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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e060149, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130756

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the extent to which marriage influences cancer-specific survival (CSS) by influencing the insurance status among patients with common solid cancers and the feasibility of reducing the survival gap caused by marriage by increasing private insurance coverage for unmarried patients. SETTING: A retrospective cohort study with patients retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results programme. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with nine common solid cancers diagnosed between 2007 and 2016 were included. Patients were excluded if their marital status, insurance status, socioeconomical status, stage or cause of death was unavailable, if survival time was less than 1 month, or if they were younger than 18 years at the time of diagnosis. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was CSS, which was compared between married and unmarried individuals. Mediation analyses were conducted to determine the contribution of insurance status to the association between marriage and CSS. RESULTS: Married patients had better CSS than those unmarried (time ratio 1.778; 95% CI 1.758 to 1.797). Private health insurance was a key factor mediating the association between marital status and CSS (proportion mediated (PM), 17%; 95% CI 17% to 17.1%). The PM ranges from 10.7% in prostate cancer to 20% in kidney cancer. The contribution of private insurance to the association between marital status and CSS was greater among women than among men (PM 18.5% vs 16.7%). The mediating effect of private insurance was the greatest for the comparison between married and separated individuals (PM 25.6%; 95% CI 25.3% to 25.8%) and smallest for the comparison between married and widowed individuals (PM 11.0%; 95% CI 10.9% to 11.1%). CONCLUSIONS: 17% of the marital disparities in CSS are mediated by private insurance coverage. Increasing private insurance coverage for unmarried patients may reduce the survival gap related to marital status and sex. However, it is unclear whether better publicly funded insurance would have the same effect.


Assuntos
Análise de Mediação , Neoplasias , Feminino , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Estado Civil , Estudos Retrospectivos , Programa de SEER
2.
Curr Oncol ; 29(9): 6053-6067, 2022 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36135045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) gene is present in 20~25% of breast cancer (BC) patients, contributing to an inferior prognosis. Recent clinical trials showed that pyrotinib has promising antitumor activities and acceptable tolerability for those patients (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03080805 and NCT02422199). Therefore, this study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of pyrotinib plus capecitabine versus lapatinib plus capecitabine for patients with HER2-positive metastatic BC after prior trastuzumab. METHODS: A lifetime-partitioned survival model was established to evaluate health and economic outcomes with different treatment strategies. The primary outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Data were derived from the published literature, clinical trials, expert opinions, and other local charges. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of the findings. Scenario analyses were developed to make further evaluations. RESULTS: The pyrotinib regimen had significant advantages over the lapatinib regimen after enrolling in the National Reimbursement Drug List (NRDL), with cost savings of USD 15,599.27 and a gain of 0.53 QALYs. Meanwhile, before enrolling in NRDL, the pyrotinib regimen afforded the same QALYs at a higher incremental cost of USD 45,400.64 versus the lapatinib regimen, producing an ICER of USD 85,944.79 per QALY. Scenario analyses yielded similar results. Sensitivity analyses suggested stability in the cost-effectiveness findings. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to lapatinib plus capecitabine, the pyrotinib plus capecitabine enrolled in NRDL is a cost-effective alternative second-line treatment for patients with HER2-positive metastatic BC in China.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Acrilamidas , Aminoquinolinas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Capecitabina/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Lapatinib/uso terapêutico , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico
5.
JAMA ; 328(11): 1085-1099, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125468

