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1.
Gerokomos (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 32(1): 8-11, mar. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202041

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Conocer e interpretar las experiencias y los significados que las personas mayores que viven en comunidad atribuyen al envejecimiento satisfactorio. MÉTODO: Investigación cualitativa, con enfoque hermenéutico dialéctico de George Gadamer, realizada en zona metropolitana de Uruguay, años 2015-2016; participaron 23 personas mayores. RESULTADOS: se identificaron las categorías conciencia histórica con tres subcategorías: familia, sociedad y estado en el que vivimos, y categoría carga de la tradición con dos subcategorías: juicios y límites. CONCLUSIONES: se logró conocer las percepciones sobre envejecimiento satisfactorio desde las vivencias de personas mayores, enfatizando en las relaciones familiares como pilar fundamental de sostén para mantenerse activos y saludables. Es importante la promoción de la salud. Las personas mayores tienen un cuerpo que sufre dolencias; manteniéndose en actividad, son personas con salud mental, ya que ellos manifiestan que mientras la mente anda, todo puede salir bien. La expectativa se centra en ser resiliente, siendo este el punto principal de seguir día a día en el camino


OBJECTIVE: To know and interpret the experiences and meanings attributed by elderly people living in community to satisfactory aging. METHOD: qualitative research, with a dialectical hermeneutic approach by George Gadamer, carried out in the metropolitan area of Uruguay, 2015-2016; 23 elderly people participated. RESULTS: categories were identified: historical awareness with three subcategories: family, society and state in which we live; another category carries the tradition with two subcategories: judgments and limits. CONCLUSIONS: it was possible to know the perceptions of successful aging from the experiences of older people, emphasizing family relationships as a fundamental pillar of support to stay active and healthy; health promotion is important, older people have a body that suffers ailments, staying active, they are people with mental health, since they referenced that while the mind walks everything can go well. The expectation is focused on being resilient, this being the main point to follow day by day along the way


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/tendências , Adaptação Psicológica , Rememoração Mental , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , População Institucionalizada , Uruguai/epidemiologia , Preconceito/psicologia
2.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 34(5): 480-484, sept.-oct. 2020. tab, mapas
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198871

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Cuantificar el efecto que tiene la inclusión de la población institucionalizada en la estimación del riesgo de mortalidad en las secciones censales de Euskadi (España) para las principales causas de mortalidad en el periodo 1996-2003. MÉTODO: Estudio ecológico transversal por áreas pequeñas. Se analizaron las principales causas de mortalidad y por sexo. RESULTADOS: Al analizar el efecto general que tiene en todas las secciones con población institucionalizada se ha visto que no hay apenas ningún efecto reseñable en hombres ni en mujeres. En cambio, cuando se han seleccionado las áreas geográficas donde la población institucionalizada supone un porcentaje importante, más del 10% de la población de esa área, sí se ha observado un efecto incrementando la estimación del riesgo de mortalidad. CONCLUSIONES: El efecto que tiene la inclusión de la población institucionalizada se ve claramente en aquellas causas de mortalidad relacionadas con una mayor dependencia o fragilidad, y por lo tanto con estar en una residencia de personas mayores, como son las demencias y la enfermedad de Alzheimer, y la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, sobrestimando el riesgo de mortalidad en torno a un 8% y un 4%, respectivamente, en esas áreas


OBJECTIVE: To quantify the effect of the inclusion of the population in collective dwellings on the estimation of mortality risk in the census areas of the Basque Country (Spain) for the main causes of mortality in the period 1996-2003. METHOD: Small-area ecological cross-sectional study. The main causes of mortality by sex were analyzed. RESULTS: When the general effect on all areas with a a population in collective dwellings was analyzed, hardly any noticeable effect was seen on either men or women. On the other hand, an effect was found when selecting the areas where the population in collective dwellings is more than 10% of the area's population. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of the inclusion of the population in collective dwellings clearly seen in causes of mortality, such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease, and in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, related to greater dependence or frailty, and therefore related to being in a nursing or elderly persons' home, over-estimating the risk of mortality by approximately 8% and 4%, respectively, in these geographical areas


Assuntos
Humanos , Demência/mortalidade , Doença de Alzheimer/mortalidade , Registros de Mortalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Fragilidade/mortalidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , População Institucionalizada , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Efeito Idade , Fatores de Risco , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Análise de Pequenas Áreas , Espanha/epidemiologia
3.
Index enferm ; 29(3): 0-0, jul.-sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202497

