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1.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(8): 1230-1242, 2022 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099365

RESUMO

The dairy and meat industry has rapidly developed in the last decade in Turkey and is playing a key role in supplying animal proteins for human consumption. Viral pathogens continue to threaten the dairy and meat industry leading to serious economic losses worldwide, including Turkey. The Turkish cattle industry has been vulnerable to the spread of viral diseases within the country in the continent. Combating animal diseases is crucial for the economy of Turkey. A good cattle health management policy may reduce the direct losses associated with viral diseases and thereby lead to increase in export of animals and animal products. Countries that are unable to combat animal diseases remain excluded from international trade. Control and eradication of cattle diseases require the availability of effective and practical interventions including vaccination and biosecurity measures. This review summarises the currently available information about viral diseases in cattle in Turkey and emphasizes the need for disease monitoring and research, along with implementation of disease control measures to mitigate economic losses to farmers and the country. The information presented here can be of great value in the research, prevention, and control of cattle diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Viroses , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Comércio , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Turquia/epidemiologia , Vacinação/veterinária
2.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 559, 2022 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088355

RESUMO

A curated database of shark and ray biological data is increasingly necessary both to support fisheries management and conservation efforts, and to test the generality of hypotheses of vertebrate macroecology and macroevolution. Sharks and rays are one of the most charismatic, evolutionary distinct, and threatened lineages of vertebrates, comprising around 1,250 species. To accelerate shark and ray conservation and science, we developed Sharkipedia as a curated open-source database and research initiative to make all published biological traits and population trends accessible to everyone. Sharkipedia hosts information on 58 life history traits from 274 sources, for 170 species, from 39 families, and 12 orders related to length (n = 9 traits), age (8), growth (12), reproduction (19), demography (5), and allometric relationships (5), as well as 871 population time-series from 202 species. Sharkipedia relies on the backbone taxonomy of the IUCN Red List and the bibliography of Shark-References. Sharkipedia has profound potential to support the rapidly growing data demands of fisheries management, international trade regulation as well as anchoring vertebrate macroecology and macroevolution.


Assuntos
Traços de História de Vida , Tubarões , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Internacionalidade
4.
Ber Wiss ; 45(3): 397-414, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086846

RESUMO

In this article, I first outline the professionalization of the history and philosophy of biology from the 1960s onward. Then, I attempt to situate the work of Hans-Jörg Rheinberger with respect to this field. On the one hand, Rheinberger was marginal with respect to Anglo-American philosophical tradition; on the other, he was very influential in building up an integrated history and philosophy of the life sciences community at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin and beyond. This marginality results, I suggest, from three main sources: his use of concepts coming from continental traditions in the study of the life sciences, which are foreign to Anglo-American philosophers of science; his focus on practices instead of theories; and his research trajectory as a molecular biologist, which led him to be critical of disciplinary boundaries. As a first step in situating and historicizing Rheinberger's trajectory, this article invites comparative studies and calls for a history of "continental philosophy of biology" in the twentieth century.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas , Conhecimento , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/história , Biologia/história , Internacionalidade , Filosofia/história , Estados Unidos
5.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 9714591, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046074

RESUMO

The development of a new type of international relations is the advancement and improvement of diplomatic thinking among contemporary nations. It also serves as a crucial yardstick for assessing the future global pattern and the direction of order changes. Proper interaction between major powers can foster the growth of new international relations and has a significant impact on advancing global cooperation and the promotion of human peace. The goal of this essay is to examine how friendly interactions between major powers have affected the development of new international relations. A deep learning network model is presented for this purpose. The deep learning model was used to identify the emotions of the survey results, analyze each person's emotional tendencies, and summarize and compare the data. Relevant questionnaire surveys were conducted using the online questionnaire survey method on individuals in various countries. The survey results in this paper demonstrate that 96.5 percent of Chinese, 89.3 percent of Russians, and 81.6 percent of Americans support friendly relations between major nations. Only a very small percentage of the investigators supported hostile relations, with their support being 1.06 percent, 3.11 percent, and 2.94 percent, respectively. Therefore, creating a win-win partnership between major powers is exactly what the people of all nations are calling for. In contrast to the past, it is no longer hostile and violent. People anticipate that more great powers will coexist peacefully.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Cooperação Internacional , Análise de Dados , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Estados Unidos
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(16)2022 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36015842

