Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.437
Filtrar
1.
J Trop Pediatr ; 68(6)2022 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370460

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Infant respiratory distress is  a significant cause of mortality globally. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a simple and effective therapy, but sicker infants may require additional support such as non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV). We investigated the feasibility of a simple, low-cost, non-electric bubble NIPPV device. METHODS: In this cross-over feasibility study, seven newborns with moderate respiratory distress (Downes score ≥ 3), weight > 1500 g and gestational age > 32 weeks were randomized to  4 h of treatment with bubble CPAP (5-8 cm H2O) vs. bubble NIPPV (Phigh 8-10 cm H2O/Plow 5-8 cm H2O) followed by 4 h of the alternate treatment. Treatment order (CPAP vs. NIPPV) was randomized. Outcome measures included hourly vital signs, Downes score and O2 saturation. Adverse events including pneumothorax, nasal septal necrosis, necrotizing enterocolitis and death before discharge were also recorded. RESULTS: It took nurses 39 (7.3) s to assemble the bubble NIPPV device. Patients had similar vital signs and Downes scores on both treatments; median (IQR) values on bubble CPAP vs. bubble NIPPV were: heart rate 140 (134.5, 144), 140 (134.5, 144); respiratory rate 70 (56, 80), 65 (58, 82), Downes score 4 (3, 5.75), 4 (3, 5), O2 96 (94, 98), 97 (96, 98). All newborns survived to discharge and there were no adverse events. . CONCLUSIONS: A simple, low-cost, non-electric method of providing NIPPV for newborns with respiratory distress is feasible in limited resource settings. Randomized-controlled trials comparing bubble CPAP and bubble NIPPV are justified.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Lactente , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/métodos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Estudos de Viabilidade , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia
2.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 25(4): 531-535, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36254924

RESUMO

Background: Tracheo-bronchomalacia (TBM) is the weakness in the structural integrity of the cartilaginous ring and arch. It may occur in isolation with prematurity or secondarily in association with various congenital anomalies. Bronchomalacia is more commonly associated with congenital heart diseases. The conventional treatment options include positive pressure ventilation with or without tracheostomy, surgical correction of external compression and airway stenting. Aim: To use "synchronized" nasal Dual positive airway pressure (DuoPAP), a non-invasive mode of ventilation as an alternative treatment option for bronchomalacia to avoid complications associated with conventional treatment modalities. Study Design: Prospective observational study conducted in Army Hospital Research and Referral from Jul 2019 to Dec 2020. Material and Methods: We diagnosed seven cases of TBM post-cardiac surgery at our institute, incidence of 4.2%. Four infants were diagnosed with left sided bronchomalacia, 2 were diagnosed with right sided bronchomalacia and one with tracheomalacia. Those infants were managed by "synchronized" nasal DuoPAP, a first in ventilation technology by Fabian Therapy Evolution ventilator (Acutronic, Switzerland). Results: All seven infants showed significant improvement with synchronized nasal DuoPAP both clinically as well as radiologically. None of the infant required tracheostomy and discharged to home successfully. Conclusion: The synchronized nasal DuoPAP is a low cost and effective treatment option for infants with TBM. It could be attributed to synchronization of the breaths leading to better tolerance and compliance in paediatric age group.


Assuntos
Broncomalácia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Traqueomalácia , Broncomalácia/diagnóstico , Broncomalácia/cirurgia , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente , Tecnologia , Traqueomalácia/diagnóstico
4.
J Perinatol ; 42(9): 1238-1243, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of three different modes of non-invasive post-extubation ventilation support in preterm infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). METHODS: Infants diagnosed with severe RDS after extubation were randomized to receive nasal continuous positive airway pressure ventilation (NCPAP), nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV), and non-invasive high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (NHFO). The clinical outcomes and complications of infants in different groups were recorded. RESULTS: In infants less than 32 weeks, NCPAP had a significant increase in extubation failure when compared with NIPPV and NHFO, and the gastrointestinal feeding time, the numbers of apnea, and hospitalization costs in the NCPAP group were significantly higher. The incidence of complications was also higher in the NCPAP group. There was no difference in clinical outcomes and complications in infants greater than 32 weeks. CONCLUSION: For infants with severe RDS less than 32 weeks after extubation, NIPPV and NHFO are more cost-effective in comparison to NCPAP.


