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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36617055

RESUMO

Emotion recognition is a significant issue in many sectors that use human emotion reactions as communication for marketing, technological equipment, or human-robot interaction. The realistic facial behavior of social robots and artificial agents is still a challenge, limiting their emotional credibility in dyadic face-to-face situations with humans. One obstacle is the lack of appropriate training data on how humans typically interact in such settings. This article focused on collecting the facial behavior of 60 participants to create a new type of dyadic emotion reaction database. For this purpose, we propose a methodology that automatically captures the facial expressions of participants via webcam while they are engaged with other people (facial videos) in emotionally primed contexts. The data were then analyzed using three different Facial Expression Analysis (FEA) tools: iMotions, the Mini-Xception model, and the Py-Feat FEA toolkit. Although the emotion reactions were reported as genuine, the comparative analysis between the aforementioned models could not agree with a single emotion reaction prediction. Based on this result, a more-robust and -effective model for emotion reaction prediction is needed. The relevance of this work for human-computer interaction studies lies in its novel approach to developing adaptive behaviors for synthetic human-like beings (virtual or robotic), allowing them to simulate human facial interaction behavior in contextually varying dyadic situations with humans. This article should be useful for researchers using human emotion analysis while deciding on a suitable methodology to collect facial expression reactions in a dyadic setting.


Assuntos
Emoções , Relações Interpessoais , Humanos , Conscientização , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Comunicação , Expressão Facial
2.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 16(1)January - March 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-214425

RESUMO

Visual cues usually play a vital role in social interaction. As well as being the primary cue for identifying other people, visual cues also provide crucial non-verbal social information via both facial expressions and body language. One consequence of vision loss is the need to rely on non-visual cues during social interaction. Although verbal cues can carry a significant amount of information, this information is often not available to an untrained listener. Here, we review the current literature examining potential ways that the loss of social information due to vision loss might impact social functioning. A large number of studies suggest that low vision and blindness is a risk factor for anxiety and depression. This relationship has been attributed to multiple factors, including anxiety about disease progression, and impairments to quality of life that include difficulties reading, and a lack of access to work and social activities. However, our review suggests a potential additional contributing factor to reduced quality of life that has been hitherto overlooked: blindness may make it more difficult to effectively engage in social interactions, due to a loss of visual information. The current literature suggests it might be worth considering training in voice discrimination and/or recognition when carrying out rehabilitative training in late blind individuals. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Ansiedade/psicologia , Cegueira/psicologia , Baixa Visão , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Relações Interpessoais
3.
Age Ageing ; 52(1)2023 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the proliferation of online support communities, little is known about how people with dementia engage with them. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the content of messages exchanged between members of the asynchronous Talking Point online discussion forum. METHOD: Using the sub-forum 'I have dementia', 100 conversation threads were randomly selected yielding 863 individual messages for analysis. Our data set was subjected to reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three themes were generated: journeying through dementia, reciprocal peer support and therapeutic creativity. The findings suggest that individuals used the forum to share their experiences of obtaining and adjusting to a dementia diagnosis, their current symptoms and how they addressed the challenges of daily living as well as the impacts on mood, confidence and connectedness. The forum was viewed as a safe space to reflect on the future and what it might hold for them and loved ones. Throughout these discussions, users supported each other, particularly in relation to the emotional impact of diagnosis and shared experiential information and advice, with referrals to external sources of support commonplace. Discussion around the role of therapeutic creativity was evident and its role as a coping mechanism described. Through engagement, a sense of community and companionship was evident and new members welcomed, supported and encouraged to join in. DISCUSSION: The forum appears to be filling an important gap in post-diagnostic support provision, particularly for those with rare forms of dementia. Clinicians, support workers and organisations could consider recommending online support forums to people with dementia.