RESUMO

Importance: Medicaid is the largest health insurance program by enrollment in the US and has an important role in financing care for eligible low-income adults, children, pregnant persons, older adults, people with disabilities, and people from racial and ethnic minority groups. Medicaid has evolved with policy reform and expansion under the Affordable Care Act and is at a crossroads in balancing its role in addressing health disparities and health inequities against fiscal and political pressures to limit spending. Objective: To describe Medicaid eligibility, enrollment, and spending and to examine areas of Medicaid policy, including managed care, payment, and delivery system reforms; Medicaid expansion; racial and ethnic health disparities; and the potential to achieve health equity. Evidence Review: Analyses of publicly available data reported from 2010 to 2022 on Medicaid enrollment and program expenditures were performed to describe the structure and financing of Medicaid and characteristics of Medicaid enrollees. A search of PubMed for peer-reviewed literature and online reports from nonprofit and government organizations was conducted between August 1, 2021, and February 1, 2022, to review evidence on Medicaid managed care, delivery system reforms, expansion, and health disparities. Peer-reviewed articles and reports published between January 2003 and February 2022 were included. Findings: Medicaid covered approximately 80.6 million people (mean per month) in 2022 (24.2% of the US population) and accounted for an estimated $671.2 billion in health spending in 2020, representing 16.3% of US health spending. Medicaid accounted for an estimated 27.2% of total state spending and 7.6% of total federal expenditures in 2021. States enrolled 69.5% of Medicaid beneficiaries in managed care plans in 2019 and adopted 139 delivery system reforms from 2003 to 2019. The 38 states (and Washington, DC) that expanded Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act experienced gains in coverage, increased federal revenues, and improvements in health care access and some health outcomes. Approximately 56.4% of Medicaid beneficiaries were from racial and ethnic minority groups in 2019, and disparities in access, quality, and outcomes are common among these groups within Medicaid. Expanding Medicaid, addressing disparities within Medicaid, and having an explicit focus on equity in managed care and delivery system reforms may represent opportunities for Medicaid to advance health equity. Conclusions and Relevance: Medicaid insures a substantial portion of the US population, accounts for a significant amount of total health spending and state expenditures, and has evolved with delivery system reforms, increased managed care enrollment, and state expansions. Additional Medicaid policy reforms are needed to reduce health disparities by race and ethnicity and to help achieve equity in access, quality, and outcomes.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Medicaid , Idoso , Criança , Etnicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Grupos Minoritários , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
6.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 28(9): 1053-1058, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36001106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health plans guide enrollees' access to specialty drugs through coverage policies. Practice guidelines recommend that the evidence supporting drug coverage policies should be comprehensive and routinely updated to reflect evidence-based medicine. OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency with which health plans update their coverage criteria and supporting evidence and to determine the pattern with which plans cited relevant literature in their coverage policies. METHODS: Coverage policies from 17 large US commercial health plans were retrieved from the Tufts Medical Center Specialty Drug Evidence and Coverage database for August 2017 and August 2019. We identified drug-indication pairs (eg, infliximab for rheumatoid arthritis) for which plans had issued coverage policies in August 2017 and August 2019. We examined the frequency with which plans reissued these policies (ie, issued a new coverage document) between these 2 time points and the frequency with which plans altered coverage criteria or updated the cited evidence. A random sample of 20 drug-indication pairs was chosen to determine the comprehensiveness of cited evidence from the Specialty Drug Evidence and Coverage database. For each pair, a systematic literature search was conducted to identify relevant clinical and economic studies. A comparison of the systematic literature search with the evidence cited in each drug-indication pair's coverage policy was conducted to determine the comprehensive nature of each coverage policy's evidence. RESULTS: We identified 4,597 instances of plans issuing a coverage policy for the same drug-indication pair in both August 2017 and August 2019. Of those 4,597 instances, plans reissued an updated coverage document in 4,468 (97%). Fifteen percent of reissued policies revised both their coverage criteria and the evidence cited, 2% only their coverage criteria, 69% only the cited evidence, and 14% made no change. A total of 2,760 literature documents were identified relevant to at least one of the 20 drug-indication pairs, of which at least one plan cited 146 of these documents at least once (5.3%). Plans cited health technology assessments, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews/meta-analyses, and clinical guidelines most comprehensively. CONCLUSIONS: Health plans reissued most of their specialty drug coverage policies over a 2-year period. When plans revised their drug coverage criteria, they also tended to revise the evidence cited in their coverage polices. Of all the evidence found in our systematic review, plans more comprehensively cite health technology assessments, RCTs, and systematic reviews/meta-analyses. DISCLOSURES: This study was funded by the National Pharmaceutical Council.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Farmácia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2225964, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35980640