Assuntos
Ventilação não Invasiva , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Extubação , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia
5.
Pediatrics ; 150(3)2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Positive pressure ventilation (PPV) is the most important component of neonatal resuscitation, but face mask ventilation can be difficult. Compare supraglottic airway devices (SA) with face masks for term and late preterm infants receiving PPV immediately after birth. METHODS: Data sources include Medline, Embase, Cochrane Databases, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Study selections include randomized, quasi-randomized, interrupted time series, controlled before-after, and cohort studies with English abstracts. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias and certainty of evidence. The primary outcome was failure to improve with positive pressure ventilation. When appropriate, data were pooled using fixed effect models. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of 6 randomized controlled trials (1823 newborn infants) showed that use of an SA decreased the probability of failure to improve with PPV (relative risk 0.24; 95% confidence interval 0.17 to 0.36; P <.001, moderate certainty) and endotracheal intubation (4 randomized controlled trials, 1689 newborn infants) in the delivery room (relative risk 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.20 to 0.56; P <.001, low certainty). The duration of PPV and time until heart rate >100 beats per minute was shorter with the SA. There was no difference in the use of chest compressions or epinephrine during resuscitation. Certainty of evidence was low or very low for most outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Among late preterm and term infants who require resuscitation after birth, ventilation may be more effective if delivered by SA rather than face mask and may reduce the need for endotracheal intubation.


Assuntos
Máscaras , Ressuscitação , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente , Respiração com Pressão Positiva
6.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(12): 3000-3008, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35996817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The optimal lung volume strategy during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is reached by performing recruitment maneuvers, usually guided by the response in oxygenation. In animal models, secondary spontaneous change in oscillation pressure amplitude (ΔPhf) associated with a progressive increase in mean airway pressure during HFOV combined with volume guarantee (HFOV-VG) identifies optimal lung recruitment. The aim of this study was to describe recruitment maneuvers in HFOV-VG and analyze whether changes in ΔPhf might be an early predictor for lung recruitment in newborn infants with severe respiratory failure. DESIGN AND METHODS: The prospective observational study was done in a tertiary-level neonatology department. Changes in ΔPhf were analyzed during standardized lung recruitment after initiating early rescue HFOV-VG in preterm infants with severe respiratory failure. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients were included, with a median gestational age of 24 weeks (interquartile range [IQR]: 23-25). Recruitment maneuvers were performed, median baseline mean airway pressure (mPaw) was 11 cm H2 O (IQR: 10-13), median critical lung opening mPaw during recruitment was 14 cm H2 O (IRQ: 12-16), and median optimal mPaw was 12 cm H2 O (IQR: 10-14, p < 0.01). Recruitment maneuvers were associated with an improvement in oxygenation (FiO2 : 65.0 vs. 45.0, p < 0.01, SpO2/FiO2 ratio: 117 vs. 217, p < 0.01). ΔPhf decreased significantly after lung recruitment (mean amplitude: 23.0 vs. 16.0, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In preterm infants with severe respiratory failure, the lung recruitment process can be effectively guided by ΔPhf on HFOV-VG.


Assuntos
Ventilação de Alta Frequência , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Insuficiência Respiratória , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Animais , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Pulmão , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia
7.
J Perinatol ; 42(9): 1153-1160, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690691

RESUMO

Advances in perinatal management have led to improvements in survival rates for premature infants. It is known that the transitional period soon after birth, and the subsequent weeks, remain periods of rapid circulatory changes. Preterm infants, especially those born at the limits of viability, are susceptible to hemodynamic effects of routine respiratory care practices. In particular, the immature myocardium and cardiovascular system is developmentally vulnerable. Standard of care (but essential) respiratory interventions, administered as part of neonatal care, may negatively impact heart function and/or pulmonary or systemic hemodynamics. The available evidence regarding the hemodynamic impact of these respiratory practices is not well elucidated. Enhanced diagnostic precision and therapeutic judiciousness are warranted. In this narrative, we outline (1) the vulnerability of preterm infants to hemodynamic disturbances (2) the hemodynamic effects of common respiratory practices; including positive pressure ventilation and surfactant therapy, and (3) identify tools to assess cardiopulmonary interactions and guide management.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro , Surfactantes Pulmonares , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/tratamento farmacológico , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente , Surfactantes Pulmonares/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Semin Fetal Neonatal Med ; 27(2): 101349, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654729