Assuntos
Demência , Relações Interpessoais , Humanos , Comunicação , Emoções , Idioma , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/terapia , Internet
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36613178

RESUMO

For many young adults today dating is not taken as a path to marriage, but as a relationship to be considered on its own terms with a beginning, middle, and end. Yet, research has not kept pace as most studies that look at relationships over time focus on marriages. In the present study, we look at individual differences and normative patterns of dating relationship quality over time. We tested a path model of associations between relationship duration, attachment insecurity, and four relationship quality domains (sexual frequency, commitment, satisfaction, and companionship) among a large sample of dating young adults (N = 1345). Based on a conceptual model of romantic relationship development, results supported expectations that dating trajectories are curvilinear, with unique patterns of accent, peak, and decent for each relationship domain. Dating duration also moderated the relationship between dating quality and attachment insecurity with anxious attachment becoming a more salient predictor of lower satisfaction and lower commitment in long-term versus short-term relationships. A quadratic interaction with sexual frequency indicated that insecurity predicted less sexual activity in new relationships, more activity among relationships between two and four years, but then less again in longer-term relationships. Findings suggest patterns of stability and change in dating relationships during emerging adulthood that complement those observed from the marriage literature.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Adulto , Casamento , Satisfação Pessoal , Ansiedade , Apego ao Objeto , Parceiros Sexuais
5.
Behav Ther ; 54(1): 29-42, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608975

RESUMO

Socially anxious adolescents commonly experience impaired interpersonal functioning with unfamiliar, same-age peers. Yet, we lack short screening tools for assessing peer-related impairments. Recent work revealed that a parent-reported, three-item screening tool produced scores that uniquely related to social anxiety concerns. However, this tool ought to go beyond linking impairments to service needs (i.e., social anxiety symptoms). This tool should also inform the goals of services, in particular by linking impairments to key domains relevant to therapeutically addressing adolescents' anxiety-related needs, such as social skills when interacting with unfamiliar peers. This requires an assessment approach that involves strategic selection of informants who vary in their expertise for observing anxiety-related needs, as well as the therapeutic goals for addressing anxiety-related impairments (e.g., social skills within peer interactions). We leveraged parents' reports to link impairments to social anxiety-related needs. To link impairments to social skills, we leveraged informants (i.e., unfamiliar untrained observers [UUOs]) who observed adolescents within tasks designed to simulate interactions with same-age, unfamiliar peers. We tested this approach using a mixed-clinical/community sample of 134 adolescents, ages 14- to 15 years old. We leveraged multi-informant survey reports to assess adolescent social anxiety, and trained independent observers rated adolescents' social skills within unfamiliar peer interactions. Parents' reports performed best when distinguishing adolescents on referral status and predicting survey-reported social anxiety, whereas only UUOs' reports predicted independent observers' social skills ratings. These findings inform the strategic selection of informants for assessing impairments that commonly prompt the need for adolescents to access mental health services for social anxiety.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Grupo Associado , Humanos , Adolescente , Habilidades Sociais , Medo , Ansiedade/psicologia
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 14, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A successful therapeutic rapport between doctors and patients is built on effective doctor-patient communication. Noncompliance of patients which challenges their communication has been described in the research, yet the rapport strategies are not well discussed. METHODS: This qualitative study investigates the rapport strategies when doctors face noncompliance in consultations and its pragmatic effects achieved through the doctors' speeches. The 10-hour recordings come from the doctor-patient communication in the hospital setting. Thereafter, we analyze their conversation following the Spencer Oatey's rapport management model. RESULTS: Compliments and joking in the illocutionary domain, storytelling in the discourse domain, the doctors' participation in the participation domain and the choice of appropriate titles in the stylistic domain are identified and analyzed as the rapport-building strategies. CONCLUSION: The present study has offered insights into physicians' rapport-building strategies in the face of rapport-threatening behavior from patients. These strategies will help the doctors to deal with rapport-challenging behavior and boost overall patient wellness.


Assuntos
Médicos , Humanos , Comunicação , Relações Interpessoais , Relações Médico-Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Cooperação do Paciente
7.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 853, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646767

RESUMO

Many consider moral decisions to follow an internal "moral compass", resistant to social pressures. Here we examine how social influence shapes moral decisions under risk, and how it operates in different decision contexts. We employed an adapted Asian Disease Paradigm where participants chose between certain losses/gains and probabilistic losses/gains in a series of moral (lives) or financial (money) decisions. We assessed participants' own risk preferences before and after exposing them to social norms that are generally risk-averse or risk-seeking. Our results showed that participants robustly shifted their own choices towards the observed risk preferences. This conformity holds even after a re-testing in three days. Interestingly, in the monetary domain, risk-averse norms have more influence on choices in the loss frame, whereas risk-seeking norms have more influence in the gain frame, presumably because norms that contradict default behavior are most informative. In the moral domain, risk-averse as opposed to risk-seeking norms are more effective in the loss frame but in the gain frame different norms are equally effective. Taken together, our results demonstrate conformity in risk preferences across contexts and highlight unique features of decisions and conformity in moral and monetary domains.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar , Humanos , Normas Sociais , Comportamento Social , Relações Interpessoais , Princípios Morais , Tomada de Decisões
8.
Annu Rev Psychol ; 74: 519-545, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652305

