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1.
J Vis Exp ; (208)2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949314

RESUMO

Advancing knowledge of gastrointestinal physiology and its diseases critically depends on the development of precise, species-specific in vitro models that faithfully mimic in vivo intestinal tissues. This is particularly vital for investigating host-pathogen interactions in bovines, which are significant reservoirs for pathogens that pose serious public health risks. Traditional 3D organoids offer limited access to the intestinal epithelium's apical surface, a hurdle overcome by the advent of 2D monolayer cultures. These cultures, derived from organoid cells, provide an exposed luminal surface for more accessible study. In this research, a detailed protocol is introduced for creating and sustaining 2D monolayer cultures from cells of bovine small and large intestinal organoids. This method includes protocols for assessing membrane integrity through transepithelial electrical resistance and paracellular permeability alongside immunocytochemistry staining techniques. These protocols lay the groundwork for establishing and characterizing a 2D bovine monolayer culture system, pushing the boundaries of these method applications in biomedical and translational research of public health importance. Employing this innovative approach enables the development of physiologically pertinent in vitro models for exploring both normal and diseased states of cattle intestinal physiology. The implications for biomedical and agricultural advancements are profound, paving the way for more effective treatments for intestinal ailments in cattle, thereby enhancing both animal welfare and food safety.


Assuntos
Intestino Delgado , Organoides , Animais , Bovinos , Organoides/citologia , Intestino Delgado/citologia , Intestino Grosso , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia
2.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301920, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593129

RESUMO

The use of anthelminthic drugs has several drawbacks, including the selection of resistant parasite strains. Alternative avenues to mitigate the negative effects of helminth infection involve dietary interventions that might affect resistance and/or tolerance by improving host immunity, modulating the microbiota, or exerting direct anthelmintic effects. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of diet on strongyle infection in horses, specifically through immune-mediated, microbiota-mediated, or direct anthelmintic effects. Horses that were naturally infected with strongyles were fed either a high-fiber or high-starch diet, supplemented with either polyphenol-rich pellets (dehydrated sainfoin) or control pellets (sunflower and hay). When horses were fed a high-starch diet, they excreted more strongyle eggs. Adding sainfoin in the high-starch diet reduced egg excretion. Additionally, sainfoin decreased larval motility whatever the diet. Moreover, the high-starch diet led to a lower fecal bacterial diversity, structural differences in fecal microbiota, lower fecal pH, lower blood acetate, and lower hematocrit compared to the high-fiber diet. Circulating levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, lipopolysaccharides, procalcitonin, and white blood cells proportions did not differ between diets. Overall, this study highlights the role of dietary manipulations as an alternative strategy to mitigate the effect of helminth infection and suggests that, in addition to the direct effects, changes in the intestinal ecosystem are the possible underlying mechanism.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Microbiota , Animais , Cavalos , Dieta/veterinária , Intestino Grosso , Fezes/microbiologia , Amido , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia
3.
J Med Case Rep ; 18(1): 86, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is a rare hereditary condition characterized by gastrointestinal polyps and pigmented oral lesions. The case contributes to a deeper understanding of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and underscores the significance of interdisciplinary collaboration for accurate diagnosis and tailored therapeutic strategies. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a case of a 15-year-old Afghan female patient with multiple polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract and mucocutaneous pigmentation. Despite previous medical visits and colonoscopies, her symptoms persisted. A multidisciplinary team discussed the case and recommended further investigations and interventions. A polypectomy was performed, confirming the presence of hamartomatous polyps. The patient was diagnosed with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, but during the course of treatment she went through complications and was managed surgically as well. CONCLUSION: Timely polyp removal and lifelong surveillance are crucial in managing Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Further research and genetic analysis are needed to improve understanding and management of this rare disorder.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers , Pólipos , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers/complicações , Síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers/cirurgia , Estômago , Duodeno , Intestino Grosso
4.
Cell Tissue Res ; 396(2): 245-253, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485763

