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1.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 299, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infected animals show a variety of granulomatous lesions, from focal forms with well-demarcated granulomas restricted to the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), that are seen in the initial phases or latency stages, to a diffuse granulomatous enteritis, with abundant (multibacillary) or scant (paucibacillary) bacteria, seen in clinical stages. Factors that determine the response to the infection, responsible for the occurrence of the different types of lesion, are still not fully determined. It has been seen that regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in various diseases where they act on the limitation of the immunopathology associated with the immune response. In the case of paratuberculosis (PTB) the role of Treg lymphocytes in the immunity against Map is far away to be completely understood; therefore, several studies addressing this subject have appeared recently. The aim of this work was to assess, by immunohistochemical methods, the presence of Foxp3+ T lymphocytes in intestinal samples with different types of lesions seen in cows with PTB. METHODS: Intestinal samples of twenty cows showing the different pathological forms of PTB were evaluated: uninfected controls (n = 5), focal lesions (n = 5), diffuse paucibacillary (n = 5) and diffuse multibacillary (n = 5) forms. Foxp3+ lymphocyte distribution was assessed by differential cell count in intestinal lamina propria (LP), gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and mesenteric lymph node (MLN). RESULTS: A significant increase in the number of Foxp3+ T cells was observed in infected animals with respect to control group, regardless of the type of lesion. However, when the different categories of lesion were analyzed independently, all individuals with PTB lesions showed an increase in the amount of Foxp3+ T lymphocytes compared to the control group but this increase was only significant in cows with focal lesions and, to a lesser extent, in animals with diffuse paucibacillary forms. The former showed the highest numbers, significantly different from those found in cows with diffuse lesions, where no differences were noted between the two forms. No specific distribution pattern was observed within the granulomatous lesions in any of the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The increase of Foxp3+ T cells in focal forms, that have been associated with latency or resistance to infection, suggest an anti-inflammatory action of these cells at these stages, helping to prevent exacerbation of the inflammatory response, as occurs in diffuse forms, responsible for the appearance of clinical signs.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Granuloma , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis , Paratuberculose , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Feminino , Granuloma/microbiologia , Granuloma/veterinária , Intestinos/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 913024, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35928824

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of protein hydrolysates on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, protein metabolism, and intestinal health in larval largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The experimental feeding trial presented in this study was based on five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets formulated with graded inclusion levels of protein hydrolysates, and it showed that protein hydrolysates improved growth performance, reduced larval deformity rate, and increased the activity of digestive enzymes, including pepsin and trypsin. Gene expression results revealed that the supplementation of protein hydrolysates upregulated the expression of intestinal amino acid transporters LAT2 and peptide transporter 2 (PepT2), as well as the amino acid transporters LAT1 in muscle. Dietary provision of protein hydrolysates activated the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway including the up-regulation of TOR and AKT1, and down-regulation of 4EBP1. Additionally, the expression of genes involved in the amino acids response (AAR) pathway, ATF4 and REDD1, were inhibited. Protein hydrolysates inhibited the transcription of some pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-8 and 5-LOX, but promoted the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines TGF-ß and IL-10. The 16S rRNA analysis, using V3-V4 region, indicated that dietary protein hydrolysates supplementation reduced the diversity of the intestine microbial community, increased the enrichment of Plesiomonas and reduced the enrichment of Staphylococcus at the genus level. In summary, protein hydrolysates have been shown to be an active and useful supplement to positively complement other protein sources in the diets for largemouth bass larvae, and this study provided novel insights on the beneficial roles and possible mechanisms of action of dietary protein hydrolysates in improving the overall performance of fish larvae.


Assuntos
Bass , Ração Animal , Animais , Bass/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos , Larva , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S
3.
J Vis Exp ; (185)2022 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35938841

RESUMO

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a model system for host-microbe and host-microbiome interactions. Many studies to date use batch digests rather than individual worm samples to quantify bacterial load in this organism. Here it is argued that the large inter-individual variability seen in bacterial colonization of the C. elegans intestine is informative, and that batch digest methods discard information that is important for accurate comparison across conditions. As describing the variation inherent to these samples requires large numbers of individuals, a convenient 96-well plate protocol for disruption and colony plating of individual worms is established.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias , Caenorhabditis elegans/microbiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Modelos Biológicos
4.
J Exp Med ; 219(9)2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35938990