RESUMO

Importance: Instrumental variables can control for selection bias in observational research. However, valid instruments are challenging to identify. Objective: To evaluate regional variation in sleeve gastrectomy following insurance coverage implementation as an instrumental variable in comparative effectiveness research. Design, Setting, and Participants: This serial cross-sectional study included adult patients in a national Medicare claims database who underwent sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass from 2012 to 2017. Data analysis was performed from January to June 2021. Exposures: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Main Outcomes and Measures: The association of the instrumental variable with treatment (ie, undergoing sleeve gastrectomy), as well as mortality, complications, emergency department visits, hospitalization, reinterventions, and surgical revision. Results: A total of 76 077 patients underwent bariatric surgery, of whom 44 367 underwent sleeve gastrectomy (mean [SD] age, 56.9 [11.9] years; 32 559 [73.5%] women) and 31 710 underwent gastric bypass (mean (SD) age, 55.9 (11.8) years; 23 750 [74.9%] women). After insurance coverage initiation, there was substantial regional and temporal variation in adoption of sleeve gastrectomy. Prior-year state-level utilization of sleeve gastrectomy was highly associated with undergoing sleeve gastrectomy (Kleibergen-Paap Wald F statistic, 910.3). All but 2 patient characteristics (race and diagnosis of depression) were well-balanced between the top and bottom quartiles of the instrumental variable. Regarding 1-year outcomes, compared with patients undergoing gastric bypass, patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy had a lower 1-year risk of mortality (0.9%; 95% CI, 0.8%-1.1% vs 1.7%; 95% CI, 1.3%-2.0%), complications (11.6%; 95% CI, 10.9%-12.3% vs 14.1%; 95% CI, 13.0%-15.3%), emergency department visits (48.3%; 95% CI, 46.9%-49.8% vs 53.6%; 95% CI, 52.3%-55.0%), hospitalization (23.4%; 95% CI, 22.4%-24.4% vs 26.5%; 95% CI, 25.1%-28.0%), and reinterventions (8.7%; 95% CI, 8.0%-9.4% vs 12.2%; 95% CI, 11.2%-13.3%). The risk of revision was not different between groups (0.6%; 95% CI, 0.3%-0.8% vs 0.4%; 95% CI, 0.3%-0.6%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of patients undergoing bariatric surgery, there was significant geographic variation in the use of sleeve gastrectomy following initiation of insurance coverage, which served as a strong instrument to compare 2 bariatric surgical procedures. This approach could be applied to other areas of health services research to serve as a complement to clinical trials.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Derivação Gástrica , Obesidade Mórbida , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gastrectomia/métodos , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Masculino , Medicare , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Estados Unidos , Redução de Peso
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1638, 2022 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36038836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) Medicaid expansion on African American-white disparities in health coverage, access to healthcare, receipt of treatment, and health outcomes. DESIGN: A search of research reports, following the PRISMA-ScR guidelines, identified twenty-six national studies investigating changes in health care disparities between African American and white non-disabled, non-elderly adults before and after ACA Medicaid expansion, comparing states that did and did not expand Medicaid. Analysis examined research design and findings. RESULTS: Whether Medicaid eligibility expansion reduced African American-white health coverage disparities remains an open question: Absolute disparities in coverage appear to have declined in expansion states, although exceptions have been reported. African American disparities in health access, treatment, or health outcomes showed little evidence of change for the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Future research addressing key weaknesses in existing research may help to uncover sources of continuing disparities and clarify the impact of future Medicaid expansion on African American health care disparities.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Medicaid , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estados Unidos
10.
Med Care ; 60(10): 743-749, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Affordable Care Act expanded health coverage for low-income residents through Medicaid expansion and increased funding for Health Center Program New Access Points from 2009 to 2015, improving federally qualified health center (FQHC) accessibility. The extent to which these provisions progressed synergistically as intended when states could opt out of Medicaid expansion is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare change in FQHC accessibility among census tracts in Medicaid expansion and nonexpansion states. RESEARCH DESIGN: Tract-level FQHC accessibility scores for 2008 and 2016 were estimated applying the 2-step floating catchment area method to American Community Survey and Health Resources and Services Administration data. Multivariable linear regression compared changes in FQHC accessibility between tracts in Medicaid expansion and nonexpansion states, adjusting for sociodemographic and health system factors and accounting for state-level clustering. SUBJECTS: In total, 7058 census tracts across 10 states. RESULTS: FQHC accessibility increased comparably among tracts in Medicaid expansion and nonexpansion states (coef: 0.3; 95% CI: -0.3, 0.8; P -value: 0.36). FQHC accessibility increased more in tracts with higher poverty and uninsured rates, and those with lower proportions of non-English speakers and Black or African American residents. CONCLUSION: Similar gains in FQHC accessibility across Medicaid expansion and nonexpansion states indicate improvements progressed independently from Medicaid expansion, rather than synergistically as expected. Accessibility increases appeared consistent with HRSA's goal to improve access for individuals experiencing economic barriers to health care but not for those experiencing cultural or language barriers to health care.