RESUMO

We previously clarified the histological characteristics of macrophages in the rat small intestine using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM). However, the regional differences in the characteristics of macrophages throughout the large intestine remain unknown. Here, we performed a pilot study to explore the regional differences in the ultrastructure of mucosal macrophages in the large intestine by using SBF-SEM analysis. SBF-SEM analysis conducted on the luminal side of the cecum and descending colon revealed macrophages as amorphous cells possessing abundant lysosomes and vacuoles. Macrophages in the cecum exhibited a higher abundance of lysosomes and a lower abundance of vacuoles than those in the descending colon. Macrophages with many intraepithelial cellular processes were observed beneath the intestinal superficial epithelium in the descending colon. Moreover, macrophages in contact with nerve fibers were more prevalent in the cecum than in the descending colon, and a subset of them surrounded a nerve bundle only in the cecum. In conclusion, the present pilot study suggested that the quantity of some organelles (lysosomes and vacuoles) in macrophages differed between the cecum and the descending colon and that there were some region-specific subsets of macrophages like nerve-associated macrophages in the cecum.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal , Macrófagos , Animais , Macrófagos/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Mucosa Intestinal/ultraestrutura , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Intestino Grosso/ultraestrutura , Intestino Grosso/inervação , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Lisossomos/ultraestrutura , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Ceco/ultraestrutura , Vacúolos/ultraestrutura
5.
Ann Afr Med ; 23(1): 25-28, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358167

RESUMO

Background: Colostomy is one of the common surgical procedures performed in pediatric surgical practice. The aim of this study was to retrospectively review our experience with colostomy and closure (reversal) in children. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of the data of all children aged 15 years and below who had colostomy and colostomy closure in the past 5 years. Results: Of the 67 children who had colostomy 42 (62.7%) boys and 25 (37.3%) girls, with an age range between 13 months and 8 years. Fifty-six (83.6%) of the children were <2 years. Anorectal malformation 53 (79.1%) was the common indication. Divided colostomy was performed in 62 (92.5%) patients and loop colostomy was performed in 5 (7.5%) patients. All the patients had intraperitoneal colostomy closure. A complication rate of 26.4% was seen. Duration of hospital stay ranged between 4 and 10 days. No mortality was recorded. Conclusion: Colostomy reversal is a safe procedure but morbidity may ensure and can easily manage.


Résumé Contexte: La colostomie est l'une des interventions chirurgicales courantes pratiquées en chirurgie pédiatrique. Le but de cette étude était de revoir rétrospectivement notre expérience en matière de colostomie et de fermeture (inversion) chez les enfants. Méthode: Une revue rétrospective des données de tous les enfants âgés de 15 ans et moins ayant subi une colostomie et une fermeture de colostomie au cours des 5 dernières années. Résultats: Sur les 67 enfants ayant subi une colostomie, 42 (62,7 %) garçons et 25 (37,3 %) filles, avec une tranche d'âge comprise entre 13 mois et 8 ans. Cinquante-six (83,6 %) des enfants avaient moins de 2 ans. La malformation ano-rectale 53 (79,1 %) était l'indication fréquente. Une colostomie divisée a été réalisée chez 62 (92,5 %) patients et une colostomie en anse réalisée chez 5 (7,5 %) patients. Tous les patients ont eu une colostomie intrapéritonéale fermée. Un taux de complications de 26,4 % a été observé. La durée du séjour à l'hôpital variait entre 4 et 10 jours. Aucune mortalité enregistrée. Conclusion: l'inversion de la colostomie est une procédure sûre mais la morbidité peut être assurée et peut être facilement gérée.


