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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 150970, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656587

RESUMO

Environmental changes in response to global warming would conversely deplete the efficacy of our actions combating climate change, cultivating extra cost. Among them, the declining snow cover due to global warming would diminish its contribution to climate regulation, and further exacerbate global warming. This leads to a part of global carbon mitigation efforts acting virtually to neutralize the impact of snow cover reduction. It would have been otherwise saved to contribute to the goals of the Paris Agreement. In this respect, here we evaluate the economic impacts of snow cover reduction in the Northern Hemisphere in terms of the mitigation that virtually counteracts the loss of climate regulation pertinent to the snow cover reduction trend, to demonstrate the magnitude of the cascading costs of climate change. As different carbon mitigation approaches would lead to different economic impacts, we follow the general principles of the Paris Agreement and establish two responsibility-sharing scenarios. The results reveal the non-negligible global costs considering not only the impact incurred by the nations implementing carbon mitigation but also, in the context of globalization, the cascading effect magnified in the global supply chain. We also identify critical nations, sectors, and international trade pairs that would confront the most costs. The results urge hotspot nations and trade partners to actively participate in the enhanced global efforts through the Paris Agreement to reduce carbon emissions. This can not only mitigate its direct global warming effect, but also abate the impacts of collateral environmental deterioration, such as snow cover reduction, eventually for their own benefits.


Assuntos
Comércio , Neve , Mudança Climática , Aquecimento Global , Internacionalidade
2.
J Environ Manage ; 302(Pt A): 113980, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689028

RESUMO

Since climate change is the paramount concern of recent literature, macroeconomic factors such as green growth and economic globalization may play an integral role in achieving ecological sustainability in the presence of eco-innovation. However, the combined contributions of green growth, economic globalization, and eco-innovation towards achieving ecological sustainability are missing from the existing knowledge. Therefore, we investigate the combined influence of these variables in the presence of human capital, financial development, and gross domestic product on ecological footprint per capita for a panel of 20 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries from 1990 through 2017. The method of panel quantile regression is used to produce sound results across varying levels of the ecological footprint of OECD nations. The main results are as follows: firstly, green productivity growth linearly and non-linearly mitigates the ecological degradation, presenting a more pronounced ecological protection impact for higher quantiles, followed by medium and lower quantiles. Secondly, economic globalization manifests mixed effects: it induces ecological deterioration impact in the absence of its interaction with eco-innovation, while it brings about an ecological protection impact with the interaction term. Thirdly, eco-innovation demonstrates an ecological protection impact for all quantiles, with the most influential impact in countries with higher ecological footprint per capita, followed by medium and lower footprints. Based on empirical results, we propose productive utilization of environmental resources for ecological sustainability through product and process innovation and efficient management practices. Besides, we recommend cultivating energy-efficient and clean environmental technologies for long-term ecological sustainability.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico , Dióxido de Carbono , Produto Interno Bruto , Humanos , Internacionalidade
3.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 268: 367-390, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196809

RESUMO

The prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing rapidly and has already reached an epidemic level. Two major drivers of this development are climate change and globalization, which both induce an increase in allergens. Concomitant climate change fosters the spreading of the latter on a global scale. The increase in allergens not only aggravates the symptoms and the degree of suffering for patients who already are allergic, but also gives rise to new cases of allergies. The distribution of allergies in society follows a steep socioeconomic gradient worldwide. According to well-established theories of justice such a distribution of the allergy burden is unfair. This fact adds a major ethical dimension and challenge to the allergy epidemic. This chapter draws on the key points of policies for allergy prevention and treatment. It shows how related programs and measures can be conceptualized and prioritized according to the principles of distributional justice.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Pólen , Alérgenos , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Internacionalidade
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150008, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482130

RESUMO

The intensifying globalization contributes to the anthropogenic methane (CH4) emissions outsourcing, a strong greenhouse gas and harmful air pollutant, through the increasingly complex global trade network. However, the CH4 flow patterns embodied in global traded goods and services have not been interpreted from the perspective of a complex network. In this paper, we integrate global CH4 emission inventory from the EDGAR (the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research) databases, global multi-regional input-output model from the GTAP database, and complex network analysis to reveal the structural characteristics of the global CH4 flow network (GCFN). In the GCFN, more than one quarter of the global anthropogenic CH4 emissions in 2014 are associated with international trade. The top 20 economies contribute to about 70% of the total embodied CH4 emission flows. The GCFNs mainly consist of tripartite patterns centered on China, the USA and Russia. Some emerging countries, such as Thailand and Brazil, also exhibit dominated positions in different kinds of GCFNs. Moreover, the core-periphery structure of the GCFN confirms the existence of a few hub economies associated with a large amount of CH4 emissions. The results emphasize the multinational cooperation on global CH4 emission mitigation, and well-focused mitigation policies should be implemented on some key economies.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Serviços Terceirizados , Comércio , Internacionalidade , Metano/análise
5.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(12): 2208-2213, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34954988