Assuntos
Medicaid , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Seguro Saúde , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Estados Unidos
11.
Med Care ; 60(10): 759-767, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congress eliminated the individual mandate penalty of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) effective January 1, 2019. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of repealing the ACA mandate penalty on private health insurance coverage and marketplace enrollment by leveraging state-based mandates in Massachusetts and New Jersey. RESEARCH DESIGN: We employ synthetic control and difference-in-differences methods to compare insurance and enrollment changes separately in Massachusetts and New Jersey, which had insurance mandates effective in 2019, to other states without such mandates. SUBJECTS: Adults aged 18-64 years with income of 150-300% and above 300% of the Federal Poverty Level who participated in the 2016-2019 American Community Survey (ACS) and adults aged 18-64 enrolled in insurance marketplaces based on state-level data from the 2016-2021 Marketplace Open Enrollment Period Public Use Files (MOEP-PUF). MEASURES: Any insurance, individually purchased coverage, and employer-sponsored coverage from the ACS and marketplace enrollment from the MOEP-PUF. RESULTS: Changes in any coverage, individually purchased coverage, and employer-sponsored coverage rates are relatively small (generally in the range of 1-2 percentage points) and statistically nonsignificant in both Massachusetts and New Jersey compared with states without mandates. Furthermore, there is no discernable difference by eligibility for marketplace subsidies based on income level in the ACS data. Similarly, estimates for changes in marketplace enrollment are also small overall and statistically nonsignificant. CONCLUSION: Private insurance coverage rates and marketplace enrollment for adults 18-64 do not appear to have changed thus far owing to the 2019 repeal of the ACA individual mandate penalty.


Assuntos
Trocas de Seguro de Saúde , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Adulto , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Seguro Saúde , Massachusetts , Medicaid , New Jersey , Estados Unidos
12.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 42(9): e954-e959, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health care disparities are prevalent within pediatric orthopaedics in the United States. Social determinants of health, such as income, race, social deprivation, place of residence, and parental involvement, all play a role in unequal access to care and disparate outcomes. Although there has been some effort to promote health equity both within pediatric orthopaedics and the US health care system altogether, disparities persist. In this review, we aim to identify major sources of inequality and propose solutions to achieve equitable care in the future. METHODS: We searched the PubMed database for papers addressing disparities in pediatric orthopaedics published between 2016 and 2021, yielding 283 papers. RESULTS: A total of 36 papers were selected for review based upon new findings. Insurance status, race, and social deprivation are directly linked to poorer access to care, often resulting in a delay in presentation, time to diagnostic imaging, and surgery. Although these disparities pervade various conditions within pediatric orthopaedics, they have most frequently been described in anterior cruciate ligament/meniscal repairs, tibial spine fractures, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, and upper extremity conditions. Treatment outcomes also differ based on insurance status and socioeconomic status. Several studies demonstrated longer hospital stays and higher complication rates in Black patients versus White patients. Patients with public insurance were also found to have worse pain and function scores, longer recoveries, and lower post-treatment follow-up rates. These disparate outcomes are, in part, a response to delayed access to care. CONCLUSIONS: Greater attention paid to health care disparities over the past several years has enabled progress toward achieving equitable pediatric orthopaedic care. However, delays in access to pediatric orthopaedic care among uninsured/publicly insured, and/or socially deprived individuals remain and consequently, so do differences in post-treatment outcomes. Reducing barriers to care, such as insurance status, transportation and health literacy, and promoting education among patients and parents, could help health care access become more equitable. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV-narrative review.


Assuntos
Ortopedia , Fraturas da Tíbia , Adolescente , Criança , Promoção da Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Seguro Saúde , Estados Unidos
13.
J Surg Res ; 279: 648-656, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932719