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Identificar las principales características clínicas, funcionales y cognitivas de las mujeres octogenarias hospitalizadas con diagnóstico de fractura de cadera en el Hospital Universitario de León (España). Además, determinar la influencia del domicilio, al que se trasladan los pacientes al recibir el alta hospitalaria en la recuperación de la deambulación. MÉTODO: Estudio piloto prospectivo descriptivo transversal que analiza las características fisiológicas de mujeres mayores hospitalizadas con diagnóstico de fractura de cadera en el Hospital de León. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 96 mujeres con una edad media de 85,95 ± 5,1 años. El número total de comorbilidades presentadas por las pacientes fue de 3,7. El tipo de fractura más frecuente fue la pertrocantérica. Todos los pacientes empeoraron respecto a la capacidad de deambulación basal, encontrando las mayores diferencias en los que fueron institucionalizados frente a los que permanecieron en su residencia habitual. CONCLUSIONES: El domicilio al que se trasladan los pacientes al recibir el alta hospitalaria es un factor determinante para la recuperación de la movilidad e independencia de los mismos. En este sentido, es importante señalar que la práctica habitual de institucionalización de las personas mayores después de una fractura de cadera se asocia con una peor recuperación


OBJECTIVE: To identify the main clinical, functional and cognitive characteristics of hospitalized octogenarian women diagnosed with hip fracture at the University Hospital of León (Spain). In addition, to determine the influence home, to which patients are transferred upon discharge from the recovery from wandering. METHOD: Prospective descriptive pilot study cross-sectional analysis of the physiological characteristics of hospitalized older women with a diagnosis of hip fracture at the Hospital de León. RESULTS: It included 96 women with an average age of 85.95 ± 5.1 years. The total number of comorbidities presented by patients was 3.7. The most common type of fracture frequent was the pertrochanteric. All patients worsened with respect to the capacity of basal wandering, finding the greatest differences in those who were institutionalized as opposed to those who remained at their usual residence. CONCLUSIONS: The address to which patients are transferred when they are discharged from hospital is a determining factor in the recovery of mobility and independence of themselves. In this regard, it is important to note that the usual practice of institutionalisation of older people after a hip fracture is associated with a worse recovery


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , População Institucionalizada , Estudos Prospectivos , Fraturas do Quadril/reabilitação
4.
Rev. Rol enferm ; 43(1,supl): 197-203, ene. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-193181

RESUMO

Introduction: Preventive, promotion and rehabilitation actions such as physical exercise have been able to improve the functional capacity of the institutionalized elderly. Aims: To evaluate the impact of a physical exercise program on the functional capacity of institutionalized elderly. Method: Quantitative study with a quasi-experimental design, without control group, with pre and post intervention evaluation, in a convenience sample of 23 elderly. The instrument for data collection was the form with outcome and independent variables. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Escola Superior de Enfermagem do Porto. Results: The majority are female (60.9%), with a mean age of 82.4 years and a high prevalence of cerebrovascular disease (91.3%). ¾ of the sample (74%) is polymedicated. The occurrence of falls in the last 12 months was low (13%). There was a significant improvement in joint amplitude and muscular strength in all movements and joints of the upper and lower limbs. Palmar grip strength improved in both hands. A better performance was observed in the implementation of POMA I, and the number of risk-free elderly people with a high risk of falls increased. The repercussion of improvements in self-care capacity was not effective in some domains, although the mean scores obtained showed a slight improvement trend. Of the psychosocial effects, most participants (60.9%) agreed that they improved health and mood. Conclusions: The physical exercise program implemented to institutionalized elderly, without cognitive deficit, improved the functional and psychosocial capacity


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fragilidade/reabilitação , Envelhecimento , Técnicas de Exercício e de Movimento/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/enfermagem , População Institucionalizada , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Rev. Rol enferm ; 43(1,supl): 493-499, ene. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-193425

RESUMO

Introduction: The term senescence translates the natural process of aging, which includes a sum of physiological, anatomical and functional changes. These changes can lead to morbidities and, when associated with chronic diseases, provide a situation of fragility and dependence, which may leave the elderly vulnerable to the appearance of wounds, which usually present a chronic evolution. Objective: to determine the prevalence and characteristics of pressure ulcers among institutionalized elderly people, the association between risk scores and clinical conditions of the elderly, and the measure of intensity of association of these variables with the development of the lesion. Method: This is a cross-sectional, population-based study with a quantitative approach, based on the analysis of part of the database. All the elderly included in the database (N = 324), enrolled in long-term institutions, were included in the study. Results: The prevalence of pressure ulcer was 8% in institutionalized elderly. It can be verified that of the five variables related to clinical conditions, they had a significant association (p≤0.05). The estimates of the coefficients of the binary logistic regression model showed that positive values, such as urinary incontinence, osteoarticular, neurological diseases and negative values for the change in vision, may increase and / or decrease the chance of developing the lesion. Conclusion: Pressure ulcers are preventable wounds that require constant observa-tion by the professionals responsible for the planning and implementation of care


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Lesão por Pressão/enfermagem , Saúde do Idoso Institucionalizado , Cuidados de Enfermagem/métodos , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Fragilidade/enfermagem , Lesão por Pressão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Epidemiológicos , Prevalência , População Institucionalizada , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Pessoas Acamadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Enferm. glob ; 19(57): 243-252, ene. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193652