RESUMO

The quality control for fruit maturity inspection is a key issue in fruit packaging and international trade. The quantification of Soluble Solids (SS) in fruits gives a good approximation of the total sugar concentration at the ripe stage, and on the other hand, SS alone or in combination with acidity is highly related to the acceptability of the fruit by consumers. The non-destructive analysis based on Visible (VIS) and Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has become a popular technique for the assessment of fruit quality. To improve the accuracy of fruit maturity inspection, VIS-NIR spectra models based on machine learning techniques are proposed for the non-destructive evaluation of soluble solids in considering a range of variations associated with varieties of stones fruit species (peach, nectarine, and plum). In this work, we propose a novel approach based on a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for the classification of the fruits into species and then a Feedforward Neural Network (FNN) to extract the information of VIS-NIR spectra to estimate the SS content of the fruit associated to several varieties. A classification accuracy of 98.9% was obtained for the CNN classification model and a correlation coefficient of Rc>0.7109 for the SS estimation of the FNN models was obtained. The results reported show the potential of this method for a fast and on-line classification of fruits and estimation of SS concentration.


Assuntos
Frutas , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Comércio , Frutas/química , Internacionalidade , Aprendizado de Máquina , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(35): e2203822119, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994637

RESUMO

We propose a method for forecasting global human migration flows. A Bayesian hierarchical model is used to make probabilistic projections of the 39,800 bilateral migration flows among the 200 most populous countries. We generate out-of-sample forecasts for all bilateral flows for the 2015 to 2020 period, using models fitted to bilateral migration flows for five 5-y periods from 1990 to 1995 through 2010 to 2015. We find that the model produces well-calibrated out-of-sample forecasts of bilateral flows, as well as total country-level inflows, outflows, and net flows. The mean absolute error decreased by 61% using our method, compared to a leading model of international migration. Out-of-sample analysis indicated that simple methods for forecasting migration flows offered accurate projections of bilateral migration flows in the near term. Our method matched or improved on the out-of-sample performance using these simple deterministic alternatives, while also accurately assessing uncertainty. We integrate the migration flow forecasting model into a fully probabilistic population projection model to generate bilateral migration flow forecasts by age and sex for all flows from 2020 to 2025 through 2040 to 2045.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Teorema de Bayes , Emigração e Imigração/tendências , Previsões , Migração Humana/tendências , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Modelos Estatísticos
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(35): e2116413119, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994657

RESUMO

Lakes are often described as sentinels of global change. Phenomena like lake eutrophication, algal blooms, or reorganization in community composition belong to the most studied ecosystem regime shifts. However, although regime shifts have been well documented in several lakes, a global assessment of the prevalence of regime shifts is still missing, and, more in general, of the factors altering stability in lake status, is missing. Here, we provide a first global assessment of regime shifts and stability in the productivity of 1,015 lakes worldwide using trophic state index (TSI) time series derived from satellite imagery. We find that 12.8% of the lakes studied show regime shifts whose signatures are compatible with tipping points, while the number of detected regime shifts from low to high TSI has increased over time. Although our results suggest an overall stable picture for global lake dynamics, the limited instability signatures do not mean that lakes are insensitive to global change. Modeling the interaction between lake climatic, geophysical, and socioeconomic features and their stability properties, we find that the probability of a lake experiencing a tipping point increases with human population density in its catchment, while it decreases as the gross domestic product of that population increases. Our results show how quantifying lake productivity dynamics at a global scale highlights socioeconomic inequalities in conserving natural environments.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Eficiência , Eutrofização , Internacionalidade , Lagos , Produto Interno Bruto , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica , Imagens de Satélites , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1565, 2022 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35978423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 has alerted governments around the world, including Australia, to think seriously about the health issues. Life expectancy is one of such issues. Therefore, this study tries to reveal the effects of globalization, energy consumption, information and communication technology, financial development, education rate, and economic growth on life expectancy at birth in Australia. METHODS: Using the data period of 1990-2018, a series of econometric techniques: the Dickey-Fuller generalized least square test, Autoregressive Distributive Lag bounds test, fully modified ordinary least square method and the pairwise Granger causality test, are applied. RESULTS: The findings disclose that globalization, renewable energy use, information and communication technology, per capita gross domestic product, education rate, and financial development increased during this period but non-renewable energy use reduced life expectancy at birth. Unidirectional causal associations of the studied variables with life expectancy at birth are also revealed. CONCLUSIONS: All the outcomes are relevant and useful for articulating an innovative policy in the health sector. The prime policy implication of this work is: the effective, efficient, and inclusive policies considering globalization, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, information and communication technology, financial development, education rate, and economic growth should be formulated and executed for guaranteeing health status.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dióxido de Carbono , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Internacionalidade
11.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272670, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35976911