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Disparities in surgical management have been documented across a range of disease processes. The objective of this study was to investigate sociodemographic disparities in young females undergoing excision of a breast mass. METHODS: A retrospective study of females aged 10-21 y who underwent surgery for a breast lesion across eleven pediatric hospitals from 2011 to 2016 was performed. Differences in patient characteristics, workup, management, and pathology by race/ethnicity, insurance status, median neighborhood income, and urbanicity were evaluated with bivariate and multivariable regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 454 females were included, with a median age of 16 y interquartile range (IQR: 3). 44% of patients were nonHispanic (NH) Black, 40% were NH White, and 7% were Hispanic. 50% of patients had private insurance, 39% had public insurance, and 9% had other/unknown insurance status. Median neighborhood income was $49,974, and 88% of patients resided in a metropolitan area. NH Whites have 4.5 times the odds of undergoing preoperative fine needle aspiration or core needle biopsy compared to NH Blacks (CI: 2.0, 10.0). No differences in time to surgery from the initial imaging study, size of the lesion, or pathology were observed on multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We found no significant differences by race/ethnicity, insurance status, household income, or urbanicity in the time to surgery after the initial imaging study. The only significant disparity noted on multivariable analysis was NH White patients were more likely to undergo preoperative biopsy than were NH Black patients; however, the utility of biopsy in pediatric breast masses is not well established.


Assuntos
Hispânico ou Latino , Cobertura do Seguro , Negros , Criança , Etnicidade , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
14.
JAMA Health Forum ; 3(7): e221996, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977216

RESUMO

Importance: Young adults historically have had the highest uninsured rates among all age groups. In 2014, in addition to Medicaid expansion for adults with low income (≤133% of the federal poverty level [FPL]) through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Massachusetts also extended eligibility for children (≤150% FPL) to beneficiaries aged 19 to 20 years. Objective: To examine changes in insurance coverage continuity for Medicaid enrollees who turned age 19 years before and after eligibility policy changes. Design Setting and Participants: This cohort study used data from the Massachusetts All-Payer Claims Database (2012 to 2016) to compare coverage for Medicaid beneficiaries turning age 19 years before and after Medicaid expansion. Monthly coverage was examined for each cohort for 3 years as beneficiaries aged from 18 and 19 years to 19 and 20 years to 20 and 21 years. Analyses were performed between November 1, 2020, and May 12, 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: In each year, the likelihood of being uninsured or having Medicaid, employer-sponsored insurance, or individual commercial coverage for 3 or more months was examined along with the likelihood of having continuous Medicaid enrollment for 12 or more and 24 or more months. Multivariable linear probability models were used to compare the likelihood of these outcomes for those in the postexpansion vs preexpansion cohorts, adjusting for sex, comorbidity levels, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and neighborhood race and ethnicity. Results: A total of 41 247 young adults turning age 18 to 19 years in the baseline year (20 876 [50.6%] men) were included in the study, with 20 777 in the preexpansion cohort and 20 470 in the postexpansion cohort. Enrollees who turned age 19 years after vs before the Medicaid eligibility expansion were less likely to have 3 or more uninsured months at ages 18 to 19 years (4.4% [n = 891] vs 22.9% [n = 4750]; adjusted difference, -18.4 [95% CI, -19.0 to -17.7] percentage points) and 19 to 20 years (13.2% [n = 2702] vs 35.8% [n = 7447]; adjusted difference, -22.4 [95% CI, -23.2 to -21.6] percentage points) and more likely to have continuous insurance coverage for 12 or more months (94.1% [n = 19 272] vs 63.7% [n = 13 234]; adjusted difference, 30.5 [95% CI, 29.7-31.2] percentage points) or 24 or more months (77.5% [n = 15 868] vs 44.4% [n = 9221]; adjusted difference, 33.0 [95% CI, 32.1-33.9] percentage points). Differences in the likelihood of having 3 or more uninsured months diminished at ages 20 to 21 years, when both groups had access to Medicaid (ie, in calendar years 2014 for the preexpansion cohort and 2016 for the postexpansion cohort). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of young adults in Massachusetts, the combination of expanding Medicaid to lower-income adults and increasing the age threshold for child Medicaid eligibility was associated with reduced likelihood of becoming uninsured among Medicaid enrollees entering adulthood.


Assuntos
Medicaid , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Seguro Saúde , Masculino , Massachusetts , Pobreza , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
15.
JAMA Health Forum ; 3(6): e221632, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977241