RESUMO

INTRODUCCION: La parálisis cerebral es considerada como un grupo de trastornos permanentes del desarrollo que originan limitaciones en la actividad diaria. Una de las complicaciones en las personas con parálisis cerebral es la disminución de la calidad de vida. OBJETIVO: El objetivo de este estudio es conocer la calidad de vida de las personas adultas institucionalizadas con parálisis cerebral infantil y conocer si existen diferencias en el índice de calidad de vida en función de las características funcionales. MÉTODO: Estudio observacional descriptivo trasversal en personas adultas institucionalizas con parálisis cerebral infantil realizado en los centros APCA y ASPROPACE entre marzo y septiembre de 2017. Se administró el cuestionario San Martín para medir la Calidad de Vida, Gross motor classification system, cuestionario Barthel, Escala CFCS para medir función motora, dependencia física, nivel de comunicación y relacionarlas con variables sociodemográficas y clínicas. La selección de los participantes se llevó a cabo mediante un muestreo estratificado aleatorio. Se contó con la aprobación de las direcciones de los centros. RESULTADOS: Participaron 39 personas con edad media de 32,54 años. La puntuación media global del cuestionario San Martin fue de 102,97 puntos. Las dimensiones más afectadas fueron bienestar material, desarrollo personal e inclusión social. No se obtuvo significación estadística en la puntuación global del cuestionario en función de las variables secundarias. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados de este estudio han demostrado que la Calidad de vida de adultos con parálisis cerebral en los sujetos estudiados es buena


INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy is considered a group of permanent developmental disorders that causelimitations in daily activity. One of the complications in people with cerebral palsy is the decrease inquality of life. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to know the quality of life for institutionalized adults with infantile cerebral palsy and to know if there are differences in the quality of life index based on functional characteristics. METHOD: Cross-sectional descriptive observational study in institutionalized adults with infantile cerebralpalsy performed in the APCA and ASPROPACE centers between March and September 2017. The San Martín questionnaire was administered to measure the Quality of Life, Gross motor classification system, Barthel questionnaire, Scale CFCS to measure motor function, physical dependence, level ofcommunication and relate them with sociodemographic and clinical variables. The selection of the participants was carried out by random stratified sampling. It was approved by the centers' addresses. RESULTS: Participants were 39 people with an average age of 32.54 years. The overall average score ofthe San Martin questionnaire was 102.97 points. The most affected dimensions were material wellbeing, personal development and social incluison. No statistical significance was obtained in the overall score of the questionnaire based on the secondary variables. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study have shown that the quality of life of adults with cerebral palsy inthe subjects studied is good


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paralisia Cerebral/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/psicologia , Transtorno de Comunicação Social/psicologia , Paralisia Cerebral/enfermagem , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , População Institucionalizada , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
An. sist. sanit. Navar ; 42(1): 19-30, ene.-abr. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183043

RESUMO

Fundamento. La evaluación del dolor crónico se realiza con frecuencia en los centros de atención sanitaria. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar las propiedades psicométricas de la escala del grado de dolor crónico (CPGS) -que incluye tanto una medición del dolor como sus efectos incapacitantes en las actividades de la vida diaria- en personas de la tercera edad. Material y Método. Estudio transversal en 185 personas con dolor crónico de dos residencias de la tercera edad. El cuestionario CPGS, adaptado por traducción inversa, se administró como entrevista estructurada; se evaluó su fiabilidad, consistencia interna, validez de constructo, validez convergente y divergente (respecto a las puntuaciones del SF-12) y validez discriminante. Se compararon las variables del estudio entre los grupos derivados de la aplicación de la escala. Resultados. La escala mostró una fiabilidad adecuada (alfa=0,90), bidimensionalidad (intensidad y discapacidad), buena validez convergente y divergente y adecuada validez discriminante. Las personas de los grados I y II mostraron mejor salud física que las de los grados III y IV, pero las del grado II no se diferenciaron en salud mental respecto del grado IV (discapacidad muy alta o limitante). Este grado IV fue más frecuente entre hombres, personas sin estudios y jubilados. Conclusiones. La versión española del CPGS ha demostrado ser válida y fiable para evaluar tanto la intensidad del dolor crónico como la discapacidad asociada en personas de la tercera edad


Background. Assessment of chronic pain is frequently done in care centers. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Chronic Pain Grade Scale (CPGS) - that measures both the intensity of chronic pain and its incapacitating effects on the everyday activities of the elderly. Method. Cross-sectional study of 185 people with chronic pain from two nursing homes. The questionnaire was adapted by back-translation and administered as a structured interview. It was assessed for reliability, internal consistency, construct validity, convergent and divergent validity (regarding the SF-12 score) and discriminant validity. Studied variables were compared among the pain groups derived from applying the scale. Results. The scale showed sufficient reliability (alfa=0.90), bidimensionality (intensity and disability), good convergent and divergent validity and sufficient discriminant validity. Elderly people in groups I and II had better physical health than those in groups III and IV, but group II people had similar mental health to those from group IV (highest/limiting disability). Males, people with no education and pensioners were more frequently classified as group IV. Conclusion. The Spanish version of the CPGS has proved to be valid and reliable for evaluating both intensity and disability related to chronic pain in older people living in nursing homes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Medição da Dor/métodos , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Atividades Cotidianas/classificação , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , População Institucionalizada , Estudos Transversais , Escala Visual Analógica , Psicometria/métodos
8.
Rev. esp. geriatr. gerontol. (Ed. impr.) ; 54(1): 12-18, ene.-feb. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182217