RESUMO

Pride is a self-conscious emotion, comprised of two distinct facets known as authentic and hubristic pride, and associated with a cross-culturally recognized nonverbal expression. Authentic pride involves feelings of accomplishment and confidence and promotes prosocial behaviors, whereas hubristic pride involves feelings of arrogance and conceit and promotes antisociality. Each facet of pride, we argue, contributes to a distinct means of attaining social rank: Authentic pride seems to promote prestige-a rank based on earned respect-whereas hubristic pride seems to promote dominance-a rank based on aggression and coercion. Both prestige and dominance are effective routes to power and influence in human groups, so both facets of pride are likely to be functional adaptations. Overall, the reviewed research suggests that pride is likely to be a human universal, critical for social relationships and rank attainment across human societies.


Assuntos
Emoções , Relações Interpessoais , Humanos , Autoimagem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673989

RESUMO

Algorithms are increasingly used instead of humans to perform core management functions, yet public health research on the implications of this phenomenon for worker health and well-being has not kept pace with these changing work arrangements. Algorithmic management has the potential to influence several dimensions of job quality with known links to worker health, including workload, income security, task significance, schedule stability, socioemotional rewards, interpersonal relations, decision authority, and organizational trust. To describe the ways algorithmic management may influence workers' health, this review summarizes available literature from public health, sociology, management science, and human-computer interaction studies, highlighting the dimensions of job quality associated with work stress and occupational safety. We focus on the example of work for platform-based food and grocery delivery companies; these businesses are growing rapidly worldwide and their effects on workers and policies to address those effects have received significant attention. We conclude with a discussion of research challenges and needs, with the goal of understanding and addressing the effects of this increasingly used technology on worker health and health equity.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Carga de Trabalho
10.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0267872, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Participation is considered a critical outcome of successful rehabilitation and should be evaluated. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the structural validity of the Participation Behaviour Questionnaire (PBQ) in people with hand injuries. METHODOLOGY: The PBQ contains 30 items that measure participation as conceptualized in the ICF. PBQ was developed with Rasch analysis to measure participation in hand injured. A sample of 404 patients with hand injuries and a mean age of 37 (16.0) participated and was randomly split for exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA/CFA). RESULTS: Both EFA and CFA confirmed a four factor-solution. These factors were named: Social Participation and Interpersonal Relationships, Autonomy and Role, Subjective Satisfaction with Participation, Recreational, Sport, and Leisure Time. The value of Cronbach's alpha was 0.96 for the total scale and >0.85 for each subscale. CONCLUSIONS: The structural validity of the PBQ was confirmed using both EFA and CFA. The PBQ measures four dimensions of participation.


Assuntos
Traumatismos da Mão , Participação Social , Humanos , Adulto , Relações Interpessoais , Pacientes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise Fatorial , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Psicometria
11.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 227: 105588, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36512919

RESUMO

Understanding action-reaction associations that give origin to interactive scripts (e.g., give-and-take interactions) is essential for appreciating social exchanges. However, studies on infants' action understanding have mainly investigated the case of actions performed by individual agents. Moreover, although extensive literature has explored infants' comprehension of action-effect relationships in object functioning, no study has addressed whether it also plays a role when observing social interactions, an issue we addressed here. In a first study, 10-month-old infants observed short videos of dyadic exchanges. We investigated whether they were able to link specific human gestures directed toward another person to specific vocal reactions in the receiver. We used a double-habituation paradigm in which infants were sequentially habituated to two specific action-reaction associations. In the test phase, infants watched one of the two habituated (Familiar) videos, a video with a reversed action-reaction association (Violation), and a Novel video. Results showed that the infants looked longer at both the Novel and Violation test trials than at the Familiar test trials. In a control study, we show that these results could not be accounted for by associative learning; indeed, learning of the action-reaction association did not occur when the vocalization was not produced by the receiver but only contingent on the agent's action. Thus, we show that 10-month-old infants can encode specific social action-effect relationships during the observation of dyadic interactions and that the interactivity of the social context may be critical to shaping young infants' understanding of others' behaviors.