RESUMO

This study explores the war-growth nexus in Afghanistan, a country where war-torn acts inform resource allocation. Employing the asymmetric ARDL, dynamic multipliers, and asymmetric causality techniques, the initial results confirm the existence of a long-run asymmetric nexus amid predictors. The asymmetric ARDL results indicate that a positive asymmetric shock from the per capita cost of war reduces per capita GDP-that is, economic growth-while a negative asymmetric shock from the per capita cost of war increases growth in the short and long run. Moreover, the findings reveal that per capita capital investment, per capita energy consumption, per capita household consumption, per capita remittance, per capita foreign direct investment, population growth, and inflation rate have significantly asymmetric effects on growth, highlighting non-monotonic impacts in scale and magnitude. The results of the asymmetric causality technique by bootstrap confirm that there is an asymmetric bidirectional causality between growth, per capita cost of war, per capita household consumption, per capita capital investment, and per capita foreign direct investment, while expanding only unidirectional causality with per capita remittance, population growth, and inflation rate. Based on the findings, the study concludes by offering relevant policy recommendations.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Afeganistão , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Investimentos em Saúde
12.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36016403

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the major threats to animal health worldwide. Its causative agent, the FMD virus (FMDV), affects cloven-hoofed animals, including farm animals and wildlife species, inflicting severe damage to the international trade and livestock industry. FMDV antigenic variability remains one of the biggest challenges for vaccine-based control strategies. The current study analyzed the host's adaptive immune responses in cattle immunized with different vaccine protocols and investigated its associations with the clinical outcome after infection with a heterologous strain of FMDV. The results showed that antigenic payload, multivalency, and revaccination may impact on the clinical outcome after heterologous challenge with FMDV. Protection from the experimental infection was related to qualitative traits of the elicited antibodies, such as avidity, IgG isotype composition, and specificity diversity, modulating and reflecting the vaccine-induced maturation of the humoral response. The correlation analyses of the serum avidity obtained per vaccinated individual might suggest that conventional vaccination can induce high-affinity immunoglobulins against conserved epitopes even within different FMDV serotypes. Cross-reaction among strains by these high-affinity antibodies may support further protection against a heterologous infection with FMDV.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Febre Aftosa , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Comércio , Internacionalidade
13.
Crit Pathw Cardiol ; 21(3): 114-122, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994719

RESUMO

An international panel of expert clinicians and researchers in acute cardiac care was convened to review, describe, and contextualize their varied experiences delivering care and maintaining ongoing research during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. A proposed perspective from which care and outcomes could be viewed was the possibility that without routine follow-up and as-accustomed interactions with their care team, patients at risk of acute atherothrombotic events might be less adherent to prescribed antiplatelet medications. This might be manifested by more emergency coronary events or by an increased (and perhaps unidentifiable) incidence of out-of-hospital cardiovascular deaths related to patient anxiety about presenting to hospital during the pandemic. The experiences of the panel members were similar in many regards, which identified opportunities for improvement in cardiac care the next time there is a substantial disruption of usual practice. Regardless of geography or payor system, there was an identified need for better remote care platforms; but stronger infrastructure and consumer facility with remote care technology, improved provider-patient communication to help ensure adherence to primary and secondary prevention medications, and longer-term prescription fills and no-hassle refills on such medications. Profound disruptions in acute cardiovascular research highlighted the need for redundancy or back-up planning for teams engaged in time-sensitive research, to ensure both continuity of protocols and patient safety.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Secundária
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011790