RESUMO

Enteric helminths form intimate physical connections with the intestinal epithelium, yet their ability to directly alter epithelial stem cell fate has not been resolved. Here we demonstrate that infection of mice with the parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb) reprograms the intestinal epithelium into a fetal-like state marked by the emergence of Clusterin-expressing revival stem cells (revSCs). Organoid-based studies using parasite-derived excretory-secretory products reveal that Hpb-mediated revSC generation occurs independently of host-derived immune signals and inhibits type 2 cytokine-driven differentiation of secretory epithelial lineages that promote their expulsion. Reciprocally, type 2 cytokine signals limit revSC differentiation and, consequently, Hpb fitness, indicating that helminths compete with their host for control of the intestinal stem cell compartment to promote continuation of their life cycle.


Assuntos
Nematospiroides dubius , Infecções por Strongylida , Animais , Citocinas , Mucosa Intestinal , Intestinos , Camundongos , Células-Tronco
6.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0270749, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939430

RESUMO

Several studies in animal models of intestinal inflammation have been performed with the aim of understanding the mechanisms of action of anti-inflammatory proteins and peptides that reduce TNF-α. In order to present the best targets, effects and strategies for the treatment of intestinal inflammation in experimental models, this systematic review (SR) aimed to answer the following question: what are the mechanisms of action of molecules with anti-TNF-α activity on the intestinal barrier? The SR protocol was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO, number CRD42019131862) and guided by the methodological procedures used for the elaboration of the SR. Articles that were part of the SR were selected considering the eligibility criteria according to the PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison/Control and Outcomes) and were searched in the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE) and ScienceDirect databases. Twenty-five articles reporting studies in rats and mice were selected and the risk of bias was assessed using the tool from the SYstematic Review Center for Laboratory Animal Experimentation (SYRCLE). A descriptive synthesis of the results obtained was carried out. Based on the results, the anti-inflammatory molecules that reduced TNF-α acted mainly on the TNF-TNFR1/TNFR2 and TLR4/MD2 complex signaling pathways, and consequently on the NF-κB pathway. This improved the aspects of the inflammatory diseases studied. In addition, these mechanisms also improved the macroscopic, histological and permeability aspects in the intestine of the animals. These findings point to the potential of protein and peptide molecules that act on inflammatory pathways for medical applications with specific and promising strategic targets, aiming to improve inflammatory diseases that affect the intestine. This systematic review also highlights the need for more details during the methodological description of preclinical studies, since this was a limitation found.


Assuntos
Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Intestinos , Camundongos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
7.
J Immunol Res ; 2022: 9165651, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35910855

RESUMO

Objective: Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a serious congenital intestinal disease with a prevalence of 1/5000. HSCR remains one of the most severe congenital malformations of the abdominal organs in children that require complex reconstructive surgery. This study is aimed at investigating the clinical analysis of ileal Santulli stoma and ileal double-lumen stoma in children diagnosed with intestinal neuronal dysplasia (IND). Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed on the children who were admitted to our hospital for intestinal obstruction from January 2014 to January 2019, underwent fistula operation and fistula closure operation, and were diagnosed with IND. According to the different modes of fistula, the children were divided into ileal Santulli stoma group and ileal double-lumen stoma group. The body weight of the children in the two groups during the second stage of fistula closure operation was compared. The number of hospitalizations due to enteritis and dehydration during the two operations was compared. Results: A total of 23 cases (12 males and 11 females) were included in this study, including 10 cases in the Santulli group and 13 cases in the ileal double-lumen stoma group. There were no significant differences in baseline data and fistula location between the two groups. Compared with the ileal double-lumen stoma group, the Santulli stoma group had significantly higher weight of fistula precursor (P < 0.05), the interval between two operations was shorter (P < 0.05), there is less hospitalization for enteritis and dehydration during the two operations (P < 0.05), and there is less economic cost after fistula (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The clinical effect of ileum Santulli fistula is significantly better than double-lumen ileum fistula, which is not only beneficial to the growth and development of children after the first fistula but also can shorten the time of fistula closure, reduce the incidence of dehydration, and reduce the economic burden of family members. Therefore, it is worthy of clinical promotion and application.


