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3.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 60(2): 85-88, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38984621

RESUMO

The "Investigating and translating genomic evidence for public health response to SARS-CoV-2 (INSIDE SARS-CoV-2)" project is part of the initiative "Joint science and technology cooperation call for joint project proposals for the years 2021-2023" promoted by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation (MAECI) and the Republic of India. To start the project activities, the pandemic response and the epidemiological situation in Italy and in India, together with the genomic surveillance strategies for SARS-CoV-2 virus in the two countries, are here described.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Genômica , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Índia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Cooperação Internacional , Genoma Viral
8.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(7): e03442024, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38958323

RESUMO

Public Health Emergencies (PHE) have had repercussions on health systems on a global scale, and timely access to new health technologies is a challenge for health policy. The national regulatory authorities (NRA) play a key role in the evaluation and regulation of these technologies. The present study aims to analyze the main strategies and regulatory instruments used to deal with the challenges of regulating new technologies necessary for the health system's effective response during a PHE. This research, based on WHO and Brazilian NRA norms and documents, considered dimensions related to strategies for strengthening regulatory activities and regulatory instruments used to accelerate access to technologies, especially during PHEs. International cooperation between the NRA and the WHO were important strategies for strengthening the NRA, with emphasis on the use of reliance, regionalization, accelerated assessments, and work/information sharing, as well as the processes of regulatory harmonization and convergence. In addition to the use of existing regulatory instruments, efforts were also identified in order to implement new ones.


As Emergências em Saúde Pública (ESP) têm repercutido nos sistemas de saúde em escala global. O acesso às novas tecnologias em saúde em tempo oportuno é um desafio para a política de saúde. As autoridades reguladoras nacionais (ARN) têm papel fundamental na avaliação e regulação dessas tecnologias. O estudo objetiva analisar as principais estratégias e instrumentos regulatórios utilizados para lidar com os desafios da regulação de novas tecnologias necessárias à resposta do sistema de saúde durante as ESP. Trata-se de uma pesquisa normativa e documental, tendo como fonte a OMS e a ARN brasileira. Foram consideradas as dimensões relacionadas às estratégias para o fortalecimento das atividades regulatórias e os instrumentos regulatórios utilizados para acelerar o acesso às tecnologias, especialmente durante as ESP. A cooperação e a colaboração internacional entre as ARN e com a OMS foram importantes estratégias para o fortalecimento das ARN, com destaque para o uso de confiança, regionalização, avaliações aceleradas e compartilhamento de trabalho/informações, bem como os processos de harmonização e convergência regulatória. Identificou-se, além da utilização de instrumentos regulatórios já existentes, esforços na implementação de novos, com destaque para Autorização de Uso Emergencial.


Assuntos
Emergências , Política de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Brasil , Humanos , Tecnologia Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Cooperação Internacional , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência
9.
Eur J Public Health ; 34(Supplement_1): i81-i86, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38946451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded quick exchanges between experts and institutions supporting governments to provide evidence-based information in response to the crisis. Initially, there was no regular cross-country forum in the field of population health. This paper describes the set-up and benefits of implementing such a forum. METHODS: A group of public health practitioners from academia, national public health institutes and ministries of health decided in April 2020 to meet bi-monthly to discuss a vast array of population health topics in a structured format called a Rapid Exchange Forum (REF). An ad-hoc mailing group was established to collect responses to questions brought forward in the forum from at least five countries within 24 h. This endeavour, which evolved as network of networks was awarded an EU grant in autumn 2020 and was called PHIRI (Population Health Information Research Infrastructure). RESULTS: Responses from up to 31 countries were compiled and shared immediately via the European Health Information Portal. This exchange was complemented by special REFs that focused on the advantages and disadvantages of vaccination, for example. By July 2023, 54 REFs had taken place with topics going beyond COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The REF demonstrated its value for quick yet evidence-based cross-country exchange in times of crisis and was highly appreciated by countries and European Commission. It demonstrated its sustainability even after the acute crisis by expanding the topics covered and managing to continue exchange with the aim of capacity building and mutual learning, making it a true EU response and coordination mechanism.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Cooperação Internacional , Europa (Continente) , Disseminação de Informação/métodos
11.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 65(6): 584-589, 2024.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38960660

