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1.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256956, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473792

RESUMO

This study investigates the topology and dynamics of collaboration networks that exist between inventors and their patent co-authors for patents granted by the USPTO from 2007-2019 (2,241,201 patents and 1,879,037 inventors). We study changes in the configurations of different technology fields via the power-law, small-world, preferential attachment, shrinking diameter, densification law, and gelling point hypotheses. Similar to the existing literature, we obtain mixed results. Based on network statistics, we argue that the sudden rise of large networks in six technology sectors can be understood as a phase transition in which small, isolated networks form one giant component. In two other technology sectors, such a transition occurred much later and much less dramatically. The examination of inventor networks over time reveals the increased complexity of all technology sectors, regardless of the individual characteristics of the network. Therefore, we introduce ideas associated with the technological diversification of inventors to complement our analysis, and we find evidence that inventors tend to diversify into new fields that are less mature. This behavior appears to be correlated with the compliance of some of the expected network rules and has implications for the emerging patterns among the different collaboration networks under consideration here.


Assuntos
Propriedade Intelectual , Invenções , Inventores , Patentes como Assunto , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Interação Social , Análise de Rede Social
2.
J Anesth ; 35(5): 671-709, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338865

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dr. Takuo Aoyagi invented pulse oximetry in 1974. Pulse oximeters are widely used worldwide, most recently making headlines during the COVID-19 pandemic. Dr. Aoyagi passed away on April 18, 2020, aware of the significance of his invention, but still actively searching for the theory that would take his invention to new heights. METHOD: Many people who knew Dr. Aoyagi, or knew of him and his invention, agreed to participate in this tribute to his work. The authors, from Japan and around the world, represent all aspects of the development of medical devices, including scientists and engineers, clinicians, academics, business people, and clinical practitioners. RESULTS: While the idea of pulse oximetry originated in Japan, device development lagged in Japan due to a lack of business, clinical, and academic interest. Awareness of the importance of anesthesia safety in the US, due to academic foresight and media attention, in combination with excellence in technological innovation, led to widespread use of pulse oximetry around the world. CONCLUSION: Dr. Aoyagi's final wish was to find a theory of pulse oximetry. We hope this tribute to him and his invention will inspire a new generation of scientists, clinicians, and related organizations to secure the foundation of the theory.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Inventores , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Japão , Oximetria , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Vaccine ; 39(38): 5442-5446, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373123

RESUMO

Italian born and long term resident in England, Sir Aldo Castellani (1874-1971), is usually credited with "several discoveries of great importance in tropical medicine", most notably for his role in determining the aetiology of sleeping sickness and yaws. This contribution tries to highlight his role in the history of vaccinology as a pioneer in the design and use of combined and polyvalent vaccines. In the light of existing data, while acting as Director of the Bacteriological Institute of Colombo (Ceylon) in the decade before the First World War, Castellani was the first to experiment with both different strains of "antigens belonging to the same group" like in his typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine (TAB), as well as the simultaneous use of more pathogens, or part of them, for protection against different diseases, like in his "tetravaccine" (TAB + cholera) and "pentavaccine" (TAB + cholera + Malta fever). At the beginning of the War, based on the results of thousands of vaccinations, he strongly maintained that those combined or mixed vaccines were harmless and effective. The Allied Armies became more and more interested in Castellani's methods. His TAB vaccine was extensively used among the soldiers and his contributions were largely acknowledged especially in the Anglo-Saxon world in the following years, when it was plainly stated that "to Castellani is due the credit of having first proposed, prepared, and used, combined vaccines". The path to widespread use of combination and polyvalent vaccines - which is usually dated back only to the late 1940s - was still long and winding. Castellani himself abandoned that field of research after the War and this is probably why that early history is nowadays often forgotten.