RESUMO

There are no standardized procedures for the resuscitation of micropreemies but respiratory and circulatory stabilization immediately after birth should be prioritized. Without aggressive support by positive pressure ventilation, establishing effective respiration among micropreemies is not possible. The first step in postnatal stabilization is initiated by positive airway pressure with a bag and mask. Once the heart rate increases above 100 beats/m, intratracheal intubation should be achieved because it is unusual for a micropreemie to breathe spontaneously or by non-invasive respiratory support for a protracted duration. Until further information is available, initial FiO2 should be between 0.3 and 0.6, and titrated to achieve SpO2 obtained from healthy term infants for the first 10 min of life. Temperature control of infants is also critical for successful resuscitation and heat-loss minimizing procedures should be used e.g. with insulating bags. After securing the intratracheal tube, the infants should be transferred to the NICU for further procedures, including pulmonary surfactant installation and umbilical cord catheterization. Procedures in a delivery room under a radiant warmer should be limited to the initial resuscitation. In NICUs, the infants should be placed into a closed incubator to maintain high environmental temperature and humidity as well as decrease exposure to intervention and noise. Increased number of staff will also be needed to stabilize the infants further in the NICU. Finally, appropriate equipment (e.g. appropriate sized laryngoscopes) should be made readily available, along with regular practical training and education, whether in person or through SIM courses which are essential for all staff to achieve competence in successful resuscitation of the newborn micropreemie.


Assuntos
Salas de Parto , Ressuscitação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente , Intubação Intratraqueal , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Gravidez , Ressuscitação/métodos
9.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(10): 2356-2362, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35722805

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Noninvasive ventilation has become a staple in the care of premature infants. However, failure rates continue to be high in this population. Modifications to noninvasive support, such as nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV), are used clinically to reduce such failure. Previous in vitro studies have shown improved CO2 clearance when superimposing high-frequency oscillations onto bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP). OBJECTIVE: To compare the CO2 clearance of NIPPV to BCPAP with an in-line high-frequency interrupter (HFI) in a premature infant lung model. METHODS: A premature infant lung model was connected to either a Dräger VN500 for delivery of NIPPV or a BCPAP device with superimposed high-frequency oscillations generated by an in-line HFI. Change in end-tidal CO2  (ETCO2 ) and mean airway pressure at the simulated trachea were measured and compared for both noninvasive modalities. RESULTS: Superimposing HF oscillations onto BCPAP with an in-line HFI resulted in improved CO2 clearance relative to BCPAP alone for all tested oscillation frequencies at all CPAP levels (p < 0.001). NIPPV also resulted in improved CO2  clearance relative to nasal CPAP (NCPAP) alone (p < 0.001). Among the tested settings, BCPAP with an in-line HFI resulted in decreased ETCO2 relative to BCPAP ranging from -14% to -36%, while NIPPV resulted in decreased ETCO2  relative to NCPAP ranging from -2% to -12%. CONCLUSION: Superimposing high-frequency oscillations onto BCPAP using a novel in-line HFI was found to be more effective at clearing CO2 than NIPPV in a premature infant lung model.


Assuntos
Ventilação de Alta Frequência , Doenças do Prematuro , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Dióxido de Carbono , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente , Pulmão , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia
11.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 43: 53-59, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35562288