RESUMO

With the accelerating globalization and the implementation of "Belt and Road" initiative proposed by our government, communication and exchanges between China and foreign countries have become more and more frequent than before, and much more international students have chosen to study in China's universities as candidates of master of public health (MPH). However, because China only launched the MPH program in recent years, with the training models being highly similar to the program of master of science in China but quite different from those of main international MPH programs, hindering China's MPH program to become an international one. This paper systematically evaluated existing training models of MPH programs both at home and abroad through literature review and identified major differences and deficiencies of China's MPH program compared to those from other countries: (1) requirement for medical background only; (2) comparatively longer period to complete the program; (3) incomplete curriculum; (4) overemphasizing scientific research competencies but somewhat neglecting practical abilities; and (5) limited career choices, and put forward some suggestions to improve the MPH program of China, including removing requirement for medical background only, shortening the period of MPH program, improving the curriculum of MPH program, and enhancing the training of practical abilities.


Assuntos
Currículo , Saúde Pública , China , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Universidades
6.
Wiad Lek ; 74(10 cz 2): 2651-2658, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34923475

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To highlight and analyze the international aspect of the legal regulation of human organs and tissues transplantation, as well as foreign experience of regulation in this area within the relevant national legal systems (for example, US, Germany, Israel, Switzerland, Spain, Argentina, China and India). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Methodologically, this work is based on the system of methods, scientific approaches, techniques and principles with the help of which the realization of the research aim is carried out. There have been applied universal, general scientific and special legal methods. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Thus, the efforts of the international community and the countries under study in the field of transplantation are focused on a wide range of important issues that need to be regulated. The international legal regulation of transplantation covers the results of the activities of such international organizations as the World Health Organization, the Council of Europe, and the World Medical Assembly. The acts adopted by them are mainly of a recommendatory nature (with the exception of some Council of Europe acts on trafficking in human organs) and are addressed primarily to States, offering guidelines and standards for the legal regulation of transplantation within national legal orders. Therefore, the issues of donation and transplantation of human organs and tissues in the respective states are determined by special legislative acts, which comprehensively regulate the procedure for their transplantation.


Assuntos
Internacionalidade , China , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(51)2021 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903657

RESUMO

Simultaneously tracking the global impact of COVID-19 is challenging because of regional variation in resources and reporting. Leveraging self-reported survey outcomes via an existing international social media network has the potential to provide standardized data streams to support monitoring and decision-making worldwide, in real time, and with limited local resources. The University of Maryland Global COVID-19 Trends and Impact Survey (UMD-CTIS), in partnership with Facebook, has invited daily cross-sectional samples from the social media platform's active users to participate in the survey since its launch on April 23, 2020. We analyzed UMD-CTIS survey data through December 20, 2020, from 31,142,582 responses representing 114 countries/territories weighted for nonresponse and adjusted to basic demographics. We show consistent respondent demographics over time for many countries/territories. Machine Learning models trained on national and pooled global data verified known symptom indicators. COVID-like illness (CLI) signals were correlated with government benchmark data. Importantly, the best benchmarked UMD-CTIS signal uses a single survey item whereby respondents report on CLI in their local community. In regions with strained health infrastructure but active social media users, we show it is possible to define COVID-19 impact trajectories using a remote platform independent of local government resources. This syndromic surveillance public health tool is the largest global health survey to date and, with brief participant engagement, can provide meaningful, timely insights into the global COVID-19 pandemic at a local scale.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Mídias Sociais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste para COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Aprendizado de Máquina , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948579

RESUMO

Even though some existing literature has studied the impact of globalization on forest growth, this research remains inconclusive; moreover, little clarification has emerged as to whether the influence of globalization on forest growth is consistent among different countries. To fill this research gap, we investigated the impact of globalization on forest growth and considered what factors could change the influence of the former upon the latter. To empirically investigate these essential issues, we utilized cross-country data covering 108 countries during the period 1991-2018 to conduct a system generalized method of moment (GMM) estimation. The baseline results confirm the positive impact of globalization on forest growth, which is also supported by several robustness tests, such as changing the measurements and setting new samples. Furthermore, an increase in globalization would bring about higher forest growth. Aside from this, two specific dimensions of globalization, namely economics and trade, can also protect forest growth. Additionally, a higher FDI strengthens the positive impact of globalization on forest growth, while aging, industrial share, and CO2 emissions weaken it. Finally, the impact of globalization on forests is weaker in democracies, emerging markets, and countries with higher fiscal freedoms, while it is stronger in countries with higher political stability. Our study provides substantial policy implications for governments participating in international treaties related to forest growth. The structure of this paper is organized as follows.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Internacionalidade , Dióxido de Carbono , Florestas , Cooperação Internacional
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 790312, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34912773

