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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 910534, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937251

RESUMO

Based on China's provincial panel data from 2007 to 2019, this article discusses the impact of agricultural insurance on agricultural green development, and discusses the issue of regional heterogeneity. This article first studies the impact mechanism of agricultural insurance on agricultural green development, calculates the agricultural green development index, and empirically analyzes the impact of agricultural insurance on agricultural green development. The empirical results show that agricultural insurance has an inhibitory effect on agricultural green development, and that the impact of agricultural insurance on agricultural green development in the three functional areas is heterogeneous. Finally, it puts forward countermeasures and suggestions to build a low-carbon subsidy mechanism for agricultural insurance, enrich agricultural insurance products, improve the coverage of agricultural insurance, and build an agricultural production mode of internal planting and breeding combined with recycling through policy incentives.


Assuntos
Seguro , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Agricultura
2.
Am J Health Behav ; 46(3): 248-258, 2022 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794755

RESUMO

Objectives: We conducted this study to make an empirical test of the influence of China's overall planning for urban and rural medical insurance on citizen health. Methods: Using the data of the China Labor-force Dynamics Survey (CLDS) 2018, self-rated health was chosen as the proxy variable of citizen health status, and the obvious heterogeneity of the influence was measured by the ordered logit model. Results: After participating in the unified urban-rural medical insurance, the probability for citizens' self-rated health to increase by one or more levels grew by 0.21 times (OR = 1.21, p = .004). Further analysis revealed that after participating in the unified urban-rural medical insurance, the probability for males' self-rated health to increase by one or more levels grew by 0.23 times (OR = 1.23, p = .022); the probability for females' self- rated health to increase by one or more levels grew by 0.22 times (OR = 1.22, p = .045); the probability for rural citizens' self-rated health to increase by one or more levels grew by 0.25 times (OR = 1.25, p = .006); and, the probability for eastern China's citizens' self-rated health to increase by one or more levels grew by 0.28 times (OR = 1.28, p = .007). Conclusions: Participating in the unified urban-rural medical insurance program had a greater positive impact on the self-rated health of males than of females, on rural residents versus urban residents, and on eastern residents than central and western residents.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Seguro , China , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(7): e2221444, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35816300

RESUMO

Importance: Evaluating the availability of dentists to provide dental care services to children is important for identifying interventions for improving access. Objective: To assess dental care availability for children in the US by public insurance participation, rural-urban setting, and dentist taxonomy (general, pediatric, or specialized). Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study analyzed the availability of dentists from matching 3 data sets: the 2020 National Plan and Provider Enumeration System, the 2019-2020 State Board of Dentistry information acquired from each state, and the 2019 InsureKidsNow.org database. Data on active dentists in most states (including the District of Columbia [combined hereinafter with states] and excluding Hawaii and Washington) were included in the analysis. The study was conducted from January 2019 to March 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: The number and percentage of dentists participating in public insurance programs (Medicaid and/or Children's Health Insurance Program [CHIP]) were aggregated at the dental office and stratified by the rurality of their practice and taxonomy. State-level comparisons were derived between this study and reports from the Health Policy Institute of the American Dental Association, along with maps and summary statistics disseminated through a data portal and state reports. Results: Among 204 279 active dentists, participation in public insurance varied widely across states, especially for the states that manage the Medicaid and CHIP programs separately. Participation rates in Medicaid and CHIP varied substantially from those of the Health Policy Institute of the American Dental Association. Participation in Medicaid and CHIP was lowest among urban dentists (Medicaid, 26%; CHIP, 29%) and highest among rural dentists (Medicaid, 39%; CHIP, 40%), while urban dentists accounted for most of the dentist population (urban, 84%; rural, 5%). Similarly, participation in Medicaid and CHIP was substantially lower among general dentists (Medicaid, 28%; CHIP, 29%) vs pediatric dentists (57% in both programs), while each state's dentist population consisted of notably more general (84%) than pediatric (3%) dentists. Nearly half of the states revealed wide variations in Medicaid and CHIP participation between counties, ranging from no participation (21 states) to full participation (22 states). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that disparities in the availability of dentists for pediatric dental care are extensive, particularly for Medicaid- and CHIP-insured children, those living in rural communities, and those receiving specialized care. Lack of dentist availability for Medicaid- and CHIP-insured children appears to deter access to receiving dental care.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Seguro , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Odontólogos , Humanos , Medicaid , Estados Unidos
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(7): e2221346, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35819784