RESUMO

Survival of preterm infants has increased steadily over recent decades, primarily due to improved outcomes for those born before 28 weeks of gestation. However, this has not been matched by similar improvements in longer-term morbidity. One of the key long-term sequelae of preterm birth remains bronchopulmonary dysplasia (also called chronic lung disease of prematurity), contributed primarily by the effect of early pulmonary inflammation superimposed on immature lungs. Non-invasive modes of respiratory support have been rapidly introduced providing modest success in reducing the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia when compared with invasive mechanical ventilation, and improved clinical practice has been reported from population-based studies. We present a comprehensive review of the key modes of non-invasive respiratory support currently used in preterm infants, including their mechanisms of action and evidence of benefit from clinical trials.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , Doenças do Prematuro , Nascimento Prematuro , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente , Displasia Broncopulmonar/terapia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas
12.
Indian J Pediatr ; 89(12): 1195-1201, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the safety and efficacy of different nasal interfaces for delivering non invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in preterm neonates. METHODS: In this three-arm parallel group stratified nonblinded randomized trial involving 210 preterm neonates the participants were randomly allocated to 'nasal mask', 'nasal prongs' and '4 hourly rotation of masks and prongs' groups in a 1:1:1 ratio. The groups were further stratified by gestational age (26-316/7 wk versus 32-366/7 wk) and indication of NIPPV (primary versus post extubation). Primary outcome was incidence of NIPPV failure within 72 h of initiation. Secondary outcomes were moderate/severe nasal injury, requirement of surfactant post randomization, total duration of respiratory support, duration of NICU stay, common neonatal morbidities and mortality. RESULTS: Primary analysis revealed that mask group was superior to prongs and rotation groups in terms of reduction in NIPPV failure within 72 h (8.6%, 24.3%, 22.8%, p = 0.033), decreased incidence of moderate/severe nasal injury (8.6%, 22.8%, 11.4% p = 0.038), decreased requirement of surfactant (20%, 38.6%, 42.8%, p = 0.01) and reduction in total duration of respiratory support [median (interquartile range)-6 (3, 10) d, 7.7 (4.9, 19.2) d, 7 (5.5, 18.5) d, p = 0.005]. Post hoc analysis confirmed that nasal mask was superior to prongs with respect to primary outcome (p = 0.012) and also reduced surfactant requirement compared to both prongs (p = 0.015) and rotation (p = 0.003) groups. Other pairwise comparisons were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Administering NIPPV by nasal mask significantly decreases the incidence of NIPPV failure within first 72 h compared to nasal prongs and also reduces the requirement of surfactant compared to both prongs and rotation groups.


Assuntos
Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente , Surfactantes Pulmonares , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Surfactantes Pulmonares/uso terapêutico , Máscaras , Tensoativos
13.
Am J Emerg Med ; 56: 71-76, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367682

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE), one of the outcomes of acute heart failure (AHF), is a common reason in a critical condition with respiratory distress. Non-invasive synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation(nSIMV) mode, which includes inspiratory pressure in addition to positive end expiratory pressure with/without pressure support provided in the non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure plus/pressure support(nCPAP/PS) mode can be effective in hypercarbia and the associated changes in consciousness. This study aimed to demonstrate the efficacy of nSIMV in ACPE. METHODS: Patients who presented with clinical acute respiratory failure and were admitted to the critical care unit of the emergency department with the diagnosis of ACPE were included. Patients were placed on non-invasive mechanical ventilators with an oronasal mask under the nCPAP/PS and nSIMV modes. Pulse and respiratory rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and Glasgow Coma Scores(GCS), HACOR(heart rate, acidosis, consciousness, oxygenation and respiratory rate) scores, pH, PaCO2, PaO2/FiO2 and lactate at the time of admission and at 30 and 60 min were evaluated. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were recruited, nCPAP/PS mode was 10 and nSIMV mode was 12. Although there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of the change in the relevant parameters from admission to 60 min, the decreases in PaCO2 and lactate levels (31.4% vs. 21.2%, p = 0.383; 68.8% vs. 47.1%, p = 0.224; respectively) and the increase in PaO2 and PaO2/FiO2 values (34% vs. 14.2%, p = 0.710 and 132.1% vs. 52.7%, p = 0.073; respectively) were higher in the nSIMV group. CONCLUSION: The nSIMV mode is as effective as the nCPAP/PS mode in the treatment of patients with ACPE. We believe that the nSIMV mode can be preferable, particularly in patients with hypercarbia who have relatively lower GCS and oxygenation.


Assuntos
Ventilação não Invasiva , Edema Pulmonar , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Humanos , Hipercapnia , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente , Lactatos , Edema Pulmonar/terapia
14.
JAMA Pediatr ; 176(6): 551-559, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35467744