Assuntos
Malformações Anorretais , Colostomia , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Colostomia/efeitos adversos , Colostomia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Intestino Grosso , Malformações Anorretais/cirurgia , Malformações Anorretais/complicações , Morbidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 325: 117847, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307357

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Maxim. has been used in traditional Russian medicine due to its recognized immunostimulant and anti-inflammatory activities. Compounds present in the fruits have demonstrated the capability to modulate the activity of enzymes such as hyaluronidase, suggesting their potential value in the development of effective therapies for various conditions where anti-inflammatory properties are beneficial, such as gastrointestinal diseases and tumor growth. AIM OF THE STUDY: In order to support the use of the fruits in folk medicine, this study is aimed to evaluate, post-mortem, the impact of E. senticosus fruits intractum (40 % extract made from fresh fruits) on the transepithelial electrogenic transport of sodium ions in the colon. The objective of this study was also to examine the impact of the intractum on proinflammatory serum hyaluronidase in children diagnosed with acute leukemia. METHODS: The study employed the Ussing technique to examine electrophysiological characteristics of isolated epithelial tissue, using the distal colon wall isolated from 10 New Zealand white male rabbits. The effect of the intractum on the inhibition of human serum hyaluronidase was examined with turbidimetric screening methods, using the blood samples collected from patients diagnosed with acute leukemia. RESULTS: For the first time, we discovered that the intractum used in the stimulation fluid, caused hyperpolarization reactions in colon tissue. Statistical analysis showed that these reactions were significantly different in relation to the control. The intractum significantly inhibited hyaluronidase activity with the mean value by group of 60 %, and 40 % for aescin used as a control. CONCLUSION: The results support the traditional use of the fruits in inflammatory-related diseases. The use of intractum of E. senticosus on the distal colon wall demonstrates its protective effect on the wall integrity and in a relation to hyaluronidase inhibition may additionally indicate its anti-inflammatory property. Thus, the results mean that the intractum may be used in colon-related diseases.


Assuntos
Eleutherococcus , Leucemia , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Coelhos , Animais , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Frutas/química , Hialuronoglucosaminidase , Intestino Grosso , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(7): 3596-3605, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38270580

RESUMO

Knowledge about the prebiotic characteristics of cellulose by in vitro fermentation is not complete due to the neglect of small intestinal fermentation. This study investigated the effects of small intestinal fermentation on the prebiotic characteristics of cellulose in the large intestine and potential mechanisms through an approach of combined in vivo small intestinal fermentation and in vitro fermentation. The structural similarity between cellulose in feces and after processing by the approach of this study confirmed the validity of the approach employed. Results showed that small intestinal fermentation of cellulose increased both acetate and propionate content and enriched Corynebacterium selectively. Compared to in vitro fermentation after in vitro digestion of cellulose, the in vitro fermentation of cellulose after in vivo small intestinal fermentation produced higher contents of acetate and propionate as well as the abundance of probiotics like Ruminococcaceae_UCG-002, Blautia, and Bifidobaterium. The changes in the structural features of cellulose after in vivo small intestinal fermentation were more obvious than those after in vitro digestion, which may account for the greater production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and the abundance of probiotics. In summary, small intestinal fermentation enhanced the prebiotic characteristics of cellulose in the large intestine by predisrupting its structure.


Assuntos
Celulose , Prebióticos , Celulose/metabolismo , Prebióticos/análise , Propionatos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Intestino Grosso/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Digestão
8.
J Anim Sci ; 1022024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37991108