RESUMO

Importance: Although HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) implementation among persons who inject drugs has been inadequate, national HIV monitoring programs do not include data on PrEP, and specific trends in PrEP use are not well understood. Objective: To estimate HIV PrEP uptake among commercially insured persons with opioid or stimulant use disorder by injection drug use (IDU) status. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used deidentified data from the MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database to identify a sample of 547 709 commercially insured persons without HIV but with opioid and/or stimulant use disorder, including 110 592 with evidence of IDU between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2019. Data were analyzed from November 1, 2020, to July 1, 2021. Exposures: Persons with opioid and/or stimulant use disorder and evidence of IDU were identified through claims data. Main Outcomes and Measures: The outcome was receipt of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine for PrEP as identified from filled pharmacy claims. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association of demographic and clinical characteristics with receipt of PrEP. Results: The study cohort included 211 609 (28.6%) females and 336 100 (61.4%) males with a combined mean (SD) age of 34.8 (13.1) years, including 110 592 individuals with evidence of IDU. During the study period, 508 (0.09%) persons with opioid and/or stimulant use disorder, including 170 (0.15%) with evidence of IDU, received PrEP. Receipt of PrEP increased from 0.001 to 0.243 per 100 person-years from 2010 through 2019 among the entire cohort and from 0.000 to 0.295 per 100 person-years among those with IDU. In multivariable analysis, PrEP use was more likely among males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 8.72; 95% CI, 6.39-11.89), persons with evidence of IDU (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.21-1.79), and persons with evidence of sexual risk indications for PrEP (aOR, 23.68; 95% CI, 19.57-28.66). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of commercially insured persons with opioid and/or stimulant use disorder, HIV PrEP delivery remained low, including among those with evidence of IDU. PrEP should be consistently offered alongside substance use disorder treatment and other harm reduction and HIV prevention services.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas , Infecções por HIV , Seguro , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 880951, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35844844

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to introduce bed-day payment for rehabilitation services in City S, China, and analyze the cost of inpatient rehabilitation services. Key issues were defined and relevant countermeasures were discussed. Methods: The data about the rehabilitation cost of 3,828 inpatient patients from June 2018 to December 2019 was used. Descriptive statistics and the Kruskal-Wallis test were employed to describe sample characteristics and clarify the comparity of cost and length of stay (LOS) across different groups. After normalizing the distribution of cost and LOS by Box-Cox transformation, multiple linear regression was used to explore the factors influencing cost and LOS by calculating the variance inflation factor (VIF) to identify multicollinearity. Finally, 20 senior and middle management personnel of the hospitals were interviewed through a semi-structured interview method to further figure out the existing problems and countermeasures. Results: (1) During 2015-2019: both discharges and the cost of rehabilitation hospitalization in City S rose rapidly. (2) The highest number of discharges were for circulatory system diseases (57.65%). Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases were noted to have the longest average length of stay (ALOS) reaching 105.8 days. The shortest ALOS was found to be 24.2 days from the diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue. Neurological, circulatory, urological, psychiatric, infectious, and parasitic diseases were observed to be generally more costly. (3) The cost of rehabilitation was determined to mainly consist of the rehabilitation fee (23.63%), comprehensive medical service fee (22.61%), and treatment fee (19.03%). (4) Type of disease, age, nature of the hospital, and grade of the hospital have significant influences both on cost and LOS (P < 0.05). The most critical factor affecting the cost was found to be the length of stay (standardized coefficient = 0.777). (5) The key issues of City S's rehabilitative services system were identified to be the incomplete criteria, imperfections in the payment system, and the fragmentation of services. Conclusions: Bed-day payment is the main payment method for rehabilitation services, but there is a conflict between rapidly rising costs and increasing demand for rehabilitation. The main factors affecting the cost include the length of stay, type of disease, the grade of the hospital, etc. Lack of criteria, imperfections in the payment system, and the fragmentation of services limit sustainability. The core approach is to establish a three-tier rehabilitative network and innovate the current payment system.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados , Seguro , China , Hospitalização , Humanos , Tempo de Internação
6.
J Orthop Trauma ; 36(8): e318-e325, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838557