Assuntos
Gestos , Relações Interpessoais , Lactente , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Interação Social , Meio Social
12.
Soc Sci Med ; 317: 115612, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36542930

RESUMO

Positive and meaningful intergroup contact between people who use drugs and those with the potential to provide positive social interactions has been identified as an important pathway to address the burden of drug use by reducing stigmatizing views and behaviors. Traditional approaches to intergroup contact typically rely on laboratory experiments or survey vignettes to examine the consequences of variation in contact conditions and relationships. Although seldom measured, contact occurs naturally through individuals' personal social networks. Here, we apply this latter approach to examine how the characteristics of drug use and social roles are associated with positive and meaningful intergroup contact in daily life. We leverage unique data from a state representative sample of Indiana residents aged 18 or older (n = 926) that completed a personal network interview and separately reported people they know who have a drug use problem. We first identified the respondents who nominated a person who uses drugs as a member of their core personal network and then evaluated the relationship, disease, and individual characteristics that were associated with that person's inclusion in the personal network. We find that primary relationships (e.g., having a spouse or child who uses drugs) are associated with meaningful contact with people who use drugs but that intense manifestations of disease characteristics (severe or problematic, danger to self) can limit the likelihood of contact. These findings demonstrate how the nature of intergroup contact can shape the types of relationships that have been shown to help reduce stigmatizing attitudes and the behavioral barriers to recovery, such as social isolation. Thus, core networks present a valuable approach to defining the factors that likely contribute to effective intergroup contact.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas , Relações Interpessoais , Humanos , Atitude , Isolamento Social , Rede Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Horm Behav ; 147: 105294, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521419

RESUMO

In recent years there has been a great deal of documentation on how social relationships are related to various aspects of human wellbeing. However, until recently most studies investigating the effects of social relationships on wellbeing have applied social network measures to reported social contacts. Recent advances in the application of bio-loggers in biological studies have now made it possible to quantify social relationships based on in-person, rather than self-reported, social interactions. We used GPS-derived in-camp and out-of-camp proximity data to analyse how in-person proximity is related to Hair Cortisol Concentration (HCC) among Hadza hunter-gatherers. Time spent in close proximity to other camp members was associated with higher HCC, especially in women. In contrast, individuals who spent more time in close out-of-camp proximity to their best friend experienced lower HCC. Our study suggests that physiological costs related to group living might be mitigated by in-person interactions with close friends. We also find that the location (i.e., in-camp vs out-of-camp) of proximity to others and self-perceived friends is associated with HCC among the Hadza.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Interação Social , Humanos , Feminino
14.
Child Abuse Negl ; 135: 105974, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have assessed the association between peer rejection and aggression, the results are mixed. OBJECTIVE: This article presents a meta-analysis of the association between peer rejection and aggression types (overt vs. relational) among children and adolescents. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A total of 61 eligible studies with 70 independent effect sizes were included in the analysis (45,966 participants, Mage = 10.34, SD = 3.13). METHODS: First, random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to explore the association between peer rejection and aggression types (overt vs. relational). Next, moderation analyses were conducted based on the Q statistics for categorical variables (culture, reporting method of peer rejection, reporting method of aggression) and the meta-regression analyses for continuous variable (age). RESULTS: Peer rejection was positively correlated with overall aggression (r = 0.42, 95 % CI [0.38, 0.47], p < 0.001), overt aggression (r = 0.46, 95 % CI [0.38, 0.54], p < 0.001) and relational aggression (r = 0.43, 95 % CI [0.35, 0.51], p < 0.001). This correlation was positive for each type when controlling for other form of aggression. Moderation analyses suggested that reporting method of aggression (self-report vs. peer-nomination vs. adult-report vs. observation), reporting method of peer rejection (self-report vs. peer-nomination vs. adult-report) and culture (collectivist vs. individualist) were moderators of the association between peer rejection and overall aggression. Culture moderated the association between peer rejection and overt aggression, while age moderated the association between peer rejection and relational aggression. CONCLUSIONS: The findings showed a strong positive association between peer rejection and aggression, although this association varied by aggression type and other moderating variables.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Grupo Associado , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Agressão , Análise de Regressão , Distância Psicológica
15.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 46(1): 36-42, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36562693