Assuntos
Enterite , Estomas Cirúrgicos , Criança , Desidratação , Feminino , Humanos , Intestinos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 898039, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35911682

RESUMO

The NLRP3 inflammasome plays an important role in intestinal homeostasis as well as inflammation. However, in vivo studies investigating the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) report contrasting results, leaving it unclear if the NLRP3 inflammasome augments or attenuates intestinal inflammation. To investigate the role of the NLRP3/caspase-1 pathway in a model of acute intestinal inflammation, we modified a previously established in vitro triple culture model of the healthy and inflamed intestine (Caco-2/HT29-MTX-E12/THP-1). Using THP-1 knockout cell lines, we analyzed how the NLRP3 inflammasome and its downstream enzyme caspase-1 (CASP1) affect inflammatory parameters including barrier integrity and cytotoxicity, as well as gene expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mucus. Furthermore, we investigated differences in inflammation-mediated cytotoxicity towards enterocyte-like (Caco-2) or goblet-like (HT29-MTX-E12) epithelial cells. As a complementary approach, inflammation-related cytotoxicity and gene expression of cytokines was analyzed in intestinal tissue explants from wildtype (WT) and Nlrp3-/- mice. Induction of intestinal inflammation impaired the barrier, caused cytotoxicity, and altered gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mucins in vitro, while the knockout of NLRP3 and CASP1 in THP 1 cells led to attenuation of these inflammatory parameters. The knockout of CASP1 tended to show a slightly stronger attenuating effect compared to the NLRP3 knockout model. We also found that the inflammation-mediated death of goblet-like cells is NLRP3/caspase-1 dependent. Furthermore, inflammation-related cytotoxicity and upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines was present in ileal tissue explants from WT, but not Nlrp3-/- mice. The here presented observations indicate a pro-inflammatory and adverse role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages during acute intestinal inflammation.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Caspase 1/genética , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Intestinos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Células THP-1
9.
Cell Stem Cell ; 29(8): 1213-1228.e8, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931031

RESUMO

Intestinal homeostasis is underpinned by LGR5+ve crypt-base columnar stem cells (CBCs), but following injury, dedifferentiation results in the emergence of LGR5-ve regenerative stem cell populations (RSCs), characterized by fetal transcriptional profiles. Neoplasia hijacks regenerative signaling, so we assessed the distribution of CBCs and RSCs in mouse and human intestinal tumors. Using combined molecular-morphological analysis, we demonstrate variable expression of stem cell markers across a range of lesions. The degree of CBC-RSC admixture was associated with both epithelial mutation and microenvironmental signaling disruption and could be mapped across disease molecular subtypes. The CBC-RSC equilibrium was adaptive, with a dynamic response to acute selective pressure, and adaptability was associated with chemoresistance. We propose a fitness landscape model where individual tumors have equilibrated stem cell population distributions along a CBC-RSC phenotypic axis. Cellular plasticity is represented by position shift along this axis and is influenced by cell-intrinsic, extrinsic, and therapeutic selective pressures.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Mucosa Intestinal , Animais , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo
10.
Cell Stem Cell ; 29(8): 1246-1261.e6, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931033

RESUMO

Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells (ISCs) depend on niche factors for their proper function. However, the source of these ISC niche factors and how they support ISCs in vivo remain controversial. Here, we report that ISCs depend on lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and RSPO3+GREM1+ fibroblasts (RGFs). In the intestine and colon, LECs are surrounded by RGFs and are located near ISCs at the crypt base. Both LECs and RGFs provide the critical ISC niche factor RSPO3 to support ISCs, where RSPO3 loss in both cell types drastically compromises ISC numbers, villi length, and repair after injury. In response to injury, LEC and RGF numbers expand and produce greater amounts of RSPO3 and other growth/angiocrine factors to foster intestinal repair. We propose that LECs represent a novel niche component for ISCs, which together with RGFs serve as the major in vivo RSPO3 source for ISCs in homeostasis and injury-mediated regeneration.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais , Células-Tronco , Fibroblastos , Homeostase , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
11.
Cell Stem Cell ; 29(8): 1262-1272.e5, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931034