RESUMO

Importance: Several respiratory support techniques are available to minimize the use of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in preterm neonates. It is unknown whether noninvasive high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (NHFOV) is more efficacious than nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) or nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in preterm neonates after their first extubation. Objective: To test the hypothesis that NHFOV is more efficacious than NCPAP or NIPPV in reducing IMV after extubation and until neonatal intensive care unit discharge among preterm neonates. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter, pathophysiology-based, assessor-blinded, 3-group, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 69 tertiary referral neonatal intensive care units in China, recruiting participants from December 1, 2017, to May 31, 2021. Preterm neonates who were between the gestational age of 25 weeks plus 0 days and 32 weeks plus 6 days and were ready to be extubated were randomized to receive NCPAP, NIPPV or NHFOV. Data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. Interventions: The NCPAP, NIPPV, or NHFOV treatment was initiated after the first extubation and lasted until discharge. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were total duration of IMV, need for reintubation, and ventilator-free days. These outcomes were chosen to describe the effect of noninvasive ventilation strategy on the general need for IMV. Results: A total of 1440 neonates (mean [SD] age at birth, 29.4 [1.8] weeks; 860 boys [59.7%]) were included in the trial. Duration of IMV was longer in NIPPV (mean difference, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.01-2.3 days; P = .04) and NCPAP (mean difference, 1.5 days; 95% CI, 0.3-2.7 days; P = .01) compared with NHFOV. Neonates who were treated with NCPAP needed reintubations more often than those who were treated with NIPPV (risk difference: 8.1%; 95% CI, 2.9%-13.3%; P = .003) and NHFOV (risk difference, 12.5%; 95% CI, 7.5%-17.4%; P < .001). There were fewer ventilator-free days in neonates treated with NCPAP than in those treated with NIPPV (median [25th-75th percentile] difference, -3 [-6 to -1] days; P = .01). There were no differences between secondary efficacy or safety outcomes, except for the use of postnatal corticosteroids (lower in NHFOV than in NCPAP group; risk difference, 7.3%; 95% CI, 2.6%-12%; P = .002), weekly weight gain (higher in NHFOV than in NCPAP group; mean difference, -0.9 g/d; 95% CI, -1.8 to 0 g/d; P = .04), and duration of study intervention (shorter in NHFOV than in NIPPV group; median [25th-75th percentile] difference, -1 [-3 to 0] days; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this trial indicated that NHFOV, if used after extubation and until discharge, slightly reduced the duration of IMV in preterm neonates, and both NHFOV and NIPPV resulted in a lower risk of reintubation than NCPAP. All 3 respiratory support techniques were equally safe for this patient population. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03181958.


Assuntos
Ventilação de Alta Frequência , Ventilação não Invasiva , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente , Masculino , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia
16.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(5): 2155-2159, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35194652

RESUMO

During neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA)/non-invasive (NIV) NAVA, a modified nasogastric feeding tube with electrodes, monitors the electrical activity of the diaphragm (Edi). The Edi waveform determines the delivered pressure from the ventilator. Infant breathing is in synchrony with the ventilator and therefore is more comfortable with less work of breathing. Our aim was to determine if infants on NAVA had improved nutritional outcomes compared to infants managed on conventional respiratory support. A retrospective study was undertaken. Infants on NAVA were matched with two conventionally ventilated controls by gestational age, birth weight, sex, antenatal steroid exposure, and whether inborn or transferred ex utero. NAVA/NIV-NAVA was delivered by the SERVO-n® Maquet Getinge group ventilator. Conventional ventilation included pressure and volume control ventilation, and non-invasive ventilation included nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation, triggered biphasic positive airway pressure, continuous positive airway pressure and heated humidified high flow oxygen. The measured outcome was discharge weight z scores. Eighteen "NAVA" infants with median gestational age (GA) of 25.3 (23.6-27.1) weeks and birth weight (BW) of 765 (580-1060) grams were compared with 36 controls with GA 25.2 (23.4-28) weeks (p = 0.727) and BW 743 (560-1050) grams (p = 0.727). There was no significant difference in the rates of postnatal steroids (61% versus 36% p = 0.093), necrotising enterocolitis (22% versus 11% p = 0.279) in the NAVA/NIV NAVA compared to the control group. There were slightly more infants who were breastfed at discharge in the NAVA/NIV NAVA group compared to controls: breast feeds (77.8% versus 58.3%), formula feeds (11.1% versus 30.6%), and mixed feeds (11.1% versus 11.1%), but this difference was not significant (p = 0.275). There was no significant difference in the birth z scores 0.235 (-1.56 to 1.71) versus -0.05 (-1.51 to -1.02) (p = 0.248) between the groups. However, the discharge z score was significantly in favour of the NAVA/NIV-NAVA group: -1.22 (-2.66 to -0.12) versus -2.17 (-3.79 to -0.24) in the control group (p = 0.033).Conclusion: The combination of NAVA/NIV-NAVA compared to conventional invasive and non-invasive modes may contribute to improved nutritional outcomes in premature infants.