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To quantify the total hospital costs associated with the treatment of lower extremity long-bone fracture aseptic and septic unhealed fracture, to determine if insurance adequately covers these costs, and to examine whether insurance type correlates with barriers to accessing care. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Academic Level II trauma center. PATIENTS: All patients undergoing operative treatment of OTA/AO classification 31, 32, 33, 41, 42, and 43 fractures between 2012 and 2020 at a single Level II trauma center with minimum of 1-year follow-up. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the total cost of treatment for all hospital-based episodes of care. Distance traveled from primary residence was measured as a surrogate for barriers to care. RESULTS: One hundred seventeen patients with uncomplicated fracture healing, 82 with aseptic unhealed fracture, and 44 with septic unhealed fracture were included in the final cohort. The median cost of treatment for treatment of septic unhealed fracture was $148,318 [interquartile range(IQR) 87,241-256,928], $45,230 (IQR 31,510-68,030) for treatment of aseptic unhealed fracture, and $33,991 (IQR 25,609-54,590) for uncomplicated fracture healing. The hospital made a profit on all patients with commercial insurance, but lost money on all patients with public insurance. Among patients with unhealed fracture, those with public insurance traveled 4 times further for their care compared with patients with commercial insurance (P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Septic unhealed fracture of lower extremity long-bone fractures is an outsized burden on the health care system. Public insurance for both septic and aseptic unhealed fracture does not cover hospital costs. The increased distances traveled by our Medi-Cal and Medicare population may reflect the economic disincentive for local hospitals to care for publicly insured patients with unhealed fractures. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Economic Level V. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Seguro , Consolidação da Fratura , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Custos Hospitalares , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 934524, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35844856

RESUMO

In recent years, the problem of migrant workers' excessive labor has attracted much attention. The implementation of the integration policy of urban and rural medical insurance has broken the urban-rural dual division system. While improving migrant workers' health and sense of social integration, can they effectively alleviate their overwork? Based on the panel data of China Labor Dynamics Survey (CLDS) in 2016 and 2018, this paper empirically analyzes the impact of the integration of urban and rural medical insurance on migrant workers' overwork by using the differential difference model (DID). The research shows that the integration of urban and rural medical insurance can significantly alleviate the excessive labor of migrant workers; Heterogeneity analysis shows that, comparing with the new generation, the eastern region, the tertiary industry and low education level migrant workers, it is more obviously that the integration of urban and rural medical insurance alleviates the overwork of the older generation, the central and the western regions, the secondary industry and high education level migrant workers. Path analysis shows that the integration of urban and rural medical insurance will improve the social identity and health level of migrant workers, and then reduce the probability of migrant workers' overwork.


Assuntos
Seguro , Migrantes , China , Humanos , População Rural , População Urbana
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 907005, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35859770

RESUMO

This study explored the willingness and purchase of travel insurance during the COVID-19 pandemic amongst working adults to ensure their safety and welfare through the lens of the theory of planned behavior. Primary data were gathered from 1,118 working adults across Malaysia and analyzed using the partial least squares structural equation modeling. The study outcomes revealed that attitude toward travel insurance was significantly influenced by insurance literacy, perceived health risk, and health consciousness. The willingness of working adults to purchase travel insurance was highly influenced by attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral controls but unaffected by perceived product risks. The purchase of travel insurance was positively influenced by the willingness to purchase travel insurance. In fact, travel insurance literacy and perceived health risk should be emphasized amongst working adults to encourage them to purchase travel insurance policies for traveling abroad.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Seguro , Adulto , Comportamento do Consumidor , Humanos , Pandemias , Viagem
9.
Obstet Gynecol ; 140(1): 55-64, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine temporal trends in cervical cancer screening practices and associated downstream abnormalities and procedures. METHODS: Women aged 18-64 years with commercial insurance or Medicaid insurance from 2008 to 2019 were identified using the IBM MarketScan databases. The annual rates of screening overall and by type of test (cytology, co-testing, or primary human papillomavirus testing) were examined. Downstream abnormal cytologic and histologic test results, colposcopies, and excisional procedures were examined, and rates were reported for the population of eligible patients with continuous insurance and for those who underwent screening. Changes over time in testing and outcomes were compared using χ2 tests and Spearman's correlation. RESULTS: From 2008 to 2019, the annual screening prevalence decreased from 42.6% to 29.4% in women with commercial insurance (P<.001) and from 27.9% to 12.4% among women with Medicaid insurance (P<.001). In the cohort of women with commercial insurance, cytology usage decreased from 79.4% to 38.9% and co-testing increased from 20.1% to 59.6% (P<.001). Per 1,000 women screened, the rate of abnormal histologic and cytologic test results rose from 96 to 119 (P<.001) and colposcopies rose from 33 to 42 (P<.001); excisional procedures remained relatively constant. Per 1,000 eligible women, the rate of abnormal histologic and cytologic test results decreased from 41 to 35 (P<.001), colposcopies declined from 14 to 12, and excisional procedures decreased from 3 to 2. CONCLUSION: Human papillomavirus testing has been rapidly incorporated into cervical cancer screening and is associated with an increasing trend of downstream abnormalities and procedures among screened women but a declining trend at the population level.