RESUMO

The intestinal epithelium undergoes continuous renewal and has an exceptional capacity to regenerate after injury. Maintenance and proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are regulated by their surrounding niche, largely through Wnt signaling. However, it remains unclear which niche cells produce signals during different injury states, and the role of endothelial cells (ECs) as a component of the ISC niche during homeostasis and after injury has been underappreciated. Here, we show that lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) reside in proximity to crypt epithelial cells and secrete molecules that support epithelial renewal and repair. LECs are an essential source of Wnt signaling in the small intestine, as loss of LEC-derived Rspo3 leads to a lower number of stem and progenitor cells and hinders recovery after cytotoxic injury. Together, our findings identify LECs as an essential niche component for optimal intestinal recovery after cytotoxic injury.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais , Intestinos , Proliferação de Células , Células Epiteliais , Mucosa Intestinal , Células-Tronco
12.
Orv Hetil ; 163(32): 1261-1267, 2022 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933621

RESUMO

Obesity is a combination of genetic, environmental factors, and systemic inflammation of adipose tissue. In the last decade, more and more evidence suggests that intestinal microbiota is an environmental factor that plays a crucial role in obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Here, we review the association between intestinal microbiota and obesity based on the literature data available to us. The intestinal flora, in the equilibrium state of conventional bacteria, protects the health of the host and helps the development of the immune system. The genome, diet, lifestyle, and epigenetic changes of the host can pathologically alter the composition of the microbiota. In dysbiosis, the development of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) associated with the intestinal tract is impaired and the integrity of the intestinal barrier is impaired. Due to the consequent intestinal hyperpermeability, components of pathogenic pathogens such as lipopolysaccharides enter the bloodstream. These components bind to receptors on adipose tissue immune cells as ligands for molecular samples with pathogenic properties and induce adipose tissue dysfunction. The secretion of inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue is increased. This induces persistent low chronic inflammation, which is responsible for the development of obesity. The damage to health caused by the hyperpermeability of the intestinal barrier can be reduced by interventions, or restored early in the process. Knowing the relationships will help prevent and treat obesity. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(32): 1261-1267.


Assuntos
Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Disbiose/complicações , Disbiose/metabolismo , Disbiose/microbiologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Intestinos/microbiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo
13.
Contrast Media Mol Imaging ; 2022: 1980371, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35935303

RESUMO

We aimed to analyze the computed tomography (CT) imaging signs of bowel wall ischemia in patients with acute intestinal obstruction and construct an imaging prediction model to guide clinical treatment. The CT imaging signs of patients with acute intestinal obstruction diagnosed in our center in recent 6 years were collected for retrospective analysis. The etiology of intestinal obstruction and incidence rate of bowel wall ischemia were recorded, and the specific CT findings of bowel wall ischemia, including mesenteric edema, bowel wall thickening, and fish tooth sign, were analyzed. Among the 302 patients selected, 130 surgically treated patients were eligible for analysis. Bowel wall ischemia in acute intestinal obstruction showed an incidence rate of 14.90%, and the incidence rates of bowel wall ischemia in intra-abdominal hernia, intussusception, incarcerated external abdominal hernia, and volvulus were about 92.30%, 50%, 35.71%, 33.33%, and 12.59%, respectively. The incidence rate of bowel wall ischemia in simple adhesive intestinal obstruction was about 12.59%, and that in malignancy-induced intestinal obstruction was about 6.56%. Univariate analysis revealed 5 factors with statistical significance, including bowel wall thickening, mesenteric edema, bowel wall pneumatosis, ascites, and fish tooth sign. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that fish tooth sign, bowel wall thickening, and mesenteric edema were able to predict bowel wall ischemia, and the corresponding partial regression coefficients were 2.164, 1.129, and 1.173, odds ratios (ORs) were 8.707, 3.093, and 3.232, sensitivity was 0.356, 0.400, and 0.844, and specificity was 0.859, 0.835, and 0.529, respectively. Imaging signs of bowel wall thickening, mesenteric edema, and fish tooth sign are valuable in predicting bowel wall ischemia, among which bowel wall thickening and mesenteric edema have relatively high specificity and fish tooth sign has a relatively high sensitivity. Furthermore, a fish tooth sign has the most favorable predictive value for bowel wall ischemia in acute intestinal obstruction, followed by bowel wall thickening and mesenteric edema.