RESUMO

Objetivos: El estudio tenía tres objetivos: (1) determinar la frecuencia con la que profesionales que trabajan en residencias de mayores estiman diversos comportamientos sexuales de los residentes; (2) cuantificar la presencia en esas instituciones de medidas y procedimientos destinados a garantizar los derechos sexuales de los mayores; y (3) determinar los factores que predicen la mayor o menor presencia de esas medidas. Material y métodos: Ciento sesenta directores de residencia y personal de gestión, y 623 técnicos contestaron un cuestionario autoadministrado que incluía preguntas sobre la frecuencia con la que se daban ciertos comportamientos sexuales en su residencia, un inventario para valorar la implementación de medidas para favorecer la expresión sexual y la versión española del Person-centered Care Assessment Tool. Resultados: Ciertos comportamientos sexuales, como los besos y abrazos o la masturbación son muy frecuentes en las residencias de mayores. Muchos participantes habían presenciado comportamientos sexuales inapropiados, como el exhibicionismo (39%) o los tocamientos a profesionales (27%). Las normas dirigidas a garantizar los derechos sexuales de los residentes fueron las medidas más presentes en las residencias, mientras que las relacionadas con la formación e información, o con la disponibilidad de recursos y materiales facilitadores, lo eran mucho menos. Los directores y personal de gestión eran mucho más optimistas respecto a la presencia de estas normas que los técnicos. Una mayor implementación en la residencia de modelos ACP se relacionaba con una mayor presencia de regulación respecto a la sexualidad. Conclusión: Aunque en las residencias de mayores los comportamientos sexuales son relativamente frecuentes, existe un gran margen de mejora para la implementación de medidas que garanticen y tengan en cuenta la expresión sexual de los residentes. Los modelos de atención centrada en la persona pueden ayudar a preservar los derechos sexuales de las personas que viven en residencias


Objectives The study had three objectives: (a) To determine how staff perceives the frequency of different sexual expressions in long-term care facilities for older people; (2) to quantify policies aimed at guaranteeing residents' sexual rights in such institutions, and (3) to determine factors influencing the presence of these kind of policies. Methods A total of 160 Directors of Nursing and 623 technical staff from Spanish long term care residential facilities completed a self-administered questionnaire including ítems to assess the experience and estimated frequency of different sexual expressions, an inventory of policies regarding sexual expression, and the Spanish version of the Person-Centred Care Assessment Tool. Results Certain sexual behaviours, such as kisses and hugs, or masturbation, are very frequent in nursing homes. Many participants have reported to staff members on having witnessed inappropriate sexual behaviours, such as exhibitionism (39%) or unwanted touching (27%). Policies in relation to guaranteeing residents' sexual rights were the most frequently mentioned. In contrast, there were fewer participants who mentioned policies regarding training or availability of helpful materials and resources. Factors such as occupational level (Directors of Nursing vs.technical staff), personal education, the centre commitment to person-centred care, and estimated frequency of sexual behaviour were associated with a higher presence of sexual expression policies. Conclusion Although sexual behaviours among residents are quite frequent, there is still room for improvement in policies that support residents' expression of sexuality. Person-centred care models might help to guarantee sexual rights of older people living in long-term care facilities


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Direitos dos Idosos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/organização & administração , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , População Institucionalizada , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Aval. psicol ; 18(1): 86-95, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-999630

RESUMO

Este estudo investigou o Bem-Estar Subjetivo (BES) de longevos institucionalizados e não institucionalizados por meio do Teste das Pirâmides Coloridas de Pfister (TPC). Participaram 70 idosos com 80 anos e mais, 35 procedentes de instituições de longa permanência (GI) e 35 provenientes da comunidade (GNI), individualmente avaliados pelos seguintes instrumentos: questionário sociodemográfico, TPC, Escala de Afetos Positivos e Afetos Negativos, Escala de Depressão Geriátrica Abreviada e Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg. Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os grupos no TPC, mas sinalizaram preservação da afetividade, embora com funcionamento cognitivo menos elaborado (predomínio de tapetes). GI apresentou sinais de piores condições funcionais e afeto positivo estatisticamente menor (PANAS), com tendência a pior autoestima (EAR). Ambos os grupos evidenciaram sinais de vivências depressivas (GDS-15). Os achados contribuem para compreensão da psicodinâmica na velhice e futuro planejamento de estratégias de intervenções que fomentem o BES dos longevos. (AU)