Assuntos
Seguro , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Colposcopia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estados Unidos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
10.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269520, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35776721

RESUMO

The majority of insurance investment funds are derived from policy liability debt funds. It differs from other institutional investors in a number of ways, including investment size, horizon, duration, risk, and so on. However, only a small portion of the extant literature focuses on in-depth and extensive analysis of Insurance Institutional Investors' holdings (IIIs). This study analyses the impact of shareholding by insurance institutions on the value of Shanghai and Shenzhen A-share listed companies in China's capital market. The paper offers three major contributions. First, we discovered that long-term equity-holding IIIs have both value selection and value creation functions. Second, the value creation function becomes more significant among long-term stock-holding IIIs with an increase in the period during which they retain the company's shares; Third, fast-in and fast-out (FIFO) IIIs have a value-inhibiting effect on the held company and serve a value selection role, rather than a value creation function. This study provides more insight on the lack of academic interest in insurance institutions and serves as a foundation and reference for the design of regulatory policies for insurance institutions' involvement in stock markets. It also gives empirical evidence for corporations to accurately analyze shareholding by insurance institutions. Furthermore, since this study concentrates on China's capital market, it can serve as a benchmark for other nations, particularly, those designated as developing market economies.


Assuntos
Administração Financeira , Seguro , China , Investimentos em Saúde , Organizações
11.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 101(8): 746-752, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35859289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine whether employment or insurance status is associated with the presence and number of Waddell signs. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, adult low back pain patients were seen at a tertiary academic center for thoracic or lumbar back pain, due to a degenerative condition. Frequency data were compared with contingency table analysis, including χ2 and logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 462 patients, 26% had any Waddell signs and 10% had clinically significant Waddell signs. Nonemployed patients had a higher prevalence of Waddell signs than employed and retired patients (P = 0.0004 and P = 0.001, respectively). Subgroups of Medicaid participants as well as patients with secondary gain issues, including worker's compensation and motor vehicle accident, had a higher prevalence of 1+ Waddell signs than patients of other insurances (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.01, respectively). Medicaid participants had a higher prevalence of 3+ Waddell signs than other insurances (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of Waddell signs is associated with employment and insurance status. This suggests that social factors may affect patients' perceptions of their thoracic or low back pain. Clinicians aware of these factors can provide individualized care to their patients prone to poor outcomes.


Assuntos
Seguro , Dor Lombar , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Humanos , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico , Dor Lombar/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271552, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849606

RESUMO

China has witnessed the trend of corporate financialization (CF) with some potential risks as the economy slows down its pace in the past decade. In this paper, we explore whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) could work as an information channel to restrain CF or as reputation insurance to promote CF. We find a significant positive relation between CSR and CF, especially for non-SOEs and enterprises with low ownership concentration and high CSR scores. It verifies that the reputation insurance effect by CSR outweighs the information effect and denies the opposite. The results prove robust in tests including sensitivity and endogeneity test. By expanding the scale and adding new aspects to the discussion about how CSR affects CF, this paper provides valuable empirical support to both theorists and practitioners.


Assuntos
Seguro , Responsabilidade Social , China , Organizações , Propriedade
13.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 9752913, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35784001

RESUMO

The future impact of population development trend on social security is extremely huge and far-reaching, to conform to the law of population mobility to adjust the relevant policies, this study is for the urban and rural flow of the Chinese population, and the public health endowment insurance system analyzes the implementation status of PHEI of China's floating population and the existing problems of labor dispatch and employee endowment insurance system. Questionnaires were distributed to 3000 high-quality migrant workers who participated in the training of high-quality migrant workers in 6 cities in Central China where labor export is concentrated and 1000 fresh graduates from agricultural colleges and universities; through the bivariate t-check model in SPSS software, this study analyzes the needs of landless farmers, agricultural scientific and technological talents, and employed people for the living environment. The results show that from the population outflow and population inflow process there has been certain influence on the sustainable ecological environment; this study puts forward the reform of public health endowment insurance system of floating population, the strategy means in accelerating the rural talent revitalization, for the sustainable development of rural areas that has a significant positive effect.