Assuntos
Obstrução Intestinal , Doença Aguda , Humanos , Obstrução Intestinal/complicações , Obstrução Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Obstrução Intestinal/cirurgia , Intestinos/cirurgia , Isquemia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
14.
Science ; 377(6606): 660-666, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926021

RESUMO

The microbiome contributes to the development and maturation of the immune system. In response to commensal bacteria, intestinal CD4+ T lymphocytes differentiate into functional subtypes with regulatory or effector functions. The development of small intestine intraepithelial lymphocytes that coexpress CD4 and CD8αα homodimers (CD4IELs) depends on the microbiota. However, the identity of the microbial antigens recognized by CD4+ T cells that can differentiate into CD4IELs remains unknown. We identified ß-hexosaminidase, a conserved enzyme across commensals of the Bacteroidetes phylum, as a driver of CD4IEL differentiation. In a mouse model of colitis, ß-hexosaminidase-specific lymphocytes protected against intestinal inflammation. Thus, T cells of a single specificity can recognize a variety of abundant commensals and elicit a regulatory immune response at the intestinal mucosa.


Assuntos
Bacteroidetes , Intestinos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antígenos CD8 , Mucosa Intestinal , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , beta-N-Acetil-Hexosaminidases
15.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4492, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918345

RESUMO

The small intestine is a rapidly proliferating organ that is maintained by a small population of Lgr5-expressing intestinal stem cells (ISCs). However, several Lgr5-negative ISC populations have been identified, and this remarkable plasticity allows the intestine to rapidly respond to both the local environment and to damage. However, the mediators of such plasticity are still largely unknown. Using intestinal organoids and mouse models, we show that upon ribosome impairment (driven by Rptor deletion, amino acid starvation, or low dose cyclohexamide treatment) ISCs gain an Lgr5-negative, fetal-like identity. This is accompanied by a rewiring of metabolism. Our findings suggest that the ribosome can act as a sensor of nutrient availability, allowing ISCs to respond to the local nutrient environment. Mechanistically, we show that this phenotype requires the activation of ZAKɑ, which in turn activates YAP, via SRC. Together, our data reveals a central role for ribosome dynamics in intestinal stem cells, and identify the activation of ZAKɑ as a critical mediator of stem cell identity.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal , Células-Tronco , Animais , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Intestinos , Camundongos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 903526, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35784338

RESUMO

Endogenous indole and its derivatives (indoles), considered as promising N-substituted heterocyclic compounds, are tryptophan metabolites derived from intestinal microbiota and exhibit a range of biological activities. Recent studies indicate that indoles contribute to maintaining the biological barrier of the human intestine, which exert the anti-inflammatory activities mainly through activating AhR and PXR receptors to affect the immune system's function, significantly improving intestinal health (inflammatory bowel disease, hemorrhagic colitis, colorectal cancer) and further promote human health (diabetes mellitus, central system inflammation, and vascular regulation). However, the revealed toxic influences cannot be ignored. Indoxyl sulfate, an indole derivative, performs nephrotoxicity and cardiovascular toxicity. We addressed the interaction between indoles and intestinal microbiota and the indoles' effects on human health as double-edged swords. This review provides scientific bases for the correlation of indoles with diseases moreover highlights several directions for subsequent indoles-related studies.


Assuntos
Colite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Indóis/farmacologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Intestinos
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11810, 2022 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35821501

RESUMO

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) compromises fetal development, leading to low birth weight, and predisposes to gastrointestinal disorders. Pigs that suffered IUGR present poor postnatal development, resulting in great economic losses to the industry. The small intestine may be involved with impaired development, but studies investigating this issue are still limited. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate small intestine morphofunctional alterations in IUGR pigs throughout the production phases (birth to 150 days). IUGR pigs presented lower body weight from birth to the finishing phase (P < 0.05). Although histomorphometrical parameters were not affected during the pre-weaning period, their commitment was observed specifically in the duodenum of the IUGR group at older ages (P < 0.05). The most detrimental effects on the small intestine, such as deeper duodenum crypts' depth, lower villus height:crypt depth ratio and absorptive area, increased apoptosis and lower proliferation of the duodenum epithelium were noticed at 70 days of age (P < 0.05). Additionally, IUGR pigs presented the lowest chymotrypsin and amylase activities at 70 and 150 days of age, respectively (P < 0.05). These findings may contribute to the elucidation of morphofunctional disorders of the small intestine in IUGR pigs throughout the different production phases, suggesting that poor postnatal development may be due to intestinal damage.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Intestinos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal , Parto , Gravidez , Suínos , Desmame
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35806483