This study investigated the subjective well-being (SWB) of institutionalized and non-institutionalized older adults using Pfister's Colors Pyramid Test (CPT). Participants were 70 older adults aged 80 years or over, with 35 being residents of Long Term Care Institutions (IG) and 35 living in the Community (CG). They were individually assessed through the application of a sociodemographic questionnaire, the CPT, the Positive and Negative Affections Scale, the Geriatric Depression Scale - short form, and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in the CPT, and they both presented preservation of affect, even with less elaborate cognitive functioning (predominance of carpets). The IG presented signs of worse functional conditions and statistically lower positive affection (PANAS), with a tendency for lower self-esteem (RSS). Both groups showed signs of depressive experiences (GDS-SF). The findings contribute to an understanding of psychodynamics in aging and to the future planning of intervention strategies that encourage SWB in older adults. (AU)


Este estudio investigó el Bienestar Subjetivo (BS) de los ancianos institucionalizados y no institucionalizados, por medio del Test de Pirámides de Colores de Pfister (TPC). Participaron 70 ancianos a partir de los 80 años, 35 de ellos procedentes de instituciones de larga permanencia (GI) y 35 provenientes de la comunidad (GNI), todos fueron individualmente evaluados de acuerdo con los siguientes instrumentos: cuestionario sociodemográfico, el TPC, las Escala de Afectos Positivos y Afectos Negativos, de Depresión Geriátrica Abreviada, y de Autoestima de Rosenberg. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos en el TPC, si bien que señalaron preservación de la afectividad, pero con funcionamiento cognitivo menos elaborado (predominio de alfombras). El GI presentó signos de peores condiciones funcionales y afecto positivo estadísticamente menor (PANAS), con tendencia a peor autoestima (EAR). Ambos grupos evidenciaron signos de vivencias depresivas (GDS-15). Los hallazgos contribuyen a la comprensión de la psicodinámica en la vejez y futura planificación de estrategias de intervenciones que fomenten el BES de los ancianos. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autoimagem , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Técnicas Projetivas , Cognição , Afeto , População Institucionalizada , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Rev. Asoc. Esp. Neuropsiquiatr ; 38(134): 567-585, jul.-dic. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176435

RESUMO

A la luz del amplio crecimiento de colectivos, entidades y federaciones que se definen como "en primera persona", la intención aquí es problematizar la cuestión de los llamados saberes profanos, su contexto y sus circunstancias de expresión y desarrollo, así como los obstáculos y dificultades a la hora de adquirir un estatus socialmente legitimado. Cuando hablamos de saberes profanos, hacemos referencia a aquel conocimiento y elaboración conceptual que deriva de la experiencia subjetiva del sufrimiento psíquico/emocional/social. Un saber que frecuentemente corre el riesgo de ser un "punto ciego" para la mirada experta, pero que, de diversas maneras, actúa y emerge como elemento constitutivo de las estrategias de supervivencia y autoatención en los sujetos de la locura. Un saber que busca ser reconocido, acogido, y que se presenta como un elemento clave a la hora de habilitar las condiciones del diálogo en el ámbito de la reflexión sobre el sufrimiento y la construcción de los itinerarios hacia un mejor estar


In light of the broad growth of collectives, entities and federations that are defined as "in the first person", the intention here is to problematize the question of the so-called profane or lay knowledge, its contexts and circumstances of expression and development, as well as its obstacles and difficulties to acquire a socially legitimized status. When we talk about profane knowledge, we refer to that conceptual elaboration that derives from the subjective experience of the psychic/emotional/social suffering. This knowledge frequently runs the risk of being a "blind spot" for the expert look, but, in various ways, acts and emerges as a constitutive element of survival strategies and self-care in the subjects of the so-called madness. This knowledge seeks to be accepted, recognized, and is presented as a key element when it comes to enabling the conditions of dialogue in the field of reflection on suffering and the construction of itineraries towards better living


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Defesa do Paciente/tendências , Integração Comunitária/psicologia , Luto , Coerção , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , População Institucionalizada
11.
Rev. Rol enferm ; 41(11/12,supl): 8-14, nov.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-179934

RESUMO

Palliative Care is an appropriate typology of care for institutionalized older people with Advanced Dementia. It is necessary to take into account their unique needs and circumstances to guarantee a good quality of life and satisfaction with the health care received. The aim of this study was to identify the needs in Palliative Care associated with institutionalized people with Advanced Dementia. An explo-ratory two-stage qualitative study was developed. After a narrative literature re-view, all the phenomena related to the subject were identified as being a possible need in palliative care. This data was discussed and evaluated by two focus group with Portuguese and Spanish experts in the fields of Geriatrics, Psycho-geriatrics, Neurology, Geriatric Nursing, Psychology and Continuity Care. The needs in Pallia-tive Care were identified and categorized into seven dimensions: physical, psycho-logical, social, spiritual, economic, legal and environmental. The identification of these needs is the first step to ensure the provision of Palliative Care with quality and adapted to the particularities of each older person institutionalized