Assuntos
Cólera , Inventores , Vacinas , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Vacinas Combinadas
5.
JAMA ; 326(2): 192, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255014
10.
Drug Discov Today ; 25(7): 1135-1141, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325020

RESUMO

In developed countries that protect core aspects of the fundamental human right to the highest attainable standard of health, how does that right intersect with intellectual property rights? Here, the human rights implication of providing access to all cancer drugs recommended by experts in a developed country is considered in the context of conflict between the incentive to invent and the rights of others to access medicines. Effective incentives to innovate in developed countries can lead to global improvements in access to medicine if the intellectual property system is calibrated to permit this. This depends partly on the usefulness of compulsory licensing and alternative mechanisms facilitating global access to drugs. This review considers tensions between fundamental rights to access essential medicines and rights of the inventor and investors, including the pharmaceutical industry.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica/normas , Direitos Humanos/normas , Preparações Farmacêuticas/normas , Direito à Saúde/normas , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Propriedade Intelectual , Inventores/normas , Licenciamento/normas , Patentes como Assunto
11.
Andrologia ; 52(8): e13587, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286719

RESUMO

After its introduction, transurethral anatomical enucleation of the prostate with Tm:YAG support (ThuLEP) has evolved as one of the standard techniques of transurethral anatomical endoscopic enucleations of the prostate. Growing evidence has proven ThuLEP as an alternative for the treatment of bladder outlet obstruction caused by benign prostatic enlargement and has been acknowledged by the EAU Guidelines on Management of Non-Neurogenic Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms, incl. Benign Prostatic Obstruction. The uniqueness of ThuLEP as a concept made it a blueprint for other laser and nonlaser enucleating techniques based on the emphasis on two principles: widely blunt anatomical dissection and demystification of energy sources as being secondary for transurethral enucleation. The original technique has been technically refined by the inventor and other working groups in the field. The evolutionary modifications followed the academic discourse on anatomical enucleation for measures to prevent early postoperative stress urinary incontinence and preservation of antegrade ejaculation. Variations of the original three-lobe dissection technique were introduced with two-lobe approach or en bloc dissection. The manuscript is accompanied by an instructional video and surgical atlas on the currently most commonly applied two-lobe technique.


Assuntos
Inventores , Terapia a Laser , Lasers de Estado Sólido , Hiperplasia Prostática , Humanos , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 67(9): 96, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561703
14.
J Anesth Hist ; 5(2): 36-43, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400834

RESUMO

Chemist and inventor Silas R. Divine (1838-1912) sold ammonium nitrate and other anesthesia supplies in New York City. He offered a carbon dioxide absorber for the purpose of rebreathing nitrous oxide. Like his colleague Gardner Q. Colton, he denied the need for nitrous oxide to be supplemented with O2 gas.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/história , Anestésicos Inalatórios/história , História da Odontologia , Óxido Nitroso/história , Anestesiologia/instrumentação , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Inalatórios/síntese química , Ciclopropanos/administração & dosagem , Ciclopropanos/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Inventores/história , New York , Óxido Nitroso/administração & dosagem , Óxido Nitroso/síntese química
15.
J Anesth Hist ; 5(2): 62-63, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400839

RESUMO

Inventor J.M. Osgood enabled a fellow Massachusetts inventor, A.W. Sprague, to manufacture heat-regulated nitrous-oxide generators. These generators assisted New Yorker G.Q. Colton in opening exodontia franchises nationwide which revived the use of nitrous-oxide anesthesia.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/história , Anestésicos Inalatórios/história , Óxido Nitroso/história , Patentes como Assunto/história , Anestesiologia/instrumentação , Anestésicos Inalatórios/síntese química , História do Século XIX , Inventores/história , Óxido Nitroso/síntese química
16.
Nephrol Nurs J ; 46(3): 273, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199093
17.
Acta Cir Bras ; 34(1): e20190010000008, 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785509

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To create a question and answer tool on patents on EMHO. METHODS: Was used the Thinking Design methodology divided into four phases: Discovery, Definition, Development and Delivery. Discovery Phase: Desk research was carried out in: SciELO, Pubmed, LILACS, Google and Google Scholar. Once the target audience was selected, the interviews were conducted. Definition Phase: the interviewees' difficulties were mapped, on an Excel spreadsheet. Development Phase: a brainstorming was conducted with the public interviewed. Delivery Phase: the prototype, validation and final elaboration of the tool were made. RESULTS: Discovery Phase: 10 inventors were identified and the interviews were carried out. Definition Phase: 80% of the interviewees determined lack of information as one of the problems. The main content was defined as: the patent process, from the beginning of the idea to the deposit (70%), search for precedence (40%) and informing partners (30%). Development Phase: with the brainstorming, the tool type was defined as an interactive site. Delivery Phase: a prototype with content framework and an interactive video was presented for validation. After approval, the interactive website was developed, which was made available to the public. CONCLUSION: A question and answer tool on patents in EMHO was developed.