RESUMO

Foods are known to be modulators of inflammation and skeletal development. The intestine plays an essential role in the regulation of bone health mainly through the regulation of the absorption of vitamin D and calcium; in fact, inflammatory bowel diseases are often related to bone health issues such as low bone mineral density, high fracture risk, osteoporosis and osteopenia. Considering the complexity of the pathways involved, the use of a simple animal model can be highly useful to better elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms. Soybean flour with a high saponin content has been used in many studies to induce intestinal inflammation in zebrafish larvae. Using a 50% soybean meal (SBM), we analyzed the effects of this soy-induced inflammatory bowel disease on zebrafish larval osteogenesis. Soybean meal induces intestinal functional alterations and an inflammatory state, highlighted by neutral red staining, without altering the general development of the larvae. Our data show that the chondrogenesis as well as endochondral ossification of the head of zebrafish larvae are not affected by an SBM-diet, whereas intramembranous ossification was delayed both in the head, where the length of the ethmoid plate reduced by 17%, and in the trunk with a delayed vertebral mineralization of 47% of SBM larvae. These data highlight that diet-dependent bowel inflammation can differently modulate the different mechanisms of bone development in different zones of the skeleton of zebrafish larvae.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Soja , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Inflamação , Intestinos , Larva/fisiologia , Osteogênese , Peixe-Zebra
19.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807248

RESUMO

Hyperglycemia is reported to be associated with oxidative stress. It can result in changes in the activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes and membrane-integrated transporters, which can modify the fate of drugs and other xenobiotics; furthermore, it can result in the formation of non-enzyme catalyzed oxidative metabolites. The present work aimed to investigate how experimental hyperglycemia affects the intestinal and biliary appearance of the oxidative and Phase II metabolites of ibuprofen in rats. In vivo studies were performed by luminal perfusion of 250 µM racemic ibuprofen solution in control and streptozotocin-treated (hyperglycemic) rats. Analysis of the collected intestinal perfusate and bile samples was performed by HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS. No oxidative metabolites could be detected in the perfusate samples. The biliary appearance of ibuprofen, 2-hydroxyibuprofen, ibuprofen glucuronide, hydroxylated ibuprofen glucuronide, and ibuprofen taurate was depressed in the hyperglycemic animals. However, no specific non-enzymatic (hydroxyl radical initiated) hydroxylation product could be detected. Instead, the depression of biliary excretion of ibuprofen and ibuprofen metabolites turned out to be the indicative marker of hyperglycemia. The observed changes impact the pharmacokinetics of drugs administered in hyperglycemic individuals.


Assuntos
Hiperglicemia , Ibuprofeno , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glucuronídeos/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Ibuprofeno/metabolismo , Intestinos , Fígado/metabolismo , Ratos
20.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807788

RESUMO

Western-style diet is an obesogenic diet for rodents and humans due to its content of saturated fat and refined sugars, mainly sucrose and, in consequence, sucrose-derived fructose. This type of diets relates with intestinal disturbances when consumed regularly. The aim of this work was to analyse the adaptive morphologic and functional changes at intestinal level derived from the unhealthy components of a Cafeteria diet in rats. The effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in the prevention of diet-induced intestinal dysfunction was also analysed. Rats were fed a 17-week cafeteria diet (CAF) without or with oral-GSPE supplementation, either intermittent GSPE administration (SIT-CAF); last 10-day GSPE supplementation at doses of 100 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg day (CORR-100) and (CORR-500) or pre-supplementation with 500 mg/kg GSPE (PRE-CAF). GSPE-CAF supplemented groups showed similar results to CAF diet group regarding morphology and inflammatory score in the duodenum. As an adaptive response to diet, CAF increased intestinal absorptive surface (1.24-fold) all along the intestinal tract and specifically in the small intestine, duodenum, due to increase villus height and a higher villus/crypt ratio, in addition to increase in Goblet cell percentage and inflammatory index. Animals fed GSPE at the current doses and times had higher villus heights and absorptive surface similar to Cafeteria diet group. In the duodenum, villus height correlated with body weight at 17 week and negatively with MLCK gene expression. In the colon, villus height correlated with the percentage of goblet cells. In conclusion, the CAF diet produced adaptive modifications of the intestine by increasing the absorptive area of the small intestine, the percentage of goblet cells and the inflammatory index at the duodenal level. GSPE supplementation can partially reverse the intestinal morphological changes induced by the high fat/sucrose diet when administered intermittently.


Assuntos
Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Proantocianidinas , Animais , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Intestinos , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sacarose/farmacologia
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