Assuntos
Suporte Ventilatório Interativo , Ventilação não Invasiva , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD013563, 2022 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35199848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transient tachypnoea of the newborn (TTN) is characterised by tachypnoea and signs of respiratory distress. It is caused by delayed clearance of lung fluid at birth. TTN typically appears within the first two hours of life in term and late preterm newborns. Although it is usually a self-limited condition, admission to a neonatal unit is frequently required for monitoring, the provision of respiratory support, and drugs administration. These interventions might reduce respiratory distress during TTN and enhance the clearance of lung liquid. The goals are reducing the effort required to breathe, improving respiratory distress, and potentially shortening the duration of tachypnoea. However, these interventions might be associated with harm in the infant. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this overview was to evaluate the benefits and harms of different interventions used in the management of TTN. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews on 14 July 2021 for ongoing and published Cochrane Reviews on the management of TTN in term (> 37 weeks' gestation) or late preterm (34 to 36 weeks' gestation) infants. We included all published Cochrane Reviews assessing the following categories of interventions administered within the first 48 hours of life: beta-agonists (e.g. salbutamol and epinephrine), corticosteroids, diuretics, fluid restriction, and non-invasive respiratory support. The reviews compared the above-mentioned interventions to placebo, no treatment, or other interventions for the management of TTN. The primary outcomes of this overview were duration of tachypnoea and the need for mechanical ventilation. Two overview authors independently checked the eligibility of the reviews retrieved by the search and extracted data from the included reviews using a predefined data extraction form. Any disagreements were resolved by discussion with a third overview author. Two overview authors independently assessed the methodological quality of the included reviews using the AMSTAR 2 (A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews) tool. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence for effects of interventions for TTN management. As all of the included reviews reported summary of findings tables, we extracted the information already available and re-graded the certainty of evidence of the two primary outcomes to ensure a homogeneous assessment. We provided a narrative summary of the methods and results of each of the included reviews and summarised this information using tables and figures. MAIN RESULTS: We included six Cochrane Reviews, corresponding to 1134 infants enrolled in 18 trials, on the management of TTN in term and late preterm infants, assessing salbutamol (seven trials), epinephrine (one trial), budesonide (one trial), diuretics (two trials), fluid restriction (four trials), and non-invasive respiratory support (three trials). The quality of the included reviews was high, with all of them fulfilling the critical domains of the AMSTAR 2. The certainty of the evidence was very low for the primary outcomes, due to the imprecision of the estimates (few, small included studies) and unclear or high risk of bias. Salbutamol may reduce the duration of tachypnoea compared to placebo (mean difference (MD) -16.83 hours, 95% confidence interval (CI) -22.42 to -11.23, 2 studies, 120 infants, low certainty evidence). We did not identify any review that compared epinephrine or corticosteroids to placebo and reported on the duration of tachypnoea. However, one review reported on "trend of normalisation of respiratory rate", a similar outcome, and found no differences between epinephrine and placebo (effect size not reported). The evidence is very uncertain regarding the effect of diuretics compared to placebo (MD -1.28 hours, 95% CI -13.0 to 10.45, 2 studies, 100 infants, very low certainty evidence). We did not identify any review that compared fluid restriction to standard fluid rates and reported on the duration of tachypnoea. The evidence is very uncertain regarding the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) compared to free-flow oxygen therapy (MD -21.1 hours, 95% CI -22.9 to -19.3, 1 study, 64 infants, very low certainty evidence); the effect of nasal high-frequency (oscillation) ventilation (NHFV) compared to CPAP (MD -4.53 hours, 95% CI -5.64 to -3.42, 1 study, 40 infants, very low certainty evidence); and the effect of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) compared to CPAP on duration of tachypnoea (MD 4.30 hours, 95% CI -19.14 to 27.74, 1 study, 40 infants, very low certainty evidence). Regarding the need for mechanical ventilation, the evidence is very uncertain for the effect of salbutamol compared to placebo (risk ratio (RR) 0.60, 95% CI 0.13 to 2.86, risk difference (RD) 10 fewer, 95% CI 50 fewer to 30 more per 1000, 3 studies, 254 infants, very low certainty evidence); the effect of epinephrine compared to placebo (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.08 to 5.88, RD 70 fewer, 95% CI 460 fewer to 320 more per 1000, 1 study, 20 infants, very low certainty evidence); and the effect of corticosteroids compared to placebo (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.05 to 5.38, RD 40 fewer, 95% CI 170 fewer to 90 more per 1000, 1 study, 49 infants, very low certainty evidence). We did not identify a review that compared diuretics to placebo and reported on the need for mechanical ventilation. The evidence is very uncertain regarding the effect of fluid restriction compared to standard fluid administration (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.24 to 2.23, RD 20 fewer, 95% CI 70 fewer to 40 more per 1000, 3 studies, 242 infants, very low certainty evidence); the effect of CPAP compared to free-flow oxygen (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.01 to 6.99, RD 30 fewer, 95% CI 120 fewer to 50 more per 1000, 1 study, 64 infants, very low certainty evidence); the effect of NIPPV compared to CPAP (RR 4.00, 95% CI 0.49 to 32.72, RD 150 more, 95% CI 50 fewer to 350 more per 1000, 1 study, 40 infants, very low certainty evidence); and the effect of NHFV versus CPAP (effect not estimable, 1 study, 40 infants, very low certainty evidence). Regarding our secondary outcomes, duration of hospital stay was the only outcome reported in all of the included reviews. One trial on fluid restriction reported a lower duration of hospitalisation in the restricted-fluids group, but with very low certainty of evidence. The evidence was very uncertain for the effects on secondary outcomes for the other five reviews. Data on potential harms were scarce, as all of the trials were underpowered to detect possible increases in adverse events such as pneumothorax, arrhythmias, and electrolyte imbalances. No adverse effects were reported for salbutamol; however, this medication is known to carry a risk of tachycardia, tremor, and hypokalaemia in other settings. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This overview summarises the evidence from six Cochrane Reviews of randomised trials regarding the effects of postnatal interventions in the management of TTN. Salbutamol may reduce the duration of tachypnoea slightly. We are uncertain as to whether salbutamol reduces the need for mechanical ventilation. We are uncertain whether epinephrine, corticosteroids, diuretics, fluid restriction, or non-invasive respiratory support reduces the duration of tachypnoea and the need for mechanical ventilation, due to the extremely limited evidence available. Data on harms were lacking.