RESUMO

Empirical studies suggest that globalization (FDI and international trade) has been greatly affected by the COVID-19 and related anti-pandemic measures imposed by governments worldwide. This paper investigates the impact of globalization on intra-provincial income inequality in China and the data is based on the county level. The findings reveal that FDI is negatively associated with intra-provincial inequality, intra-provincial inequality increases as the primary industry sector (agriculture) declines. The result also finds that the increase in inequality stems not from the development in the tertiary or secondary industry sectors per se, but the unevenness in the distribution of these sectors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Internacionalidade , China/epidemiologia , Comércio , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
10.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261270, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936662

RESUMO

China-ASEAN are the two huge markets in trade world, they can bring out greater dynamism from within their economies and contribute to regional economic development. This study explores the present situation on the trade between the Central region of China and ASEAN through empirical assessment and try to find the potential effects and trade flows between them. Firstly, we analysis the trade integration index, HM index, explicit comparative advantage index, and trade complementarity index. Finally, we use the gravity model of international trade and data on 2006-2018. The bilateral trade relations between the central region and ASEAN are getting closer, but the central region has not yet become the major trade area of ASEAN countries in the Chinese market. The bilateral economic development level plays a positive role in promoting the export trade between the Central region and ASEAN, while the bilateral distance plays a negative role in difficulty. The empirical results show that trade potential between the Central region and Indonesia and the Philippines is huge, and there is still opportunity for the development of the trade potential with Thailand. The trade prospective with Malaysia, Singapore and Vietnam is limited, and new approaches need to be developed to achieve further trade cooperation.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Internacionalidade , Modelos Econômicos , Ásia Sudeste , China , Humanos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948920

RESUMO

The ERASMUS program is one of the most popular student exchange projects, particularly among the students of Central and Eastern European countries. However, limited research is available with regard to its influence on the professional and personal development of its participants. The study aimed at investigating the experiences and impact of the ERASMUS program on different domains of the personal and professional life of medical students. A questionnaire containing closed and open-ended questions was distributed among 269 former participants of the ERASMUS program from the Poznan University of Medical Sciences to collect qualitative and quantitative data regarding the topic. The response rate was 41%. Mastering professional foreign language skills was the most frequently reported benefit of ERASMUS (94%), followed by a change of approach towards learning by exposure to innovative teaching techniques, character, professionalism and cultural competency development, impact on the migration decisions of the students, as well as the opportunity to compare healthcare and educational systems across countries. Additionally, 57% of respondents stated that ERASMUS impacted their career plans, and few indicated that it had affected their specialty choice. Approximately 28% of respondents have worked abroad in healthcare or research since graduating. Participation in the ERASMUS program proved to be a unique opportunity for professional and personal development.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Competência Cultural , Currículo , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Aprendizagem , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 170, 2021 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930466

RESUMO

A survey of hospitals on three continents was performed to assess their infection control preparedness and measures, and their infection rate in hospital health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. All surveyed hospitals used similar PPE but differences in preparedness, PPE shortages, and infection rates were reported.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(11): 1267-70, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762382

RESUMO

The differences in the objective, starting point, disease spectrum and interventions of acupuncture-moxibustion clinical trials at home and abroad are collected. By taking two articles of acupuncture-moxibustion clinical trials in foreign countries accepted by JAMA as example, the reasons are analyzed on the dual character of negative and positive results obtained in acupuncture-moxibustion trials of foreign countries. The therapeutic regimens in acupuncture-moxibustion clinical trials in foreign countries are lack of TCM thinking, the manipulation of interventions have not displayed the basic principle of TCM in treatment of diseases, which is separated the theory from the practice in treatment with Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture-moxibustion. Besides, the advantages in therapeutic effect of acupuncture-moxibustion have not been truly reflected. Regarding the dual character of negative and positive results in acupuncture-moxibustion clinical trials of foreign countries, it is suggested that acupuncture-moxibustion has not been thoroughly understood in foreign countries and its research content have not been in compliance with the theory of traditional acupuncture-moxibustion.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Moxibustão , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Internacionalidade , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 279, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754356