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Demência/complicações , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/métodos , Enfermagem de Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/métodos , Demência/enfermagem , População Institucionalizada , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/tendências
12.
Rev. esp. geriatr. gerontol. (Ed. impr.) ; 53(5): 247-254, sept.-oct. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-178085

RESUMO

Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio es identificar los factores pronóstico de mortalidad y de recuperación funcional en pacientes ancianos con fractura de cadera. Material y métodos: Estudio longitudinal prospectivo en pacientes de 80 años o más y pacientes entre 75 y 79 años institucionalizados en residencia, con antecedentes de demencia o en seguimiento por Geriatría, con fractura de cadera. Se incluyó a 359 pacientes, recogiéndose variables demográficas, situación funcional previa, antecedentes patológicos y tipo de fractura, y durante la hospitalización el momento de la cirugía, delirium, evolución funcional, estancia mediana, destino al alta y mortalidad. Se realizó seguimiento durante un año registrando ubicación del paciente, situación funcional, complicaciones médicas y mortalidad. Resultados: Las características basales que conferían mayor riesgo de mortalidad fueron la edad elevada (> 92 años), las complicaciones médicas que retrasaron la IQ (HR 2,17; IC del 95%, 1,27-3,73), tener demencia (HR 1,78; IC del 95%, 1,15-2,75) o insuficiencia cardiaca (HR 1,75; IC del 95%, 1,12-2,75). Los modelos de regresión multivariante ajustados muestran que la dependencia funcional previa a la fractura o la falta de recuperación funcional tras la misma, se asociaron a mayor mortalidad y que los pacientes de mayor edad, con delirium, demencia y dependencia funcional previa presentaron peor pronóstico de recuperación funcional. Conclusión: En los pacientes ancianos con una fractura de cadera, la edad elevada, la comorbilidad y la dependencia funcional se asocian a la mortalidad. El pronóstico de recuperación funcional dependerá de la edad, la situación funcional previa, los antecedentes de demencia y la presencia de delirium durante el ingreso


The aim of this study is to identify the risks factors for mortality and functional recovery in elderly patients admitted to hospital with a hip fracture. Materials and methods: Longitudinal prospective study in patients 80 years old or more and patients between 75 and 79 in residential home care with a hip fracture and with a past medical history of dementia or followed-up by the Geriatric Unit. A total of 359 patients were included, and the demographic data, previous functional status, comorbidity, type of fracture, and dementia were recorded. The data collected during admission included time to surgery, delirium, functional recovery, length of stay, placement at discharge, and mortality. Patients were followed-up for one year and details were collected on placement at the end of follow-up, functional recovery, medical complications, and mortality. Results: The baseline characteristics of the patients with a strong association with mortality after a hip fracture were old age (> 92 years), medical complications delaying surgery (HR 2.17; 95% CI; 1.27-3.73), diagnosis of dementia (HR 1.78; 95% CI; 1.15-2.75), or heart failure (HR 1.75; 95% CI; 1.12-2.75). The fitted multivariable regression models showed that functional impairment before the hip fracture or lack of functional recovery are associated with higher mortality, and patients with increased age, delirium, dementia, and previous functional impairment showed worse functional recovery. Conclusion: In the elderly patients with a hip fracture, increased age, comorbidity and previous functional status is associated with mortality. Functional recovery prognosis will depend on age, previous functional status, past medical history of dementia, and the presence of delirium during admission


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Demência/complicações , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , População Institucionalizada , Fatores de Risco , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fraturas do Quadril/reabilitação
13.
Rev. Rol enferm ; 41(6): 422-426, jun. 2018. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-179680

RESUMO

Objetivos: Determinar el grado de aceptación de la terapia sustitutiva de nicotina (TSN) de los pacientes ingresados en una unidad hospitalaria aguda de Psiquiatría. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional prospectivo en una unidad de Psiquiatría de adultos en un hospital de tercer nivel. Se incluyeron pacientes adultos fumadores que aceptaron participar. Las principales variables estudiadas fueron: edad, sexo, diagnóstico principal, consumo de cigarrillos diarios, número de intentos previos para dejar de fumar, porcentaje de pacientes que aceptan la TSN, el método de TSN recibido e intención en dejar de fumar. Resultados: Se registraron 122 pacientes, de los cuales un 42.1 % fueron mujeres. La edad media fue de 39 años. El diagnóstico más frecuente fue esquizofrenia (33.1 %). De media, los pacientes fumaban 19.4 cigarrillos por día. El 47 % de la muestra fumaba más de 20 cigarrillos por día. El promedio de intentos para dejar de fumar fue de 1.5 intentos. Un 60 % de los pacientes lo había intentando al menos una vez. El 46 % de los pacientes responde afirmativamente ante la pregunta: «¿Quieres dejar de fumar?». Durante la hospitalización, el 94 % aceptó algún método de TSN. El 39.6 % de los pacientes utilizó un método combinado de TSN (oral y transdérmico), siendo este el más prevalente. Conclusiones: Hay una elevada aceptación de la TSN por parte de los pacientes psiquiátricos, siendo la opción combinada (oral y transdérmico) la más escogida. Un elevado número de pacientes (46 %) responde afirmativamente cuando se le pregunta si quieren dejar de fumar, lo cual sugiere que, contrariamente a lo que podría suponerse, esta población es susceptible de iniciar un abordaje de su tabaquismo mientras están ingresados en una unidad de agudos de Psiquiatría


