Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 92
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: University students with suicidal ideation are at high risk of suicide, which constitutes a significant social and public health problem in China. However, little is known about the prevalence and associated risk factors of suicidal ideation among first-year university students in China, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of suicidal ideation and its factors in first-year Chinese university students from a vocational college in Zhejiang during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Using a cluster sampling technique, a university-wide survey was conducted of 686 first-year university students from Hangzhou in March 2020 using University Personality Inventory (UPI). UPI includes an assessment for suicidal ideation and possible risk factors. Suicidal ideation prevalence was calculated for males and females. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression models were conducted, adjusting for age and sex. Analyses were carried out using the SPSS version 22.0 software. RESULTS: The prevalence of 12-month suicidal ideation among first-year university students during March 2020 was 5.2%, and there was no significant difference between males and females (4.8% vs. 6.0%, x2 = 0.28, p = 0.597). Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified social avoidance (B = 0.78, OR = 2.17, p < 0.001) and emotional vulnerability (B = 0.71, OR = 2.02, p < 0.001) as positively associated with suicidal ideation. CONCLUSIONS: Social avoidance and emotional vulnerabilities are unique factors associated with greater suicidal ideation among first-year university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. UPI serves as a validated tool to screen suicide risks among Chinese university students. Encouraging social engagement and improving emotional regulation skills are promising targets to reduce suicidal ideation among first-year university students.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Inventores , COVID-19/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Personalidade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Universidades
2.
Pediatrics ; 150(3)2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35970818
3.
Work ; 72(4): 1689-1708, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35723161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Semantic analyses of patents have been used for years to unlock technical knowledge. Nevertheless, information retrievable from patents remains widely unconsidered when making strategic decisions, when recruiting candidates or deciding which qualifications to offer to employees in technological fields. OBJECTIVES: This paper provides an approach to evaluate whether competencies and competence demands in technological fields can be derived from patents and if this process can be automated to a certain extent. METHODS: A sample of significant patents is analyzed with regard to comprised competence data via semantic structures like n-gram and Subject--Action-Object (SAO) analysis. The retrieved data is cleansed and matched semantically to inventor competencies from social career networks and checked for similarities. RESULTS: A social career network profile analysis of significant inventors revealed a total of 570 competencies that were matched with the results of the n-gram and SAO analysis. Overall, 15%of the extracted social career network competence data were covered through extracted n-grams (87 out of 570 terms), while the SAO analysis showed a match rate of 18.8%, covering 107 terms. CONCLUSIONS: The outlined approach suggests a partly automatable process of promising character to identify technological competence demands in patents.


Assuntos
Inventores , Humanos , Conhecimento , Tecnologia
4.
5.
Pneumologie ; 76(5): 365-369, 2022 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35213925

RESUMO

During the reign of Emperor Napoleon I, Dominique-Jean Larrey (1766-1842) was chief surgeon in the French army. He has become known as the father of modern military surgery and for the development of the "triage system". Larrey was an outstanding and dedicated physician who provided medical care not only to his own troops but also to those of the enemy. Without reliable analgesia and anaesthesia, speed and skill were the most salient characteristics of a surgeon at that time. Against the opposition of the administration, Larrey is credited with the introduction of first-aid on the battlefield as well as a quick rescue of the wounded with the help of the so-called "flying ambulances". He was considered the soldiers' greatest friend.


Assuntos
Inventores , Medicina Militar , Militares , Médicos , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Triagem
8.
Vaccine ; 39(38): 5442-5446, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373123

RESUMO

Italian born and long term resident in England, Sir Aldo Castellani (1874-1971), is usually credited with "several discoveries of great importance in tropical medicine", most notably for his role in determining the aetiology of sleeping sickness and yaws. This contribution tries to highlight his role in the history of vaccinology as a pioneer in the design and use of combined and polyvalent vaccines. In the light of existing data, while acting as Director of the Bacteriological Institute of Colombo (Ceylon) in the decade before the First World War, Castellani was the first to experiment with both different strains of "antigens belonging to the same group" like in his typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine (TAB), as well as the simultaneous use of more pathogens, or part of them, for protection against different diseases, like in his "tetravaccine" (TAB + cholera) and "pentavaccine" (TAB + cholera + Malta fever). At the beginning of the War, based on the results of thousands of vaccinations, he strongly maintained that those combined or mixed vaccines were harmless and effective. The Allied Armies became more and more interested in Castellani's methods. His TAB vaccine was extensively used among the soldiers and his contributions were largely acknowledged especially in the Anglo-Saxon world in the following years, when it was plainly stated that "to Castellani is due the credit of having first proposed, prepared, and used, combined vaccines". The path to widespread use of combination and polyvalent vaccines - which is usually dated back only to the late 1940s - was still long and winding. Castellani himself abandoned that field of research after the War and this is probably why that early history is nowadays often forgotten.