RESUMO

Clinical trials with a solid strategy are indispensable for improving outcomes of rare childhood leukemias such as infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and ALL associated with Down syndrome, and international collaboration contributes to trial success. I am part of a group conducting an international trial of ALL associated with Down syndrome in collaboration with Asian countries. Although we are meeting enrollment targets, there have been no enrollments outside Japan. We also planned a clinical trial in unclassifiable acute leukemia, but abandoned this effort due to a lack of consensus on the choice of treatment regimen. Many elements must fit together for an international trial to succeed, including not only the study's concept, theme, and objectives, but also the organization, the logistics, and, ultimately, trained professionals to carry it out. At the same time, of course, there is the need for appropriate timing and luck. International trials across countries with different cultures, social organizations, and medical systems require persistent effort and negotiation skills. Professional training and infrastructure development are necessary to make this possible.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Cooperação Internacional , Humanos , Ásia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia
12.
Torture ; 34(1): 44-47, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38975913

RESUMO

With social upheaval, economic strain, and political unrest growing, peaceful demonstrations worldwide are increasingly met with brutal tactics by law enforcement and security forces. The UN Special Rapporteur on Torture outlines her call for States to negotiate a new international treaty to ban the manufacture, use and trade in "torture tools" and regulate the trade in law enforcement equipment. Her proposal outlines two critical components: a prohibited list of items that she has deemed to be inherently cruel, inhuman or degrading, and a second controlled list of ordinary law enforcement equipment that has a high risk of misuse. Effective international regulation is imper-ative to curb the indiscriminate use of force by law enforcement and to uphold human dignity. Improved national regulation is also required. Research has revealed a pervasive market for these items, with more than 335 companies in 54 countries manufacturing or promoting the most egre-gious torture instruments. Major producers include China, the EU, and the USA, with emerging economies also contributing significantly. The outsourcing of public functions to private security companies further exacerbates the issue, underscoring the pressing need for robust national and international regulations.


Assuntos
Comércio , Aplicação da Lei , Tortura , Humanos , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Prisioneiros , Cooperação Internacional , Direito Internacional
13.
Public Health Res Pract ; 34(2)2024 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38889911

RESUMO

SThe 28th Conference of the Parties (COP28) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change marked a step-change forward in integrating health into the global climate change agenda. For the first time, there was a dedicated 'health' day, US$1 billion (A$1.5 billion) in climate-health financing was announced, and a Declaration on Climate and Health was signed by 148 countries. Australia also launched its National Health and Climate Strategy. A 'global stocktake' assessed progress against the Paris Agreement, emphasising the need to "transition away" from fossil fuels in the final COP28 decision. The Loss and Damage Fund to help vulnerable countries cope with climate change was also operationalised. Less promising are a number of loopholes in the COP28 outcomes regarding the continued use of fossil fuels. Loss and Damage Fund pledges represented only 0.2% of the estimated financial assistance needed to support vulnerable countries. Australia remains one of the largest fossil fuel exporters and has yet to elaborate on the implementation and financing for its health and climate strategy. To protect global health, urgent action is needed to phase out fossil fuels and transition to renewable energy, ensuring no communities are left behind. Investment is needed to increase the resilience of communities and health services to address innumerable challenges, including those associated with climate change. COP28 saw an increased presence of public health practitioners, who can play a critical role in understanding the implications of climate change for the communities they serve and embedding responses in their practice. They are well placed to strengthen the evidence base for interventions, monitor progress, and advocate for health-promoting climate policy. COPs form an important part of how we collectively address climate change. The health sector finally has a place at the COP table. The sector now needs to become an enabler of action across sectors, as well as managing the health consequences of climate change on communities and health services. Australia hopes to host COP31 in 2026 with Pacific states, potentially providing a catalyst for strengthened resolve.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Saúde Global , Humanos , Austrália , Nações Unidas , Cooperação Internacional
14.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0297127, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38889123

RESUMO

China's "the Belt and Road Initiative" (BRI) is a top-level cooperation initiative among countries proposed by China, which has promoted China's cooperation with relevant countries in various aspects and fields. Research reports from think tanks and experts on the evaluation, analysis, and research conclusions of the BRI can reflect the stance, opinions, and demands of various countries abroad regarding the initiative. This paper takes the BRI reports of important think tanks in the " Global Go To Think Tank Index Report 2020" as the subject of its research, and analyzes the key points and development trends of foreign think tank research on the BRI by using text mining, topic evolution, and social network analysis. It provides reasonable suggestions and ideas for promoting the construction of the BRI and deepening related cooperation in China. Research shows that the thematic distribution of research reports on the BRI by think tanks is mainly focused on the fields of politics, economy, and military. The research areas are relatively stable, and there is not a strong trend of thematic evolution. The evolution paths are also mainly distributed in the fields of politics, economy, and military. There are not many expansions in the thematic evolution directions over the years, and there is a strong inheritance of themes. The connection between research themes and the main purpose of the BRI is somewhat inadequate, indicating a certain limitation in the understanding of the BRI.