RESUMO

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with increased unemployment rates and long periods when individuals were without health insurance. Little is known about how Medicaid expansion facilitates Medicaid enrollment as a buffer to coverage loss owing to unemployment. Objective: To compare changes in health insurance coverage status associated with pandemic-related unemployment among previously employed adults in states that have vs have not expanded Medicaid eligibility. Design Setting and Participants: This cohort study included US adults aged 27 to 64 years who were employed at baseline in the 2020 to 2021 Current Population Survey's Annual Social and Economic Supplement, which included calendar years 2019 to 2020 (32 462 person-years). Data analyses were conducted between November 2021 and April 2022. Exposures: Job loss (ie, new unemployment) experienced during 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were coverage status (ie, uninsured status) and source of coverage (ie, employer sponsored, marketplace, and Medicaid). Using 2-way person-by-year fixed-effects regression models, changes in coverage status associated with unemployment in states that expanded Medicaid were compared with states that did not expand Medicaid. Additional analyses were performed based on prepandemic coverage status. Results: The cohort included 16 231 adults (mean age, 46.8 [95% CI, 46.6-47.0] years; 51.6% women). New unemployment was associated with an increase of 2.9 (95% CI, 1.1-4.6) percentage points (P = .002) in the proportion of uninsured adults in Medicaid expansion states and an increase of 10.7 (95% CI, 2.4-18.9) percentage points (P = .01) in nonexpansion states. Workers were 5.4 (95% CI, 1.9-8.9) percentage points (P = .003) more likely to enroll in Medicaid after a job loss if they lived in a Medicaid expansion state compared with workers experiencing job loss in nonexpansion states. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of US adults, unemployment-related Medicaid enrollment was more frequent in Medicaid expansion states during the COVID-19 pandemic. Medicaid expansion led to a smaller increase in uninsured adults because those who lost private insurance coverage (eg, employer sponsored) appeared more able to transition to Medicaid after job loss.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicaid , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Desemprego , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
JAMA Health Forum ; 3(6): e221373, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977244

RESUMO

Importance: Medicaid is an important source of supplemental coverage for older Medicare beneficiaries with low income. Research has shown that Medicaid expansion under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was associated with increased Medicaid coverage for previously eligible older adults with low income, but there has been little research on whether their health care use increased or whether such changes differed by beneficiaries' health status. Objective: To assess whether the ACA Medicaid expansion to working-age adults was associated with increased Medicaid enrollment and health care use among older adults with low income with and without chronic condition limitations. Design Setting and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from the National Health Interview Survey from 2010 to 2017 for adults 65 years or older with low income (≤100% of the federal poverty level). Data were analyzed from November 2020 to March 2022. Exposure: Residence in a state with Medicaid expansion for working-age adults. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were Medicaid coverage and health care use, measured by physician office visits and inpatient hospital care. Survey weights were used in calculating descriptive statistics and regression estimates. In multivariate analysis, difference-in-differences models were used to compare changes in outcomes over time between respondents in Medicaid expansion states and respondents in nonexpansion states. Results: Of 21 859 adults included in the study, 7153 had chronic condition limitations (4983 [70.1%] female; mean [SD] age, 76.0 [0.1] years) and 14 706 did not have chronic condition limitations (9609 [66.3%] female; mean [SD] age, 74.85 [0.08] years). Of those with chronic condition limitations, 2707 (36.7%) were enrolled in Medicaid, 2816 (39.4%) had an office visit in the past 2 weeks, and 2152 (30.7%) used inpatient hospital care in the past year. Medicaid expansion was associated with differential increases in the likelihood of having Medicaid (4.92 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.25-9.60 percentage points; P = .04) and having an office visit in the past 2 weeks (5.31 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.10-10.51 percentage points; P = .046) compared with nonexpansion. There were no differential changes between expansion and nonexpansion states in receipt of inpatient hospital care (-0.62 percentage points; 95% CI, -5.39 to 4.14 percentage points; P = .79). Among adults without chronic condition limitations, 3159 (19.8%) were enrolled in Medicaid, and no differential changes between expansion and nonexpansion states in Medicaid enrollment (-0.24 percentage points; 95% CI, -3.06 to 2.57 percentage points; P = .86) or health care use were found. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, ACA Medicaid expansion for working-age adults was associated with increased Medicaid enrollment and outpatient health care use among older adults with low income and chronic condition limitations who were dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid.