Assuntos
Cólera , Inventores , Vacinas , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Vacinas Combinadas
9.
J Anesth ; 35(5): 671-709, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338865

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dr. Takuo Aoyagi invented pulse oximetry in 1974. Pulse oximeters are widely used worldwide, most recently making headlines during the COVID-19 pandemic. Dr. Aoyagi passed away on April 18, 2020, aware of the significance of his invention, but still actively searching for the theory that would take his invention to new heights. METHOD: Many people who knew Dr. Aoyagi, or knew of him and his invention, agreed to participate in this tribute to his work. The authors, from Japan and around the world, represent all aspects of the development of medical devices, including scientists and engineers, clinicians, academics, business people, and clinical practitioners. RESULTS: While the idea of pulse oximetry originated in Japan, device development lagged in Japan due to a lack of business, clinical, and academic interest. Awareness of the importance of anesthesia safety in the US, due to academic foresight and media attention, in combination with excellence in technological innovation, led to widespread use of pulse oximetry around the world. CONCLUSION: Dr. Aoyagi's final wish was to find a theory of pulse oximetry. We hope this tribute to him and his invention will inspire a new generation of scientists, clinicians, and related organizations to secure the foundation of the theory.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Inventores , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Japão , Oximetria , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
11.
JAMA ; 326(2): 192, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255014
14.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256956, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473792

RESUMO

This study investigates the topology and dynamics of collaboration networks that exist between inventors and their patent co-authors for patents granted by the USPTO from 2007-2019 (2,241,201 patents and 1,879,037 inventors). We study changes in the configurations of different technology fields via the power-law, small-world, preferential attachment, shrinking diameter, densification law, and gelling point hypotheses. Similar to the existing literature, we obtain mixed results. Based on network statistics, we argue that the sudden rise of large networks in six technology sectors can be understood as a phase transition in which small, isolated networks form one giant component. In two other technology sectors, such a transition occurred much later and much less dramatically. The examination of inventor networks over time reveals the increased complexity of all technology sectors, regardless of the individual characteristics of the network. Therefore, we introduce ideas associated with the technological diversification of inventors to complement our analysis, and we find evidence that inventors tend to diversify into new fields that are less mature. This behavior appears to be correlated with the compliance of some of the expected network rules and has implications for the emerging patterns among the different collaboration networks under consideration here.


Assuntos
Propriedade Intelectual , Invenções , Inventores , Patentes como Assunto , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Interação Social , Análise de Rede Social
19.
Drug Discov Today ; 25(7): 1135-1141, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325020

RESUMO

In developed countries that protect core aspects of the fundamental human right to the highest attainable standard of health, how does that right intersect with intellectual property rights? Here, the human rights implication of providing access to all cancer drugs recommended by experts in a developed country is considered in the context of conflict between the incentive to invent and the rights of others to access medicines. Effective incentives to innovate in developed countries can lead to global improvements in access to medicine if the intellectual property system is calibrated to permit this. This depends partly on the usefulness of compulsory licensing and alternative mechanisms facilitating global access to drugs. This review considers tensions between fundamental rights to access essential medicines and rights of the inventor and investors, including the pharmaceutical industry.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica/normas , Direitos Humanos/normas , Preparações Farmacêuticas/normas , Direito à Saúde/normas , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Propriedade Intelectual , Inventores/normas , Licenciamento/normas , Patentes como Assunto
20.
Andrologia ; 52(8): e13587, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286719

RESUMO

After its introduction, transurethral anatomical enucleation of the prostate with Tm:YAG support (ThuLEP) has evolved as one of the standard techniques of transurethral anatomical endoscopic enucleations of the prostate. Growing evidence has proven ThuLEP as an alternative for the treatment of bladder outlet obstruction caused by benign prostatic enlargement and has been acknowledged by the EAU Guidelines on Management of Non-Neurogenic Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms, incl. Benign Prostatic Obstruction. The uniqueness of ThuLEP as a concept made it a blueprint for other laser and nonlaser enucleating techniques based on the emphasis on two principles: widely blunt anatomical dissection and demystification of energy sources as being secondary for transurethral enucleation. The original technique has been technically refined by the inventor and other working groups in the field. The evolutionary modifications followed the academic discourse on anatomical enucleation for measures to prevent early postoperative stress urinary incontinence and preservation of antegrade ejaculation. Variations of the original three-lobe dissection technique were introduced with two-lobe approach or en bloc dissection. The manuscript is accompanied by an instructional video and surgical atlas on the currently most commonly applied two-lobe technique.


Assuntos
Inventores , Terapia a Laser , Lasers de Estado Sólido , Hiperplasia Prostática , Humanos , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...