RESUMO

Introduction: cross-border mobility of persons with Tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health concern. We aimed at documenting health systems´ potential bottlenecks and opportunities in pulmonary TB continuum of care in cross-border expanses of East and Horn of Africa. Methods: a cross-sectional program assessment with descriptive analysis of TB services, health staff capacities, diagnostic capacities, data management and reporting, and treatment outcomes. Data were extracted from health facility TB registers and semi-structured key informant interviews conducted in selected 26 cross-border sites within the 7 member states of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) region. Results: the overall cross-border TB cure rate in the year preceding the study (37%) was way beneath the global target with considerable variations amongst the study countries. The restricted support to the cross-border health facilities was mediated and even exacerbated by expansive distances from the respective capital cities. Restricted geographical access to the facilities by cross-border populations was a longstanding challenge. Substantial staffing gaps, TB service delivery capacity needs and inadequate diagnostics were noticeable. The TB control guidelines were not harmonized between the countries and the inter-country referral systems were either absent or inappreciable, contributing to ineffective cross-border referrals and transfers. The frail linkages between stakeholders were contemptible, but increasing governments´ commitments in tackling infectious diseases were encouraging. Conclusion: cross-border TB interventions should drive regional TB policies, strategies and programs that sustain countries´ coordination, harmonization of management guidelines, advocacy for increased human resources support, enhanced capacity building of cross-border TB staff, adequate diagnostics equipping of the cross-border health facilities and seamless transfer and referral of patients traversing boundaries.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Emigração e Imigração , Saúde Pública , Tuberculose/terapia , África , Fortalecimento Institucional , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Estudos Transversais , Guias como Assunto , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
17.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(6): 3513-3523, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739802

RESUMO

Bluetongue (BT) disease is a noncontagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants (mainly sheep, cattle, deer) caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV) which is an orbivirus of the Reoviridae family and transmitted by vector Culicoides biting midges. It is a reportable disease of considerable socioeconomic concern and of major importance for the international trade of animals and animal products. Conventional diagnostic methods, such as virus propagation and isolation, immunoassays and also various molecular methods have been developed for the detection of the BTV. Here, we present a novel, rapid and pen-side test for the detection of BTV using multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) based immunosensor. Though it is not reported yet. The MWCNTs were prepared, characterized and functionalized with carboxyl group. Viral antibodies were conjugated successfully with functionalized MWCNTs and coated on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). These SPCE were evaluated by using electrochemical sensor with an antigen specific to BTV antibodies, resulted in the self-assembled layer of antigen-antibody on the surface of SPCE. The approach described in the present study is a prototype for the development of simple and economic diagnostic tool which will provide the routine screening of BT disease at the door of farmers, thereby increasing the income of farmers by decreasing the cost of diagnosis.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Vírus Bluetongue , Bluetongue , Cervos , Nanotubos de Carbono , Animais , Bluetongue/diagnóstico , Bovinos , Comércio , Imunoensaio , Internacionalidade , Ovinos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769936

RESUMO

This study aims to examine the impact of globalization on environmental performance by employing panel data for 148 countries from 2001 to 2018, via the indicator of Environmental Performance Index to capture the overall environmental quality and KOF index to measure the multi dimensions of globalization. The empirical results suggest that globalization is critical to environmental performance, which is reliable while we conduct several robustness tests. Furthermore, if globalization increases, it would be beneficial for the environmental performance; moreover, among specific dimensions of globalization, economic globalization, social globalization and political globalization would bring about better environmental performance. Besides, the improvement of globalization, social globalization and political globalization would bring about better environmental performance, while that of economic globalization cannot change the overall environmental performance. Our study offers more insight into the relationship between globalization and environmental performance.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Internacionalidade
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770135

RESUMO

The world of work is changing dramatically due to continuous technological advancements and globalization (the so-called industry 4 [...].


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador , Indústrias , Internacionalidade
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770208

RESUMO

International trade has become more complicated and is now related to more aspects of health and the health system. As Thailand is active in international trade and health, understanding what knowledge exists and determining the knowledge gap is essential for generating the necessary evidence in order to promote better understanding and allow evidence-based policy decisions to be made. This study reviewed the existence of knowledge on international trade and health issues in a scoping review, focusing on Thailand during the period 1991-2020. In total, 156 studies from seven databases and manual searching were included. Of these, 46% were related to trade in health services and 39% were linked to intellectual property, particularly access to medicines. This review found only a very small amount of research on other issues and did not identify any study on trade policies or products related to health and international trade and the environment. We therefore recommend that further studies should be carried out to provide more critical evidence-in particular, more research focusing on the impacts of trade on health-related goods and the analysis of the positive and negative impacts of international trade on industry is needed. Furthermore, better knowledge management through the publication of research findings and making them searchable on international databases will increase the visibility of international trade, increase our knowledge of health issues, and provide supporting evidence.


Assuntos
Comércio , Internacionalidade , Propriedade Intelectual , Políticas , Tailândia
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