Assuntos
Taquipneia Transitória do Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente , Oxigenoterapia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Taquipneia Transitória do Recém-Nascido/terapia
18.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 205(11): 1311-1319, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35213296

RESUMO

Rationale: The inspiratory rise in transpulmonary pressure during mechanical ventilation increases right ventricular (RV) afterload. One mechanism is that when Palv exceeds left atrial pressure, West zone 1 or 2 (non-zone 3) conditions develop, and Palv becomes the downstream pressure opposing RV ejection. The Vt at which this impact on the right ventricle becomes hemodynamically evident is not well established. Objectives: To determine the magnitude of RV afterload and prevalence of significant non-zone 3 conditions during inspiration across the range of Vt currently prescribed in clinical practice. Methods: In postoperative passively ventilated cardiac surgery patients, we measured right atrial, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, plateau pressure, and esophageal pressure during short periods of controlled ventilation, with Vt increments ranging between 2 and 12 ml/kg predicted body weight (PBW). The inspiratory increase in RV afterload was evaluated hemodynamically and echocardiographically. The prevalence of non-zone 3 conditions was determined using two definitions based on changes in esophageal pressure, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, and plateau pressure. Measurements and Main Results: Fifty-one patients were studied. There was a linear relationship between Vt, driving pressure, transpulmonary pressure, and the inspiratory increase in the RV isovolumetric contraction pressure. Echocardiographically, increasing Vt was associated with a greater inspiratory increase in markers of afterload and a decrease in stroke volume. Non-zone 3 conditions were present in >50% of subjects at a Vt ⩾ 6 ml/kg PBW. Conclusions: In the Vt range currently prescribed, RV afterload increases with increasing Vt. A mechanical ventilation strategy that limits Vt and driving pressure is cardioprotective.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração , Respiração Artificial , Humanos , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente , Pulmão , Volume Sistólico
19.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 107(5): 551-557, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35101993