Objectives To determine inpatients’ degree of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) acceptance in an acute psychiatric unit. Method: A prospective, observational study was conducted in a tertiary hospital. Accepting participants were enrolled. The main variables assessed were age, gender, psychiatric diagnosis, smoking history, including: number of cigarettes smoked daily, number of previous quit attempts, rate of acceptance of NRT, method of NRT used and intention to quit smoking. Results: A total of 122 patients were enrolled in the study (42.1 %, women, mean age 39). The most prevalent diagnosis was schizophrenia (33.1 %). Patients smoked on average 19,4 cigarettes per day. Almost half (47 %) of the sample smoked more than 20 cigarettes daily. The mean number of previous quit attempts was 1.5. 60 % of patients had tried at least once to quit smoking. 46 % of patients reported intentions of quitting smoking. NRT was accepted by 94 % of patients (39.6 % used both oral and transdermal therapy). Conclusions: NRT was highly accepted by psychiatric inpatients. A combined use of oral and transdermal NRT was the most frequent option. A high number of patients (46 %) reported intentions to quit smoking, suggesting that it is indeed feasible to initiate a smoking cessation intervention among this population while hospitalized


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tabagismo/terapia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , População Institucionalizada , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco
14.
Rev. esp. med. legal ; 44(1): 38-45, ene.-mar. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-170358

RESUMO

La muerte súbita del deportista es un acontecimiento infrecuente, pero causa un impacto tremendo en la comunidad. Su incidencia es muy variable, siendo la cardiopatía coronaria la causa más frecuente en sujetos mayores de 35 años. En los jóvenes las más habituales son las miocardiopatías y la anomalía congénita de las arterias coronarias. En muchos casos se realiza la autopsia judicial. Se practicará el levantamiento de cadáver y una autopsia detallada, solicitando análisis toxicológicos e histopatológicos. Si la autopsia es negativa, se solicitarán análisis genéticos para descartar enfermedades que pueden causar arritmias cardíacas. Las muertes súbitas en custodia, incluyendo las que ocurren en el contexto de la reducción y contención, tienen un especial interés en medicina forense tanto por la pluralidad de causas intervinientes como por las circunstancias en que se producen, así como la repercusión mediática y médico-legal que suponen. Este artículo realiza una revisión desde un enfoque pragmático para el médico forense (AU)


Sports-related sudden death is an unusual event. It causes a great social impact. The incidence has been heterogeneous, and coronary artery disease is the most frequent cause in subjects over 35 years-old. Cardiomyopathies and congenital coronary artery anomalies are more usual in younger people. The performing of a medicolegal autopsy is necessary in most cases. A detailed death scene investigation has to be performed, along with a full autopsy with toxicological and histopathological investigation. If the autopsy is negative, genetic studies are requested to rule out disease that may cause cardiac arrhythmias. Sudden deaths in custody, including those occurring in a restraint and containment context, have a special interest in Forensic Medicine, for the multifactorial causes as for the circumstances in which they occurred, as well the social media and medicolegal repercussions. This article presents a review, using a practical approach, for the forensic physician (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Patologia Legal/métodos , Causas de Morte , Autopsia/estatística & dados numéricos , População Institucionalizada , Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Asfixia/diagnóstico , Agitação Psicomotora/diagnóstico
17.
Asclepio ; 69(2): 0-0, jul.-dic. 2017.
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-169347

RESUMO

A escritora Maura Lopes Cançado circulou no mundo dos hospitais psiquiátricos entre as décadas de 1950, 1960 e 1970. Em uma de suas internações (1959-1960), a terceira no Centro Psiquiátrico Nacional, complexo hospitalar da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, escreveu um diário que foi posteriormente publicado como o livro Hospício é Deus-Diário I. A aliança entre o vivido e a ficção, na qual transitou a narradora em seu diário, criou uma obra ímpar na perspectiva dos comentadores acadêmicos e críticos literários. No campo da história da loucura e da psiquiatria, sua obra oferece possibilidades novas de compreensão da configuração da assistência psiquiátrica, das práticas científicas e terapêuticas e dos diversos sujeitos que circularam no mundo dos hospitais psiquiátricos brasileiros, na década de 1950, operando um deslocamento em relação aos lugares tradicionais de enunciação que conhecemos. Neste artigo, escolhi observar as problematizações de Maura sobre o cotidiano institucional e o próprio ato da escrita de um diário, que oscilam entre ensinar os outros e cuidar de si. Realizei portanto, uma análise enunciativa da narrativa, que valoriza as coisas ditas por ela como uma das verdades sobre o hospital psiquiátrico, a ciência médica e suas práticas, os loucos e a loucura (AU)