RESUMO

In recent years, the debate on environmental issues has become a hot topic. Fiscal decentralization is believed to be a crucial driver of environmental sustainability. However, the discussion on the effect of fiscal decentralization (FD) on environmental sustainability has not reached a unanimous conclusion. In this study, we inspect the effect of fiscal decentralization, economic development, technological innovation, economic globalization, and energy use on environmental quality in eight Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) member countries. In addition, we analyze the mechanisms through which fiscal decentralization influences the ecological footprint (EF) through the channels of technological innovation and economic growth. Using the STIRPAT framework, this study employed the CS-ARDL method for short-run and long-run analyses that deal with slope heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence. The empirical results show that fiscal decentralization and technological innovation mitigate ecological footprint, while economic development, energy consumption, and urbanization negatively affect environmental quality. However, economic globalization is not related to the EF in the sample economies. The results further reveal that FD enhances environmental quality through the channel of technological innovation, while it does not affect the EF through the channel of economic growth. Finally, it is recommended to make a reasoned division between the rights and responsibilities of local government and central government in environmental pollution management, and optimize the environmental system. At the same time, policymakers should encourage technological innovation to reduce the adverse impacts of economic development and energy consumption on the environment.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Urbanização , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Estudos Transversais , Internacionalidade , Política
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011797

RESUMO

The main purpose of this work is to investigate the impacts of globalization (GL), renewable energy (RE), and value-added agriculture (AG) on ecological footprints (EF) and CO2 emissions. For quantitative analysis, this research paper includes yearly data from 1990-2018 for four South Asian nations: Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. These countries are most vulnerable to climate hazards and rapid economic transitions. The Westerlund test provides a strong association among the panel data. The findings of ordinary least squares (DOLS) and fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) show that RE is lowering CO2 emissions and EF in the long run. A 1% increase in RE results in a 10.55% and 2.08% CO2 decrease in emissions and EF, respectively. Globalization and AG are contributing to environmental degradation in selected South Asian countries. Therefore, these countries need to exploit solar energy to its full capacity. Moreover, these countries need to explore more RE resources to reduce their dependence on non-RE sources. These countries can make their agricultural sectors sustainable by following efficient farming practices. Environmental awareness should be enhanced among the farmers. Farmers can use animal fertilizers and clean inputs in AG to achieve sustainable agricultural products. Overall, this work suggests that these countries can achieve a cleaner environment by adopting RE and by promoting efficient technologies through globalization.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Agricultura , Internacionalidade , Energia Renovável
17.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38Suppl 2(Suppl 2): e00175820, 2022.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36043625

RESUMO

This study aims to analyze the shareholding dimension of changes in companies and corporate groups in the Brazilian health sector from 2008 to 2017. The idea was to understand the strategies of accumulation in a context of financialization, defined as a systemic pattern of wealth in contemporary capitalism. The shareholding changes were submitted to descriptive and exploratory analysis based on different sources. We studied 58 companies from the subsectors of health plans, pharmacies, hospitals, diagnostics, pharmaceutical industry, and social organizations. Data were collected on the legal structure, ownership, and control, equity operations, and economic and patient care activities. Despite the heterogeneity of the companies and their strategies, the results point to an increase in the presence of domestic and international investors, changes in internal organization, capital, financing, and diversification of activities. The companies that stood out were actively pursuing capitalization via foreign investments, purchase and share of assets and shares, and mergers and acquisitions, accelerating the process of expansion, accumulation, and shareholding and financial appreciation. The result is an increase in capital flows and growing integration of economic and patient care structures in the Brazilian health sector with financial circuits, thereby linking peripheral intermediate companies to an expanded process of accumulation under financial dominance. The findings corroborate striking aspects of corporate dynamics in financialization that increasingly influence health systems in Brazil and the world.