Assuntos
Medicaid , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Masculino , Medicare , Pobreza , Estados Unidos
17.
JAMA Health Forum ; 3(3): e220034, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977283

RESUMO

Importance: Every year during the open enrollment period, hundreds of thousands of individuals across the Affordable Care Act marketplaces begin the enrollment process but fail to complete it, thereby resulting in coverage gaps or going uninsured. Objective: To investigate if low-cost ($0.55 per person) letters can increase health insurance enrollment. Design Setting and Participants: This intent-to-treat randomized clinical trial was conducted during the final 2 weeks of the 2015 open enrollment period among the 37 states on the HealthCare.gov platform. The trial targeted 744 510 individuals who started the enrollment process but had yet to complete it. Data were analyzed from January through August 2021. Interventions: Study participants were randomized to either a no-letter control group or to 1 of 8 letter variants that drew on evidence from the behavioral sciences about what motivates individuals to take action. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the health insurance enrollment rate at the end of the open enrollment period. Results: Of the 744 510 individuals (mean [SD] age, 41.9 [19.6] years; 53.9% women), 136 122 (18.3%) were in the control group and 608 388 (81.7%) were in the treatment group. Most lived in Medicaid nonexpansion states (72.7%), and a plurality were between 30 and 50 years old (41.0%). For race and ethnicity, 3.0% self-identified as Asian, 14.0% as Black, 5.1% as Hispanic, 39.8% as non-Hispanic White, and 38.2% as other or unknown. By the end of the open enrollment period, 4.0% of the control group enrolled in health insurance coverage. Comparatively, the enrollment rate in the pooled treatment group was 4.3%, which demonstrated an increase of 0.3 percentage points (95% CI, 0.2-0.4 percentage points; P<.001), yielding 1753 marginal enrollments. Letters that used action language caused larger enrollment effects, particularly among Black individuals (increase of 1.6 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.6-2.7 percentage points; P = .003) and Hispanic individuals (increase of 1.5 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.0-3.0 percentage points; P = .046) in Medicaid expansion states. Conclusions and Relevance: This randomized clinical trial shows that letters designed with best practices from the behavioral sciences literature were a low-cost way to increase health insurance enrollment in the Affordable Care Act marketplaces. More research is needed to understand what messages are most effective amid the recently passed American Rescue Plan. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05010395.


Assuntos
Trocas de Seguro de Saúde , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Seguro Saúde , Masculino , Medicaid , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
18.
JAMA Health Forum ; 3(4): e220688, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977317

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study examines changes in postpartum insurance churn during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Pandemias , Período Pós-Parto
19.
JAMA Health Forum ; 3(4): e220493, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977325

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study compares changes in health insurance coverage from 2010 to 2017 for low-income US adults with criminal legal involvement in states that did and did not adopt the Medicaid expansion provision of the Affordable Care Act.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Medicaid , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Seguro Saúde , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estados Unidos
20.
Pediatrics ; 150(3)2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36004541

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Expansion of insurance eligibility is associated with positive health outcomes. We compared uninsurance and health care utilization for (1) all children, and (2) children in immigrant families (CIF) and non-CIF who resided inside and outside of the seven US states/territories offering public health insurance to children regardless of documentation status ("extended-eligibility states/territories"). METHODS: Using the cross-sectional, nationally representative National Survey of Children's Health-2019, we used survey-weighted, multivariable Poisson regression to assess the association of residence in nonextended- versus extended-eligibility states/territories with uninsurance and with health care utilization measures for (1) all children, and (2) CIF versus non-CIF, adjusting for demographic covariates. RESULTS: Of the 29 433 respondents, the 4035 (weighted 27.2%) children in extended- versus nonextended-eligibility states/territories were more likely to be CIF (27.4% vs 20.5%, P < .001), 12 to 17 years old (37.2% vs 33.2%, P = .048), non-White (60.1% vs 45.9%, P < .001), and have a non-English primary language (20.6% vs 11.1%, P < .001).The relative risk of uninsurance for children in nonextended- versus extended-eligibility states/territories was 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.4-3.0), after adjusting for covariates. Fewer children in extended- versus nonextended-eligibility states/territories were uninsured (adjusted prevalence 3.7% vs 7.5%, P < .001), had forgone medical (2.2% vs 3.1%, P = .07) or dental care (17.1% vs 20.5%, P = .02), and had no preventive visit (14.3% vs 17.0%, P = .04). More CIF than non-CIF were uninsured, regardless of residence in nonextended- versus extended-eligibility states/territories: CIF 11.2% vs 5.7%, P < .001; non-CIF 6.1% vs 3.1% P < .001. CONCLUSIONS: Residence in nonextended-eligibility states/territories, compared with in extended-eligibility states/territories, was associated with higher uninsurance and less preventive health care utilization.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Medicaid , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Seguro Saúde , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Estados Unidos
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