RESUMO

The experiment objective was to evaluate the impact of xylanase over time on viscosity and digestibility in growing pigs fed corn-based fiber. Twenty gilts with an initial body weight of 30.6 ±â€…0.2 kg (n = 5 per dietary treatment) were fitted with t-cannulae in the medial jejunum and terminal ileum, housed individually, and randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments: low-fiber control (LF) with 10.4% total dietary fiber (TDF), 30% corn bran high-fiber control (HF; 26.4% TDF), HF + 100 mg xylanase/kg (XY; Econase XT 25P; AB Vista, Marlborough, UK), and HF + 50 mg arabinoxylan-oligosaccharide/kg (AX). Gilts were limit fed for three 17 d periods (P1, P2, P3); each included 5 d adaptation, 2 d fecal collection, 3 d ileal collection, 3 d jejunal collection, and 4 d related rate of passage study. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using a linear mixed model with surgery date as a random effect, and dietary treatment, period, and their interaction as fixed effects. Jejunal and ileal digesta viscosity did not differ among dietary treatments or periods (P > 0.10). There was a dietary treatment × period interaction for the apparent jejunal digestibility (AJD) of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), total arabinoxylan (T-AX), total non-starch polysaccharide (T-NSP), and TDF (P≤ 0.05). In P1, LF had the greatest AJD of DM (15.5%), and relative to HF and AX, XY decreased it (9.3%, 10.1 %, and 6.3%, respectively). In P2, the AJD of DM in XY was greater than HF (11.7% vs. 9.1%) but did not differ from AX (10.5%). Relative to HF, in P3, XY increased AJD of DM (11.7 vs 15.3%), and AX decreased it (7.2%). For the AJD of NDF, AX performed intermediately in P1; in P2, relative to HF, XY, and AX increased the AJD of NDF (8.4%, 13.1%, and 11.7%, respectively), and in P3, XY, and LF did not differ (13.6 vs. 14.4%). A similar response was observed for the AJD of IDF and TDF, except for XY having the greatest AJD of IDF, T-AX, T-NSP, and TDF in P3 (P < 0.05). Compared to LF, irrespective of period, HF decreased the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of IDF, TDF, and NDF (P < 0.05). Relative to HF, XY partially mitigated this effect, improving the AID and ATTD of TDF, IDF, and NDF (P < 0.05). Increased corn-based fiber decreased nutrient digestibility, but XY partially mitigated that effect in the small intestine through enhanced fiber digestibility when given sufficient adaptation time.


This study investigated the effects of xylanase and arabinoxylan-oligosaccharide supplementation on viscosity, nutrient and energy digestibility in growing pigs fed a high-fiber diet mainly composed of corn over three time periods. Twenty pigs were surgically fitted with cannula in their jejunum and ileum for sample collection. The pigs were randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatment groups: low-fiber control, high-fiber control, xylanase supplementation, and arabinoxylan-oligosaccharide supplementation. The results showed no significant differences in digesta viscosity among dietary treatments. However, there was an interaction between dietary treatment and time for the digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, and dietary fibers. Initially, xylanase did not impact digestibility, but it improved over time. Conversely, arabinoxylan-oligosaccharide initially improved digestibility but declined by the third period. Findings suggest that the efficacy of xylanase in enhancing nutrient and energy digestibility in pigs fed high-fiber diets may depend on the length of the adaptation period. Xylanase supplementation also demonstrated the potential to counteract the negative effects of high-fiber diets. Further research is needed to optimize the application of xylanase in swine production and determine the optimal conditions for its effectiveness.


Assuntos
Digestão , Nutrientes , Xilanos , Suínos , Animais , Feminino , Digestão/fisiologia , Viscosidade , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Sus scrofa , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Íleo/fisiologia , Intestino Grosso , Oligossacarídeos , Zea mays , Ração Animal/análise
9.
Infect Immun ; 92(1): e0042123, 2024 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38047677