Assuntos
Equipamentos Odontológicos/normas , Equipamentos e Provisões Hospitalares/normas , Patentes como Assunto , Humanos , Inventores , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; 29(3): 348-356, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638059

RESUMO

Tadeusz Krwawicz (1910-1988) pioneered the use of cryosurgery in, as ophthalmology. The idea arose in 1959 while experimenting because on lyophilization to store corneas and lenses for transplantation it was difficult to remove the lens without damage the capsule was usually torn. Subsequent experiments on rabbits revealed that touching the lens with a wire cooled to 203°K (-70°C) resulted in firm attachment of the lens capsule and subcapsular masses. A cryoextractor was developed and employed for clinical use in cataract extraction, likewise in intumescent cataracts and lens subluxation. Cataract surgery utilizing cryoextraction led to substantial progress to ophthalmology by reducing the number of complications, particularly capsule rupture, and resulted in achieving better outcome compared to other methods. This surgery soon and for almost 20 years became a routine method used all around the world in cataract removal. Simultaneously, Krwawicz developed techniques for corneal refractive surgery-partial lamellar removal of the corneal stroma and temporary interlaminar introduction of a plastic disk in order to change the corneal curvature. Krwawicz presented other ophthalmic interests-his research concerned immunology, histology, histochemistry, biochemistry of ocular tissue, and mainly corneal and experimental surgery with a particular focus on the pathology of the cornea.


Assuntos
Criocirurgia/história , Inventores/história , Oftalmologia/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/história , Oftalmologistas/história , Polônia
19.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(1): e20190010000008, 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-983687

RESUMO

Abstract Purpose: To create a question and answer tool on patents on EMHO. Methods: Was used the Thinking Design methodology divided into four phases: Discovery, Definition, Development and Delivery. Discovery Phase: Desk research was carried out in: SciELO, Pubmed, LILACS, Google and Google Scholar. Once the target audience was selected, the interviews were conducted. Definition Phase: the interviewees' difficulties were mapped, on an Excel spreadsheet. Development Phase: a brainstorming was conducted with the public interviewed. Delivery Phase: the prototype, validation and final elaboration of the tool were made. Results: Discovery Phase: 10 inventors were identified and the interviews were carried out. Definition Phase: 80% of the interviewees determined lack of information as one of the problems. The main content was defined as: the patent process, from the beginning of the idea to the deposit (70%), search for precedence (40%) and informing partners (30%). Development Phase: with the brainstorming, the tool type was defined as an interactive site. Delivery Phase: a prototype with content framework and an interactive video was presented for validation. After approval, the interactive website was developed, which was made available to the public. Conclusion: A question and answer tool on patents in EMHO was developed.


Assuntos
Humanos , Patentes como Assunto , Equipamentos Odontológicos/normas , Equipamentos e Provisões Hospitalares/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inventores
20.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 16(1): 127-144, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198276

RESUMO

Leopold Auenbrugger (1722-1809), the inventor of percussion, joins René Laennec as the father of modern physical examination. On the occasion of the bicentennial of the invention of the stethoscope (1816), I went in search of the material footprints left by Auenbrugger in his homeland, Austria. This attempt led me to construct a rather fragmented picture, with some disillusionment (e.g. about his tomb) and some pleasant surprise (e.g. a new interpretation of the extant iconography). Apparently, posterity has not been sufficiently mindful of or grateful towards this great innovator of medical science. All the more reason for knowing and protecting what is left of him: buildings, monuments, portraits… Anyway, Leopold Auenbrugger is honored and implicitly remembered today, as he was in the past, every time a doctor practices the percussion on the chest of a patient (i.e. billions of times each year).


Assuntos
Inventores/história , Percussão/história , Médicos/história , Áustria , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX
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