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Recently, the focus of research has shifted from psychiatric, psychological, and social consequences on the woman who gets sick from breast cancer to the impact on the couple. Indeed, the psychosocial perspective has developed the construct of the Quality of Relationship (QoR) that affects the quality of life of both members of the dyad. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to extend knowledge in this field by identifying and analyzing what dimensions of QoR may impact couples' psychosocial adjustment to breast cancer and related treatments. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Semistructured interviews explored couples' experiences of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. Transcripts were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Twelve couples were interviewed. Results showed how the dimensions of psychosocial support, dyadic coping, communication, and intimacy are associated and define the construct of QoR, thus affecting the couples' adjustment to breast cancer diagnosis and to the disease pathway. CONCLUSION: Assessment procedures of couple functioning since and after diagnosis could increase the appropriateness and benefits of integrating existing clinical practice in oncological settings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adaptação Psicológica , Comunicação , Relações Interpessoais , Cônjuges/psicologia
16.
OTJR (Thorofare N J) ; 43(1): 98-108, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35189757

RESUMO

Age-related vision loss (ARVL) has been shown to interfere with older adults' occupational engagement. The primary purpose was to examine the role social networks play in facilitating/constraining engagement in desired occupations for older adults with ARVL. This study adopted a constructivist narrative methodology. Five older adults, ≥ 60 years of age with ARVL, participated in three virtual interviews, which were coded using thematic analysis. Three overarching themes were identified: (a) Diverse Social Networks Fulfill Different Occupational and Psychosocial Needs, (b) Retaining a Sense of Independence through Seeking Reciprocity in Social Relationships, and (c) Community Mobility and Technology Support as Essential for Preserving Social Relationships. Findings broaden understandings of how informal/formal social networks are involved in shaping visually-impaired older adults' adaptation to ARVL and related occupational changes. Findings may help improve the quality and delivery of low-vision rehabilitation services to optimize their contribution to occupational engagement.


Assuntos
Rede Social , Transtornos da Visão , Humanos , Idoso , Transtornos da Visão/psicologia , Transtornos da Visão/reabilitação , Relações Interpessoais , Narração
17.
Behav Cogn Psychother ; 51(1): 46-60, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36377520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Safety behaviours are hypothesized to play a vital role in maintaining social anxiety disorder (SAD), in part by orienting socially anxious individuals to adopt an avoidance-based mindset focused on self-protection and self-concealment. Evidence suggests an association between safety behaviour use and negative social outcomes for individuals with SAD. However, research has largely focused on the broad group of safety behaviours, whereas specific subtypes have received less attention. AIM: The present study aimed to further our understanding of the negative interpersonal consequences of specific types of safety behaviours for individuals with SAD by examining whether active, inhibiting/restricting, or physical symptom management safety behaviour use affects perceived likeability and authenticity during a conversation with a stranger. METHOD: Individuals with SAD (n = 29; mean age 35.5 years) and healthy control (non-SAD) participants (n = 40; mean age 18.6 years) engaged in a semi-structured social interaction with trained confederates. RESULTS: Participants with SAD were perceived as significantly less likeable and authentic by the confederates, and rated themselves as significantly less authentic compared with those without SAD. The association between group status and likeability was mediated by the use of inhibiting/restricting safety behaviours and the association between group status and participant-rated authenticity was mediated by the use of both inhibiting/restricting and active safety behaviours, but not physical symptom management strategies. CONCLUSIONS: These results contribute to a growing literature suggesting that some, but not all, safety behaviours may play an important role in creating the negative social outcomes that individuals with SAD experience.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Relações Interpessoais , Fobia Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Fobia Social/terapia , Segurança
18.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 378(1870): 20210365, 2023 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36571122