Assuntos
Cooperação Internacional , China , Humanos , Mineração de Dados
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12714, 2024 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830923

RESUMO

Infrastructure is often a limiting factor in microplastics research impacting the production of scientific outputs and monitoring data. International projects are therefore required to promote collaboration and development of national and regional scientific hubs. The Commonwealth Litter Programme and the Ocean Country Partnership Programme were developed to support Global South countries to take actions on plastics entering the oceans. An international laboratory network was developed to provide the infrastructure and in country capacity to conduct the collection and processing of microplastics in environmental samples. The laboratory network was also extended to include a network developed by the University of East Anglia, UK. All the laboratories were provided with similar equipment for the collection, processing and analysis of microplastics in environmental samples. Harmonised protocols and training were also provided in country during laboratory setup to ensure comparability of quality-controlled outputs between laboratories. Such large networks are needed to produce comparable baseline and monitoring assessments.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Laboratórios , Microplásticos , Microplásticos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Laboratórios/normas , Cooperação Internacional
18.
Science ; 384(6700): 1054, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843344

RESUMO

But negotiators approve new "pandemic emergency" alarm.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Cooperação Internacional , Pandemias , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Equidade em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
19.
BMJ Open ; 14(6): e076475, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective global health partnerships can strengthen and improve health and healthcare systems across the world; however, establishing and maintaining effective partnerships can be challenging. Principles of Partnerships have been developed to improve the quality and effectiveness of health partnerships. It is unclear how principles are enacted in practice, and current research has not always included the voices of low-income and middle-income country partners. This study aimed to explore how The Tropical Health and Education Trust's nine Principles of Partnership are enacted in practice, from the points of view of partners from low-income, middle-income and high-income countries, to help improve partnerships' quality and sustainability. METHODS: People who had been a part of previous and/or ongoing health partnerships were interviewed virtually. Participants were purposefully sampled and interviews were conducted using an appreciative inquiry approach. Audio recordings were transcribed and deductive framework analysis was conducted. RESULTS: 13 participants from 8 partnerships were interviewed. Six participants were based in the low-income or middle-income countries and seven in the UK. Key findings identified strategies that enacted 'successful' and 'effective' partnerships within the Principles of Partnerships. These included practical techniques such as hiring a project manager, managing expectations and openly sharing information about the team's expertise and aspirations. Other strategies included the importance of consulting behavioural science to ensure the partnerships consider longevity and sustainability of the partnership. DISCUSSION: Core principles to effective partnerships do not work in isolation of each other; they are intertwined and are complimentary to support equitable partnerships. Good communication and relationships built on trust which allow all partners to contribute equally throughout the project are core foundations for sustainable partnerships. Recommendations for established and future partnerships include embedding behavioural scientists/psychologists to support change to improve the quality and sustainability of health partnerships.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Saúde Global , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Cooperação Internacional , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento Cooperativo
20.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(6)2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843899

RESUMO

The International Health Regulations Monitoring and Evaluation Framework (IHRMEF) includes four components regularly conducted by States Parties to measure the current status of International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005 core capacities and provide recommendations for strengthening these capacities. However, the four components are conducted independently of one another and have no systematic referral to each other before, during or after each process, despite being largely conducted by the same team, country and support organisations. This analysis sets out to identify ways in which IHRMEF components could work more synergistically to effectively measure the status of IHR core capacities, taking into account the country's priority risks. We developed a methodology to allow these independent components to communicate with each other, including expert consultation, a qualitative crosswalk analysis and a country-level quantitative analysis. The demonstrated results act as a proof of concept and illustrate a methodology to provide benefits across all four components before, during and after implementation.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Regulamento Sanitário Internacional , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional
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