O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar a dimensão patrimonial de mudanças em empresas e grupos econômicos do setor saúde no Brasil entre 2008 e 2017. Busca-se compreender as estratégias de acumulação em um contexto de financeirização, compreendida como padrão sistêmico da riqueza no capitalismo contemporâneo. As mudanças patrimoniais foram analisadas de forma descritiva e exploratória a partir de diferentes fontes. Foram estudadas 58 empresas dos subsetores de planos de saúde, farmácias, hospitais, diagnóstico, indústria farmacêutica e organizações sociais. Foram coletados dados sobre forma jurídica, propriedade e controle; operações patrimoniais; atividades econômicas e assistenciais. A despeito da heterogeneidade das empresas e suas estratégias, os resultados apontam o aumento da presença de investidores nacionais e internacionais, mudanças na organização interna, na estrutura do capital, no financiamento e diversificação de atividades. As que mais se destacam buscaram ativamente a capitalização a partir de investimentos externos, compra e venda de ativos e ações, fusões e aquisições aceleram o processo de expansão, acumulação e valorização patrimonial-financeira. O resultado é o aumento do fluxo de capitais e a crescente integração das estruturas econômicas e assistenciais do setor saúde brasileiro aos circuitos financeiros, tornando as empresas intermediárias periféricas articuladas a um processo ampliado de acumulação sob dominância financeira. Os achados convergem com aspectos marcantes da dinâmica das corporações na financeirização, que influenciam cada vez mais os sistemas de saúde no Brasil e do mundo.


El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la dimensión patrimonial de cambios en empresas y grupos económicos del sector salud en Brasil entre 2008 y 2017. Se busca comprender las estrategias de acumulación en un contexto de financiarización, comprendida como un patrón sistémico de la riqueza en el capitalismo contemporáneo. Los cambios patrimoniales fueron analizados de forma descriptiva y exploratoria a partir de diferentes fuentes. Se estudiaron 58 empresas de los subsectores de planes de salud, farmacias, hospitales, diagnóstico, industria farmacéutica y organizaciones sociales. Se recogieron datos sobre forma jurídica, propriedad y control; operaciones patrimoniales; actividades económicas y asistenciales. A pesar de la heterogeneidad de las empresas y sus estrategias, los resultados apuntan el aumento de la presencia de inversores nacionales e internacionales, cambios en la organización interna, estructura del capital, financiación y diversificación de actividades. Las que más se destacan buscaron activamente la capitalización a partir de inversiones externas, compra y venta de activos y acciones, fusiones y adquisiciones aceleraron el proceso de expansión, acumulación y valorización patrimonial-financiera. El resultado es el aumento del flujo de capitales y la creciente integración de las estructuras económicas y asistenciales del sector salud brasileño en los circuitos financieros, haciendo que las empresas intermediarias periféricas se coordinaran con un proceso ampliado de acumulación, auspiciado por el dominio financiero. Los resultados convergen con aspectos marcantes de la dinámica de las corporaciones en la financiarización, que influencian cada vez más los sistemas de salud en Brasil y en el mundo.


Assuntos
Investimentos em Saúde , Organizações , Brasil , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Propriedade
18.
J Digit Imaging ; 35(4): 735-736, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36001165
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(44): 66041-66067, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915306