RESUMO

In this article, we analyse social interactions, drawing on diverse points of views, ranging from dialectics, second-person neuroscience and enactivism to dynamical systems, active inference and machine learning. To this end, we define interpersonal attunement as a set of multi-scale processes of building up and materializing social expectations-put simply, anticipating and interacting with others and ourselves. While cultivating and negotiating common ground, via communication and culture-building activities, are indispensable for the survival of the individual, the relevant multi-scale mechanisms have been largely considered in isolation. Here, collective psychophysiology, we argue, can lend itself to the fine-tuned analysis of social interactions, without neglecting the individual. On the other hand, an interpersonal mismatch of expectations can lead to a breakdown of communication and social isolation known to negatively affect mental health. In this regard, we review psychopathology in terms of interpersonal misattunement, conceptualizing psychiatric disorders as disorders of social interaction, to describe how individual mental health is inextricably linked to social interaction. By doing so, we foresee avenues for an inter-personalized psychiatry, which moves from a static spectrum of disorders to a dynamic relational space, focusing on how the multi-faceted processes of social interaction can help to promote mental health. This article is part of the theme issue 'Concepts in interaction: social engagement and inner experiences'.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Psicopatologia , Psicofisiologia , Saúde Mental , Relações Interpessoais
19.
J Affect Disord ; 324: 61-67, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565965

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A complex and bidirectional relationship between eating and psychological symptoms in individuals with obesity has been proposed. This study aims to identify the specific processes playing a role in this association, using a data-driven approach. METHODS: Two hundred ninety-four adults with obesity, including 106 (36 %) with binge-eating disorder, were consecutively admitted to a specialized public center. They completed self-report questionnaires to assess emotion regulation, interpersonal problems, self-esteem, binge-eating symptoms, and expectancies regarding eating behaviors. To assess the interplay among eating and psychological variables, a network analysis was used. The bridge function analysis was also performed to identify the bridge nodes among three communities (eating symptoms, interpersonal and emotional problems). RESULTS: The network was stable. Limited access to emotion regulation strategies, eating helps manage negative affect, and non-assertiveness were the nodes with the highest strength centrality. Lack of emotional clarity, non-assertiveness, socially inhibition, and binge-eating were the nodes with the highest bridge strength. LIMITATIONS: The main limitation of the study is the cross-sectional nature of the findings which prevents to infer causality regarding the association between symptoms in the network. DISCUSSION: An interplay between eating symptoms and affective and interpersonal factors characterizes individuals with obesity. Across the variety of psychological problems associated with obesity, the present study suggests specific psychological variables and their connections that could be addressed to improve treatment outcome.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia , Regulação Emocional , Adulto , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Estudos Transversais , Obesidade/psicologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/complicações , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Bulimia/complicações
20.
J Affect Disord ; 324: 566-575, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36584705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic's mental health impact is well-established. While early evidence suggested suicide deaths remained stable or declined, suicidal ideation (SI) became more prevalent than before the pandemic. Our study: (1) examined the prevalence and distribution of SI among Canadian adults, (2) compared SI among those with and without pre-existing mental illnesses, and (3) evaluated associations between pandemic-related stressors (i.e., unemployment, insecure employment, loss of income, medical vulnerability, COVID-19 exposure) with SI, and whether such associations were mediated by depression, thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, or perceived discrimination. METHODS: The sample was comprised of data gathered at three timepoints (Wave 1 08/18/2020-10/01/2020, n = 6629; Wave 2 12/21/2020-03/31/2021, n = 5920; Wave 3 09/07/2021-12/07/2021, n = 7354). Quota-based responses from survey research panels which matched the geographic, age, and sex distribution of the Canadian population were supplemented with convenience-sampled responses. RESULTS: The prevalence of SI was 4.1 % (Wave 1), 5.3 % (Wave 2), and 5.8 % (Wave 3). Odds of SI were higher for respondents under the age of 35 years and with pre-existing mental illnesses. SI was associated with quarantining due to suspected or confirmed COVID-19 exposure, potential COVID-19 exposure at work, medical vulnerability toward COVID-19, insecure employment or unemployment, and income loss. These associations were mediated by psychological experiences, particularly depression and thwarted belongingness. LIMITATIONS: This cross-sectional, observational study cannot establish temporality or causality. CONCLUSION: Results highlight groups who may benefit from enhanced screening for depression and suicide risk. Reducing depression and increasing sense of belonging should be prioritized.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ideação Suicida , Adulto , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Transversais , Relações Interpessoais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Teoria Psicológica
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