RESUMO

Following an oral inoculation, Chlamydia muridarum descends to the mouse large intestine for long-lasting colonization. However, a mutant C. muridarum that lacks the plasmid-encoded protein pGP3 due to an engineered premature stop codon (designated as CMpGP3S) failed to do so even following an intrajejunal inoculation. This was because a CD4+ T cell-dependent immunity prevented the spread of CMpGP3S from the small intestine to the large intestine. In the current study, we found that mice deficient in IL-22 (IL-22-/-) allowed CMpGP3S to spread from the small intestine to the large intestine on day 3 after intrajejunal inoculation, indicating a critical role of IL-22 in regulating the chlamydial spread. The responsible IL-22 is produced by CD4+ T cells since IL-22-/- mice were rescued to block the CMpGP3S spread by donor CD4+ T cells from C57BL/6J mice. Consistently, CD4+ T cells lacking IL-22 failed to block the spread of CMpGP3S in Rag2-/- mice, while IL-22-competent CD4+ T cells did block. Furthermore, mice deficient in cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) permitted the CMpGP3S spread, but donor CD4+ T cells from CRAMP-/- mice were still sufficient for preventing the CMpGP3S spread in Rag2-/- mice, indicating a critical role of CRAMP in regulating chlamydial spreading, and the responsible CRAMP is not produced by CD4+ T cells. Thus, the IL-22-producing CD4+ T cell-dependent regulation of chlamydial spreading correlated with CRAMP produced by non-CD4+ T cells. These findings provide a platform for further characterizing the subset(s) of CD4+ T cells responsible for regulating bacterial spreading in the intestine.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Chlamydia muridarum , Interleucina 22 , Linfócitos T , Animais , Camundongos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia muridarum/fisiologia , Interleucina 22/imunologia , Intestino Grosso , Intestino Delgado , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Linfócitos T/imunologia
11.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 17(1): 75-79, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38038857

RESUMO

The incidence and mortality rate of pancreatic cancer are increasing worldwide. Regional lymph nodes, liver, lung, and peritoneum are common sites of metastasis from pancreatic cancer, but the gastrointestinal tract is rare as a metastatic organ from pancreatic cancer. An 80-year-old man was referred to our department for a hypovascular pancreatic mass on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT). Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration revealed adenocarcinoma, and he was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. No lymph nodes or distant metastases were detected by either CECT or gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and we evaluated this case as borderline resectable. However, total colonoscopy for positive fecal occult blood tests revealed a reddish and hemorrhagic mucosal thickening in the ascending and sigmoid colon and rectum, which was inconsistent with primary colorectal cancer. Biopsy specimens from these sites revealed cytokeratin (CK)7-positive and CK20- and CDX2-negative adenocarcinoma, consistent with cancer of pancreatic origin. The patient underwent palliative chemotherapy with gemcitabine but died from COVID-19 infection eight months after diagnosis. Performing total colonoscopy as a preoperative screening is important for accurate cancer staging of patients with possible resectable pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico , Linfonodos/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Intestino Grosso/patologia
12.
Acta Parasitol ; 69(1): 396-408, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38153633

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cosmocercids are common nematodes that parasitize the digestive tract and lungs of amphibians and reptiles around the world. They are commonly found in leptodactylid and bufonid anurans in South America, primarily in Brazil and Argentina. This paper describes a new species of genus Cosmocerca based on specimens collected in a microhylid from the Dry Chaco ecoregion. METHODS: A total of 18 specimens of Elachistocleis haroi were collected in October 2011 in Chaco province and in December 2021 and March 2022 in Formosa province, Argentina, both areas of the Dry Chaco ecoregion. The morphology of the nematodes was studied in detail using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-one nematodes were collected from the large intestines of E. haroi. Based on the morphology of the caudal papillae (rosette papillae and plectanes), the presence of two spicules and the absence of caudal alae in males, and the presence of two prodelphic ovaries in females, these specimens were allocated to the genus Cosmocerca. However, they presented unique characteristics that differentiate them from all known species. Cosmocerca wichiorum sp. nov. is similar to C. archeyi, C. australis, C. sardiniae, C. zugi, and C. leytensis by having four pairs of plectanes, but can be easily distinguished from all of them by the type, number, and arrangement of the precloacal (non-plectanes), adcloacal and postcloacal papillae, by the length of the spicules and by its different zoogeographical distribution. CONCLUSION: This is the 14th species of the genus Cosmocerca described in South America and the first one for the microhylid E. haroi from the Dry Chaco ecoregion.