Assuntos
Seguro , Migrantes , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Pública , População Rural
14.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 42(7): 272-287, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830217

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Individuals experience negative physical, social and psychological ramifications when they are hurt or become ill at work. Ontario's Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB) is intended to mitigate these effects, yet the WSIB process can be difficult. Supports for injured workers can be fragmented and scarce, especially in underserved areas. We describe the experiences and mental health needs of injured and ill Northwestern Ontario workers in the WSIB process, in order to promote system improvements. METHODS: Community-recruited injured and ill workers (n = 40) from Thunder Bay and District completed an online survey about their mental health, social service and legal system needs while involved with WSIB. Additional Northwestern Ontario injured and ill workers (n = 16) and community service providers experienced with WSIB processes (n = 8) completed interviews addressing similar themes. RESULTS: Northwestern Ontario workers described the impacts of workplace injury and illness on their professional, family, financial and social functioning, and on their physical and mental health. Many also reported incremental negative impacts of the WSIB processes themselves, including regional issues such as "small town" privacy concerns and the cost burden of travel required by the WSIB, especially during COVID-19. Workers and service providers suggested streamlining and explicating WSIB processes, increasing WSIB continuity of care, and region-specific actions such as improving access to regional support services through arm's-length navigators. CONCLUSION: Northwestern Ontario workers experienced negative effects from workplace injuries and illness and the WSIB process itself. Stakeholders can use these findings to improve processes and outcomes for injured and ill workers, with special considerations for the North.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Seguro , Baías , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ontário/epidemiologia , Indenização aos Trabalhadores , Local de Trabalho
16.
Accid Anal Prev ; 174: 106761, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35772284

RESUMO

Rear-end impacts are the most frequent type of the more than seven million motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) occurring annually in the United States. The cervical and lumbar spine are the most commonly injured sites as a result of rear-end collisions. The direction and magnitude of accelerations and forces to the spine are considered primary indicators of injury. Yet, there is a dearth of research regarding the relation and quantification of vehicle to occupant accelerations, as well as triaxial acceleration components (and thus, forces) to occupant spines in rear-end impacts. Therefore, the current study utilizes the Insurance Institute of Highway Safety (IIHS) test database to examine the relative relations between vehicle and occupant accelerations, as well as between component accelerations experienced at the cervical and lumbar spines in rear-end collisions. Anthropometric test device (ATD) head and pelvis accelerometer data from IIHS sled testing are used as representative measures of acceleration experienced at the cervical and lumbar spine, respectively. Peak resultant acceleration is calculated at the head and pelvis, and peak directional components (x, y, and z) of acceleration are compared to resultants. This analysis revealed significantly higher occupant head than sled (2.17 ± 0.4 × Sled; p < 0.001) and pelvis than sled (1.24 ± 0.27 × Sled; p < 0.001) accelerations. There were also significant differences across triaxial acceleration components relative to resultant at the head (x = 0.99 ± 0.02, y = 0.11 ± 0.05, z = 0.34 ± 0.06; p < 0.001 for all comparisons) and pelvis (x = 0.94 ± 0.06, y = 0.12 ± 0.14, z = 0.35 ± 0.08; p < 0.001 for all comparisons). A secondary analysis examining differences in occupant dynamics by seat designs across vehicle type revealed significant differences only between the pelvis z component accelerations in the passenger vehicle and SUV groups (passenger vehicle:SUV = 1.07, p < 0.001). Due to the uniform nature of IIHS sled testing protocols, this analysis reflects similarities in seat properties rather than between vehicle types. These results may provide a simplistic approach to quantify the magnitude of directional accelerations and forces to occupant spines in rear-end collisions.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Seguro , Aceleração , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares
17.
Health Econ ; 31(9): 1878-1897, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691014

RESUMO

While many states have legalized medical cannabis, many unintended consequences remain under-studied. We focus on one potential detriment-the effect of cannabis legalization on automobile safety. We examine this relationship through auto insurance premiums. Employing a modern difference-in-differences framework and zip code-level premium data from 2014 to 2019, we find that premiums declined, on average, by $22 per year following medical cannabis legalization. The effect is more substantial in areas near a dispensary and in areas with a higher prevalence of drunk driving before legalization. We estimate that existing legalization has reduced health expenditures related to auto accidents by almost $820 million per year with the potential for a further $350 million reduction if legalized nationally.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Seguro , Maconha Medicinal , Acidentes de Trânsito , Automóveis , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742658