RESUMO

The global spread of COVID-19, international trade protectionism, geopolitical conflicts, and climate change presents challenges and risks to sustainable supply chains (SSCs). In recent years, scholarly interest in sustainable supply chain risk management (SSCRM) has continued to rise. A helpful literature review is necessary to enable supply chain practitioners to apply empirical findings from academic research or conceptual frameworks to their operations to maintain the stability and competitiveness of sustainable supply chains. The knowledge map of SSCRM is explored in this study using both quantitative and qualitative analysis. A total of 793 articles were retrieved to reveal the knowledge map of SSCRM. Scientometric and context analysis are combined in quantitative analysis to identify the intellectual structure of risk management research related to SSC. Then, a critical review is conducted in qualitative analysis to summarize and analyze the motivations, strategies, approaches, and tools of SSCRM. Combining the quantitative and qualitative analysis results, a conceptual model is constructed for SSCRM from three aspects: (1) risk identification, (2) risk assessment, and (3) risk mitigating and responding. Finally, future research directions are suggested based on the conceptual model for guiding the theories and practice of SSCRM. This study can work as a roadmap for providing appropriate risk management policies and toolkits to SSC, which could advance theoretical thinking on how to mitigate SSC risks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comércio , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Lógica , Gestão de Riscos
20.
Rev Sci Tech ; 41(1): 198-210, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925620

RESUMO

International trade in live insects involves the shipping of many different species, for various purposes, with a variety of handling requirements regulated by numerous authorities with varying objectives. The diversity of factors at play has both created and been subject to a complex regulatory landscape. A review of global production, shipping and use experiences from a range of perspectives has shown gaps and inconsistencies in international guidance and national implementation. Private carriers add another layer of uncertainty that is disproportionate to risks, resulting in variable practices and charges. Many benefits can come from international trade in insects, including pollinator services, control of pests and of disease vectors, and enhanced international scientific research and innovation. These benefits will be better achieved through a more evidence-based and efficient approach to regulating trade. This change in approach will in turn require an improved and widely accepted risk-management landscape for insect trade.


Le commerce international d'insectes vivants s'appuie sur les expéditions de nombreuses espèces différentes à diverses fins, assorties de multiples exigences relatives à la manutention régies par des autorités différentes poursuivant des objectifs distincts. La diversité des facteurs en jeu a rendu nécessaire la création d'un paysage normatif complexe, avec les contraintes qui lui sont associées. L'examen à l'échelle mondiale de la production, du transport et des expériences dans ce domaine depuis diverses perspectives a révélé un certain nombre de lacunes et d'incohérences au niveau des directives internationales et de leurs applications concrètes dans les pays. Les transporteurs privés ajoutent une dimension d'incertitude supplémentaire qui est disproportionnée par rapport aux risques, ce qui entraîne une forte variabilité des pratiques et des charges. Les échanges internationaux d'insectes génèrent nombre d'activités bénéfiques, parmi lesquelles les services de pollinisation, la lutte contre les ravageurs et les vecteurs de maladie, et l'accroissement de la recherche scientifique internationale et de l'innovation. Les objectifs attendus seront mieux atteints en adoptant une approche de la réglementation des échanges qui s'appuie davantage sur des éléments factuels et sur les gains d'efficacité. Ce changement méthodologique nécessitera à son tour la mise en place d'un cadre amélioré et plus largement accepté de la gestion des risques dans le domaine du commerce des insectes.


El comercio internacional de insectos vivos, que supone el transporte de muchas especies diferentes con fines diversos, se acompaña de requisitos de manipulación que dictan numerosas autoridades con todo tipo de objetivos. La diversidad de los factores que entran en juego ha sido a la vez causa y consecuencia de un complejo panorama reglamentario. Los autores, tras describir un estudio a escala mundial de la experiencia de producción, transporte y utilización de insectos vivos desde diferentes puntos de vista, exponen las carencias e incoherencias observadas en las directrices internacionales y su traslación a escala nacional. Los transportistas privados añaden otro factor de incertidumbre que tiene un peso desproporcionado en relación con el nivel de riesgo y se traduce en procedimientos y precios heterogéneos. El comercio internacional de insectos puede traer consigo muchos beneficios, en particular servicios de polinización, control de plagas y de vectores de enfermedad, y avances de la investigación e innovación científica a escala internacional. Pero obtener esos beneficios será más fácil si se aborda la regulación del comercio de manera más eficaz y científicamente fundamentada, operando un cambio de lógica que exigirá, a su vez, la aplicación al comercio de insectos de un régimen más sofisticado y ampliamente aceptado de gestión de los riesgos.


Assuntos
Comércio , Internacionalidade , Animais , Insetos/fisiologia
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