Assuntos
Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Argentina , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Anuros/parasitologia , Anfíbios/parasitologia , Intestino Grosso/parasitologia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(23)2023 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38069066

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the effects of Zn sources, used with potato fiber (PF) or lignocellulose (LC), on electrolyte concentration and the mucus layer in the large intestine of pigs. The experiment involved 24 barrows with an initial body weight of 10.8 ± 0.82 kg, divided into four groups fed the following diets: LC and ZnSO4, LC and Zn glycinate (ZnGly), PF and ZnSO4, or PF and ZnGly. Fiber supplements provided 10 g crude fiber/kg diet, while Zn additives introduced 120 mg Zn/kg diet. After four weeks of feeding, the pigs were sacrificed and digesta and tissue samples were taken from the cecum and colon. PF increased the water content and decreased the phosphorus concentration in the large intestine in comparison with LC. PF also increased calcium, iron, and chloride concentrations in the descending colon. Mucus layer thickness and histological parameters of the large intestine were not affected. ZnGly diets increased MUC12 expression in the cecum as compared to the LC-ZnSO4 group. In the ascending colon, the PF-ZnGly diet increased MUC5AC expression, while both PF groups had greater MUC20 expression in comparison with the LC-ZnSO4 group. In the transverse colon, the LC-ZnGly group and both PF groups had higher MUC5AC expression in comparison with the LC-ZnSO4 group, and both ZnGly groups had higher MUC20 expression than ZnSO4 groups. PF and ZnGly increased MUC4 and MUC5AC expression in the descending colon. PF and ZnGly may exert a beneficial effect on colon health in pigs by upregulating the expression of the MUC5AC and MUC20 genes and are more effective than LC and ZnSO4.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Zinco , Zinco , Suínos , Animais , Zinco/metabolismo , Sulfato de Zinco/farmacologia , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta , Intestino Grosso/metabolismo , Eletrólitos , Mucosa/metabolismo , Ração Animal
17.
Radiologie (Heidelb) ; 63(Suppl 2): 27-33, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37603068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) is routinely used in abdominal imaging. In addition to neoplastic diseases, inflammatory changes can be delineated and diagnosed based on diffusion restriction in DWI. DWI is also increasingly used in the context of MRI of the small and large intestine. OBJECTIVE: This article focuses on the technical aspects of DWI and its role in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease (CD) as well as in the grading of disease severity and in treatment monitoring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Guidelines, basic research papers, and review articles were analyzed. RESULTS: Diffusion-weighted MRI is a specialized MRI technique that visualizes the diffusion of water molecules in biological tissues. In the context of MRI of the small and large intestine, DWI facilitates the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease and assessment of treatment response. DWI enables detection of not only intra- and transmural changes, but also extramural pathologies and complications. However, DWI also has its limitations and challenges. CONCLUSION: This article provides a comprehensive overview of the use of DWI for diagnostic evaluation of bowel wall changes and extramural complications in the setting of CD. It also summarizes the relevant evidence available in the literature.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Humanos , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Intestinos/patologia , Intestino Grosso/patologia
18.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 39(1): 247, 2023 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37584865

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Urological management of Cloacal Malformation (CM) focuses on preserving renal function and continence. Study aim was to analyze urinary and intestinal outcomes in CM patients, considering the length of common channel (CC) and presence of occult spinal dysraphism (OSD). METHODS: Retrospective review of CM treated at our institution by a multidisciplinary team from 1999 to 2020. Patients with follow-up < 2.5 years were excluded. Length of CC, renal function, urinary and bowel outcomes, presence of associated anomalies (especially OSD) were evaluated. RESULTS: Twenty patients were included, median age at follow-up: 8 years (4-15). A long CC > 3 cm was described in 11 (55%). Chronic kidney disease was found in 3 patients. Urinary continence was achieved in 8/20 patients, dryness (with intermittent catheterization) in 9/20. Fecal continence was obtained in 3/20, cleanliness in 14 (under bowel regimen). OSD was present in 10 patients (higher prevalence in long-CC, 73%). Among OSD, 1 patient reached fecal continence, 7 were clean; 2 achieved urinary continence, while 6 were dry. CONCLUSIONS: Length of CC and OSD may affect urinary and fecal continence. An early counseling can improve outcome at long-term follow-up. Multidisciplinary management with patient centralization in high grade institutions is recommended to achieve better results.


