisiologia , Condutos Olfatórios/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia
15.
Biosystems ; 208: 104501, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364930

RESUMO

As a clinical psychologist, I observe stereotyped formulas of behavior in action every day in the consulting room, despite differences in age, race, or culture; they present themselves as codified rules or typical modes of behavior in archetypical situations. Such circumstances coincide with what C.G. Jung defended: the existence of archetypes stored in an inherited/phylogenetic repository, which he called the collective unconscious - somewhat similar to the notion of an ethogram, as shown by ethology. Psychologists can use a perspective to facilitate understanding the phenomenon: the code biology perspective (Barbieri 2014). This approach can help us recognize how these phenomenological events have an ontological reality based not only on the existence of organic information but also on the existence of organic meaning. We are not a tabula rasa (Wilson 2000): despite the explosive diversification of the brain and the emergence of conscience and intentionality, we observe the conservation of basic instincts and emotions (Ekman 2004; Damasio 2010) not only in humans but in all mammals and other living beings; we refer to the neural activity on which the discrimination behavior is based, i.e., the neural codes. The conservation of these fundamental set-of-rules or conventions suggests that one or more neural codes have been highly conserved and serves as an interpretive basis for what happens to the living being who owns them (Barbieri 2003). Thus, archetypes' phenomenological reality can be understood not as something metaphorical but as an ontological (phylogenetic) fact (Goodwyn 2019). Furthermore, epigenetic regulation theories present the possibility that the biomolecular process incorporates elements of the context where it takes place; something fundamental to understand our concept - the archetype presents itself as the mnesic remnant of the behavioral history of individuals who preceded us on the evolutionary scale. In short: brains are optimized for processing ethologically relevant sensory signals (Clemens et al., 2015). From the perspective of the corporeal mind (Searle 2002), in this paper, we will show the parallels between code biology and the concept of the archetype, as Jung defended it and as it appears in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Código Genético/fisiologia , Instinto , Psicologia/tendências , Animais , Humanos , Psicologia/métodos
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12240, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112846

RESUMO

The failure to develop analgesic drugs is attributed not only to the complex and diverse pathophysiology of pain in humans but also to the poor experimental design and poor preclinical assessment of pain. Although considerable efforts have been devoted to overcoming the relevant problems, many features of the behavioral pain assessment remain to be characterized. For example, a decreased locomotor activity as a common presentation of pain-like behavior has yet to be described. Studies on mice experimentally induced with carrageenan have provided opportunities to explore pain-related behaviors in automated home-cage monitoring. Through this approach, the locomotor activities of mice with carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain can be precisely and objectively captured. Here, we found that the mobile behaviors of mice reduced, and their immobility increased, indicating that carrageenan induction in mice caused a significant decrease in locomotor activity. These non-reflexive pain behaviors were strongly correlated with the reflexive pain behaviors measured via von Frey and plantar tests. Furthermore, the pharmacological intervention using indomethacin improved the locomotor activity of mice with carrageenan-induced pain. Thus, the analysis of the locomotor activity in automated home-cage monitoring is useful for studying the behavioral analgesia and the pharmacological screening of analgesic drugs. The combined evaluation of reflexive and non-reflexive pain behaviors enhances the translational utility of preclinical pain research in rodents.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Inflamação/complicações , Instinto , Medição da Dor , Dor/etiologia , Animais , Carragenina , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Atividade Motora , Dor/diagnóstico , Temperatura
17.
Int J Psychoanal ; 102(3): 492-518, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080944

RESUMO

A large and significant portion of contemporary psychoanalytic theory has given up on the drives. The shift toward object relations in the 1940s and 50s, the scepticism about metapsychology in the latter half of the twentieth century, and a general confusion about the coherence of Freud's drive theory have all contributed to their slow decline in prominence. There are legitimate criticisms of the drives that deserve attention but the drives themselves require a careful examination before any successful defence of their place in the metapsychology may be mounted. The current paper provides an account of the drives informed by the intellectual history of German and English thought related to the drives and instincts as they came to Freud. This history allows us to clearly distinguish between "drive" (or Trieb) and its conceptual neighbour "instinct" (or Instinkt).


Assuntos
Teoria Freudiana , Psicanálise , História do Século XX , Humanos , Instinto , Apego ao Objeto , Teoria Psicanalítica
19.
J Comp Psychol ; 135(2): 151-155, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180707

RESUMO

A hundred years ago, the Journal of Comparative Psychology began being published and currently stands as the longest-running science journal devoted to the study of animal behavior. In that same year, 1921, a paper was published in the Journal of Philosophy that was foundational to our field of study-"Giving up Instincts in Psychology" by Zing-Yang Kuo. This brief essay discusses some of the main arguments of Kuo's article and how they have extended into today's thinking and empirical work on behavioral development. The essay emphasizes his ideas about the need to study neophenotypes to understand the range of behavioral possibilities and to assess nonobvious sources of experience in the development of species-typical behavior. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Instinto , Psicologia Comparada , Animais , Comportamento Animal
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(11): 7690-7701, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33998225

RESUMO

Persulfate (PS) activation on biochar (BC) is a promising technology for degrading the aqueous organic contaminants. However, the complexity of activation mechanisms and components in biomass that used to produce BC makes it difficult to predict the performance of PS activation. In this study, we employed eight sludges as the representative biomass that contained absolutely different organic or inorganic components. Results showed that the elemental composition, surface properties, and structures of the sludge-derived BCs (SBCs) clearly depended on the inherent components in the sludges. The intensities of persistent free radicals (PFRs) in the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) correlated positively with N-containing content of sludges as electron shuttle, but negatively with the metal content as electron acceptor. Linking with PFRs as crucial sites of triggering a radical reaction, a poly-parameter relationship of predicting PS activation for organic degradation using the sludge components was established (kobs,PN = 0.004 × Cprotein + 0.16 × CM-0.895 -0.118). However, for the PS activation on those SBCs without PFRs, this redox process only relied on the sorption or conductivity-related characteristics, not correlating with the content of intrinsic components in biomass but with pyrolysis temperatures. This study provided insightful information of predicting the remediation efficiency of PS activation on BCs and further understanding the fate of contaminants and stoichiometric efficiency of oxidants in a field application.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Instinto , Biomassa , Radicais Livres , Oxirredução , Esgotos
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