RESUMO

The tendency to conform with peers, and learning by imitation, have become new influencing factors that affect farmers' purchases of policy-based planting agricultural insurance. Based on the survey data of 540 farmers in Sichuan Province in 2021, this study empirically analyzed the impact of peer effects on farmers' purchases of policy-based planting agricultural insurance and its mechanism. The results show that: (1) Regardless of whether farmers' relatives and friends visit during the New Year period, the purchase of policy-based planting agricultural insurance by relatives and friends will positively and significantly affect the purchasing behavior of the farmers. (2) The impact of the peer effect on the behavior of farmers purchasing policy-based planting agricultural insurance is related to the relationship between the strengths and weaknesses. (3) The results of the mechanism analysis show that, through the mediating variables of social network and trust, the influence of the peer effect is weakened. (4) Heterogeneity analysis shows that farmers having a larger land scale and higher educational background are more influenced by the same peer effect. The results of the study emphasize the importance of the peer effect on the behavior of farmers purchasing policy-based planting agricultural insurance, and can provide a decision-making reference for the formulation of related policies.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Seguro , Agricultura , China , Humanos , Políticas
19.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 1857100, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720881

RESUMO

To ensure safe development of the financial and insurance industry and promote the continuous growth of the social economy, the theory and its role of deep learning are firstly analyzed. Secondly, the security of financial and insurance and bankruptcy probability are discussed. Finally, an analytical model of the security bankruptcy probability of financial and insurance is designed through a deep learning model, and the model is evaluated comprehensively. The research results manifest that first, the designed security evaluation of the financial and insurance industry based on the deep learning and bankruptcy probability analysis model not only has strong learning ability but also can effectively reduce its own calculation error through short-time learning. Then, by comparing with other models, it is found that the designed model has a stronger ability to control various errors than other models, and the overall error rate of the model can be reduced to about 20%. At last, the data training indicates that the model designed by the deep learning method can accurately and effectively predict the basic situation of the financial and insurance industry, the minimum error can reach 0, and the highest is only about 3. The research provides a technical reference for the development of the financial and insurance industry and contributes to the prosperity of the social economy.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Seguro , Falência da Empresa , Probabilidade
20.
Acta Diabetol ; 59(8): 1083-1089, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648254

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine (1) differences in depression and distress scores between adolescents with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), (2) how socioeconomic factors, obesity, race, and treatment regimen affect depression and diabetes distress in adolescent T2D, (3) the relationships between depression and diabetes distress scores in adolescents with T2D, and (4) how depression and diabetes distress scores relate to current and future glycemic control in adolescents with T2D. BACKGROUND: Diabetes distress is a negative emotional reaction to diabetes complications, self-management demands, unresponsive providers, poor interpersonal relationships, and to diabetes itself. It is frequently mistaken for depression and the two are interrelated. Increases in both predict poor glycemic control in adolescents with T1D. METHOD: Depression (PHQ-9) and diabetes distress (PAID-T) scores from self-administered tests were studied in 364 patients with diabetes between the ages of 13-17. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess differences between types of diabetes, sexes, races, and insurance status. Spearman correlations, and robust rank order multivariable regression analysis were used to assess relationships. Medical records were reviewed for follow-up hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels over 3 years. RESULTS: HbA1c was significantly lower in females with T2D than with T1D (p = 0.019) but not in males. It, also, did not differ between females and males with T2D. Median PHQ-9 score in females with T2D was significantly greater than in females with T1D (p = 0.007) but did not differ between females and males with T2D. PHQ-9 scores did not differ between males with T2D and T1D. PAID-T scores, however, were higher in males with T2D than in males with T1D but did not differ between females. PHQ-9 scores and PAID-T scores were significantly related in T2D (rs = 0.65, p < 0.001). Neither was related to HbA1c in T2D. CONCLUSIONS: As in adolescents with T1D, depression and diabetes distress screening scores are closely related in adolescent T2D. However, unlike T1D, they are not related to glycemic control in T2D. Depression and diabetes distress may be more closely related to weight and lifestyle concerns.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Seguro , Adolescente , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Controle Glicêmico , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia
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