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-invasive high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (nHFOV) is an extension of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) support in neonates. We aimed to compare global and regional distribution of lung volumes during nHFOV versus nCPAP. METHODS: In 30 preterm infants enrolled in a randomised crossover trial comparing nHFOV with nCPAP, electrical impedance tomography data were recorded in prone position. For each mode of respiratory support, four episodes of artefact-free tidal ventilation, each comprising 30 consecutive breaths, were extracted. Tidal volumes (VT) in 36 horizontal slices, indicators of ventilation homogeneity and end-expiratory lung impedance (EELI) for the whole lung and for four horizontal regions of interest (non-gravity-dependent to gravity-dependent; EELINGD, EELImidNGD, EELImidGD, EELIGD) were compared between nHFOV and nCPAP. Aeration homogeneity ratio (AHR) was determined by dividing aeration in non-gravity-dependent parts of the lung through gravity-dependent regions. MAIN RESULTS: Overall, 228 recordings were analysed. Relative VT was greater in all but the six most gravity-dependent lung slices during nCPAP (all p<0.05). Indicators of ventilation homogeneity were similar between nHFOV and nCPAP (all p>0.05). Aeration was increased during nHFOV (mean difference (95% CI)=0.4 (0.2 to 0.6) arbitrary units per kilogram (AU/kg), p=0.013), mainly due to an increase in non-gravity-dependent regions of the lung (∆EELINGD=6.9 (0.0 to 13.8) AU/kg, p=0.028; ∆EELImidNGD=6.8 (1.2 to 12.4) AU/kg, p=0.009). Aeration was more homogeneous during nHFOV compared with nCPAP (mean difference (95% CI) in AHR=0.01 (0.00 to 0.02), p=0.0014). CONCLUSION: Although regional ventilation was similar between nHFOV and nCPAP, end-expiratory lung volume was higher and aeration homogeneity was slightly improved during nHFOV. The aeration difference was greatest in non-gravity dependent regions, possibly due to the oscillatory pressure waveform. The clinical importance of these findings is still unclear.


Assuntos
Ventilação de Alta Frequência , Ventilação não Invasiva , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Ventilação de Alta Frequência/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/métodos , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
20.
J Clin Nurs ; 31(23-24): 3327-3337, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35212078

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the effect of prehospital noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) and standard care for severe respiratory distress. BACKGROUND: Severe respiratory distress is an important cause of death in adult patients. There is a growing body of research exploring the benefits of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) for patients undergoing severe respiratory distress. However, a systematic review is needed to synthesise and summarise this body of knowledge to identify the effectiveness of NIPPV. This is an update of a meta-analysis first published in 2014. DESIGN: Meta-analysis based on PRISMA guidelines. METHODS: Databases including PubMed, Embase, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases were electronically searched to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that reported NIPPV therapy for adult patients with severe respiratory distress. The retrieval time is limited from inception to August 2021. Two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data and assessed risk bias of included studies. Meta-analysis was performed by using STATA 11.0 software. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies involving 1465 patients were included. The meta-analysis results showed that compared with standard care, CPAP therapy decreased intubation rate (RR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.27-0.67, p < .001, I2  = 0.0%), reduced hospital stay (WMD = -4.19, 95% CI: -5.62, -2.77) and ICU stay (WMD = -0.65, 95% CI: -1.09, -0.20) for patients with severe respiratory distress. However, no significant effects of NIPPV were observed on in-hospital mortality (RR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.64-1.07) and ICU admission rate (RR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.73-1.19). CONCLUSIONS: Adult patients with NIPPV treatment for severe respiratory distress had a significantly lower intubation rate and shorter hospital and ICU stay, compared with those with standard care. However, no effect of NIPPV on in-hospital mortality was observed. Further study is needed by enrolling large-sample original studies. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Among patients with severe respiratory distress, prehospital NIPPV, compared with standard care, was associated with lower intubation rate and shorter hospital and ICU stay in our study. Although our meta-analysis did not find a relationship between prehospital NIPPV and in-hospital mortality and ICU admission rate, which may be limited by the number of studies included and the small sample size. However, our study still suggested that the use of prehospital NIPPV was beneficial to the condition of patients with severe respiratory distress.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Ventilação não Invasiva , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Adulto , Humanos , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...