The writer Maura Lopes Cançado circulated in the world of the psychiatric hospitals between the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. During one of hospitalizations (1959-1960), the third time in the National Psychiatric Center, a hospital complex in Rio de Janeiro, the writer wrote a diary that was later published as the book Hospice is God-Diary I. The bond between the live lived by her and the fiction, which the narrator transited in her diary, creating a unique work from the perspective of academic commentators and literary critics. In the history field of madness and psychiatry, this work offers new possibilities for understanding the configuration of psychiatric care, scientific and therapeutic practices and the various subjects that circulated in the world of Brazilians psychiatric hospitals, in the 1950s, operating a displacement in relation to traditional places of enunciation that are known. In this article, I chose to observe the problematizations of Maura about the institutional daily life and the fact of writing a diary, which oscillate between teaching others and the care of the self. Therefore, I did an enunciative analysis of the narrative, that values the things that were said by her as one of the truths about the psychiatric hospital, medical science and its practices, the mad and the madness (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Brasil/epidemiologia , Narrativas Pessoais como Assunto , População Institucionalizada
18.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 30(6): 422-428, dic. 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-169395

RESUMO

Objective. Pneumonia is most frequently produced by the microaspiration of flora that colonizes the oropharynx. Etiological diagnosis of pneumonia is infrequent in clinical practise and empirical treatment should be prescribed. The aims of the present study were to determine the factors associated with oropharynx colonization by uncommon microorganisms (UM) and to develop a predictive model. Methods. A cross-sectional study that included all patients living in one long-term care facilities was developed. Demographic, comorbidities, basal functional status and clinical data were collected. To determinate the oropharyngeal colonization, a single sample of pharynx was obtained for each subject using a cotton swab. Results. A total of 221 subjects were included, mean age 86.27 (SD 8.05) years and 157 (71%) were female. In 32 (14.5%) subjects UM flora was isolated, Gram-negative bacilli in 16 (7.2%) residents, and Staphylococcus aureus in 16 (7.2%). The predictive model included the presence of hypertension, neuromuscular disease, Barthel < 90 and use of PEG. The BAHNG score (BArthel, Hypertension, Neuromuscular, Gastrostomy), showed an area under the curve of 0.731 (CI 95% 0.643-0.820; p<0.001). We have classified patients according to this score in low (0-2 points), intermediate (3-5 points) and high risk (≥ 6). The probability of UM colonization in the oropharyngeal based on this classification is 4.1%, 15.8% and 57.1% for low, intermediate and high risk, respectively. Conclusion. The BAHNG score could help in the identifications of elderly patients with high risk of colonization by UM. In case of pneumonia the evaluation of the subject through this score could help in the initial decisions concerning antibiotic treatment (AU)


Objetivo. La neumonía se produce, con mayor frecuencia, por la microaspiración de la flora que coloniza la orofaringe. Su diagnóstico etiológico es infrecuente en la práctica clínica, prescribiéndose el tratamiento empíricamente. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar los factores asociados con la colonización de la orofaringe por microorganismos menos habituales y desarrollar un modelo predictivo. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal que incluyó a todos los pacientes ingresados en una residencia de larga estancia. Se recogieron datos demográficos, comorbilidades, estado funcional basal y datos clínicos. Para determinar la colonización orofaríngea, se obtuvo una muestra única de la faringe para cada sujeto con un hisopo de algodón. Resultados. Se incluyeron un total de 221 sujetos, con una edad media de 86,27 (DE 8,05) años y 157 (71%) fueron mujeres. En 32 (14,5%) sujetos se aisló flora menos habitual: bacilos gramnegativos en 16 (7,2%) residentes y Staphylococcus aureus en 16 (7,2%). El modelo predictivo incluyó la presencia de hipertensión, enfermedad neuromuscular, Barthel <90 y tener gastrostomía endoscópica percutánea. La escala BAHNG (BArthel, Hipertensión, Neuromuscular, Gastrostomía) mostró un área bajo la curva de 0,731 (IC 95% 0,643-0,820; p <0,001). Se clasificó a los pacientes según la puntuación en bajo (0-2 puntos), intermedio (3-5 puntos) y alto riesgo (≥ 6). La probabilidad de colonización de la orofaringe por microorganismos menos habituales según esta clasificación fue del 4,1%, 15,8% y 57,1% para el riesgo bajo, intermedio y alto, respectivamente. Conclusión. La escala BAHNG podría ayudar en la identificación de pacientes ancianos con alto riesgo de colonización de la orofaringe por microorganismos menos habituales. En caso de neumonía, la evaluación del sujeto a través de esta escala podría ayudar en las decisiones iniciales sobre el tratamiento antibiótico a instaurar (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Orofaringe/microbiologia , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , População Institucionalizada
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