Assuntos
Defeitos do Tubo Neural , Incontinência Urinária , Humanos , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Cloaca/anormalidades , Intestino Grosso , Urodinâmica , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Animal Model Exp Med ; 6(4): 375-380, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37534602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to develop a combined model to quantify the net absorption of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the large intestine (LI) of pigs. METHODS: Fifteen female growing pigs (Duroc × Large White × Landrace) were ranked by body weight (30 ± 2.1 kg) on day 0 and assigned to one of three treatments, namely the basal diet containing different crude fiber (CF) levels (LCF: 3.0% CF, MCF: 4.5% CF, and HCF: 6.0% CF). The pigs were implanted with the terminal ileum fistula and the cannulation of the ileal mesenteric vein (IMV), portal vein (PV), and left femoral artery (LFA) from days 6 to 7. [13 C]-Labeled VFA and P-aminohippuric acid were constantly perfused into the terminal ileum fistula and the cannulation of the IMV (day 15), respectively. Blood samples were collected from the PV and the LFA during perfusion (5 h), and LI samples were collected. RESULTS: The net flux of [12 C]-acetic acid in the PV was greater for LCF versus MCF (p = 0.045), but no difference was observed in the net flux of [12 C]-propionic acid (p = 0.505) and [12 C]-butyric acid (p = 0.35) in the PV among treatments. The deposition of [12 C]-acetic acid in the LI was greater for LCF versus MCF (p = 0.014), whereas the deposition of [12 C]-propionic acid (p = 0.007) and [12 C]-butyric acid (p = 0.037) in the LI was greater for LCF versus HCF. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this pig model was found conducive to study the net absorption of VFAs in the LI, and LCF had more net absorption of VFAs in the LI than MCF and HCF.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Propionatos , Feminino , Suínos , Animais , Acetatos , Butiratos , Intestino Grosso
20.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 261(10): 1531-1538, 2023 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37451675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical, laboratory, and ultrasonographic findings; treatment; and outcome of cattle with mesenteric torsion (MT). ANIMALS: 61 cattle with MT between November 1, 1986, and December 31, 2019. METHODS: Medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Results were compared for cattle that survived versus did not survive to hospital discharge. RESULTS: All cattle had abnormal demeanor. The most common clinical signs were tachycardia (80.3% [49/61]), tachypnea (65.0% [39/60]), and lower rectal temperature (59.3% [35/59]). Signs of colic occurred in 65.6% (40/61). The most common gastrointestinal findings were an empty or almost empty rectum (100% [59/59]), reduced or absent motility of the small intestines (96.6% [57/59]) or rumen (93.2% [55/59]), positive ballottement and/or percussion and simultaneous auscultation on the right side (91.7% [55/60]), and dilated small (49.2% [29/59]) and large intestines (spiral colon and/or cecum, 44.1% [26/59]) detected during transrectal examination. The most common laboratory findings were acidosis (82.6%, [38/46]) hypermagnesemia (74.5% [35/47]). Ultrasonographic findings included reduced or absent small intestinal motility (86.7% [26/30]) and dilated small intestines (83.8% [31/37]). The spiral colon was dilated in 32.4% (12/37) of the cattle. Eighty-two percent (50/61) of the cattle underwent right flank laparotomy and the MT could be reduced in 34.4% (21/61). Twenty-three percent (14/61) of the cattle survived to hospital discharge, and 77.0% (47/61) were euthanized before hospital discharge. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Dilated small and large intestines (spiral colon, cecum) combined with a severely abnormal demeanor and tachycardia are characteristic findings in cows with MT. Immediate surgical treatment is paramount.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Intestino Grosso , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Intestino Delgado/cirurgia , Ceco , Colo , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/cirurgia
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