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2.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113870, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638044

RESUMO

The question of whether it is possible to "do well by going green" has been debated at length in the literature on environmental sustainability, but no consensus has been reached to date. Building on stakeholder theory in that a firm's environmental sustainability can improve its competitive advantage, this study investigates the impacts of sustainable environmental practices on the competitiveness of 28 international airlines over 2010-2018. First, we use dynamic network data envelopment analysis to estimate airline operational efficiency as a measure of competitiveness. Second, we use a panel smooth transition regression (PSTR) model to test for nonlinearities and regime-switching behaviors between variables. Then, to account for endogeneity bias, we develop and estimate an instrumental variable PSTR (IV-PSTR) model. The empirical results indicate that the relationship between environmental sustainability and competitiveness has an inverted U shape, meaning there is an optimal level of environmental sustainability beyond which competitiveness decreases. Therefore, it is important for airline managers to understand that very high levels of investment in sustainable practices can have more negative effects compared to very little investment. The study concludes by providing implications for theory and practice.


Assuntos
Comércio , Eficiência , Investimentos em Saúde
3.
Nurs Adm Q ; 46(1): 88-95, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551422

RESUMO

A business case plan (BCP) provides a structured framework for evidence-based, transparent business decisions. It is an essential tool that when written well will provide you with the means to translate the cost and benefits of nursing practice proposals, often related in anecdotal terms, into quantifiable, evidence-based terms outlining return on investment and business advantages of investing in nursing initiatives. The BCP should include an analysis of the problem and associated needs, the proposed solutions with options, goals for success, implementation, and evaluation plans, as well as a risk-adjusted cost-benefit analysis. It contains the necessary information to allow decision makers to make well-informed decisions regarding resource allocation. As clinical experts seeking to compete for finite resources in the health care arena, nursing leadership must bridge the language gap between nursing and business finance. This article outlines the required elements of the BCP to provide you with a practical working definition of each element to support your future initiatives in the business of health care improvement.


Assuntos
Comércio , Liderança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde , Alocação de Recursos
4.
Otolaryngol Clin North Am ; 55(1): 105-113, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823708

RESUMO

There is broad understanding and appreciation that quality and safety are indispensable parts of the business enterprise of delivering care. However, because health care organizations have resource constraints and competing priorities, leaders and managers must create, demonstrate, and articulate a business case for continuing to prioritize investments in quality and safety. To accomplish this, one must leverage financial principles with compelling story-telling. Success creates a virtuous cycle whereby ongoing investments in robust structures increase returns (value defined as improvements in quality and safety outcomes), and cost savings are reinvested to continue to improve delivery of high-quality care.


Assuntos
Investimentos em Saúde , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Estados Unidos
5.
J Environ Manage ; 302(Pt A): 114018, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731712

RESUMO

The sustainable development agenda has been driving the global debate on environmental policy for several years now. Developed countries have stricter environmental controls and are under pressure from international agencies to cut pollution. However, many of these countries have been accused of using Foreign Direct Investment to shift their environmental burden to countries with lower environmental restrictions, rather than reducing their overall environmental impact. Should developed countries continue to transfer their emissions? What role does the energy structure of recipient countries play in this investment? A Panel Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model was carried out for a set of 15 OECD countries, from 2005 to 2018. The main findings upheld the Pollution Halo hypothesis. However, they also confirmed the Pollution Haven hypothesis, which was unexpected for developed countries, with their higher environmental standards. It seems that Foreign Direct Investment may increase pollution by increasing overall energy consumption, rather than by transferring polluting industries. Foreign Direct Investment inflows seem to be more environmentally friendly than inward stock, particularly in the electricity and services sectors. Energy transition could be achieved without the polluting effect of Foreign Direct Investment. Investment in the electricity sector may be a way of decoupling economic growth from pollution.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Investimentos em Saúde
6.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 6400045, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34956352

RESUMO

This paper proposes a multivariate and online prediction of stock prices via the paradigm of kernel adaptive filtering (KAF). The prediction of stock prices in traditional classification and regression problems needs independent and batch-oriented nature of training. In this article, we challenge this existing notion of the literature and propose an online kernel adaptive filtering-based approach to predict stock prices. We experiment with ten different KAF algorithms to analyze stocks' performance and show the efficacy of the work presented here. In addition to this, and in contrast to the current literature, we look at granular level data. The experiments are performed with quotes gathered at the window of one minute, five minutes, ten minutes, fifteen minutes, twenty minutes, thirty minutes, one hour, and one day. These time windows represent some of the common windows frequently used by traders. The proposed framework is tested on 50 different stocks making up the Indian stock index: Nifty-50. The experimental results show that online learning and KAF is not only a good option, but practically speaking, they can be deployed in high-frequency trading as well.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Investimentos em Saúde
7.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211059999, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905975

RESUMO

eHealth is an opportunity cost, competing for limited available funds with other health priorities such as clinics, vaccinations, medicines and even salaries. As such, it should be appraised for probable impact prior to allocation of funds. This is especially pertinent as recognition grows for the role of eHealth in attaining Universal Health Coverage. Despite optimism about eHealth's potential role, in Africa there remain insufficient data and skills for adequate economic appraisals to select optimal investments from numerous competing initiatives. The aim of this review is to identify eHealth investment appraisal approaches and tools that have been used in African countries, describe their characteristics and make recommendations regarding African eHealth investment appraisal in the face of limited data and expertise. Methods: Literature on eHealth investment appraisals conducted in African countries and published between January 1, 2010 and June 30, 2020 was reviewed. Selected papers' investment appraisal characteristics were assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute checklist for economic evaluations and a newly developed Five-Case Model for Digital Health (FCM-DH) checklist for investment appraisal. 5 papers met inclusion criteria. Their assessments revealed important appraisal gaps. In particular, none of the papers addressed risk exposure, affordability, adjustment for optimism bias, clear delivery milestones, practical plans for implementation, change management or procurement, and only 1 paper described plans for building partnerships. Discussion: Using this insight, an extended 5-Case Model is proposed as the foundation of an African eHealth investment appraisal framework. This, combined with building local eHealth appraisal capabilities, may promote optimal eHealth investment decisions, strengthen implementations and improve the number and quality of related publications.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Telemedicina , África , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde
8.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261184, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910785

RESUMO

CAMEL is considered one of the well-known banking rating systems used to build a proper bank ranking. In our paper, we investigate the CAMEL rating for Saudi banks, which is considered the second largest banking sector in GCC. The Saudi banking sector consists of 11 banks and is the leading sector in the Saudi stock index (TASI). In this research, we aim to determine the ranking of Saudi banks according to CAMEL composite and CAMEL overall ratings and explore the effects of these ratings on banks' total deposits for the period from 2014 to 2018. The methodology involves four phases. In the first phase, we calculate the key financial ratios of CAMEL's composites for each bank. In the second phase, we rank the banks from 1 to 11 to each one of CAMEL's composites for each bank per year. In the third phase, we rank Saudi banks according to CAMEL composite and CAMEL overall. Finally, in the fourth phase, we run a regression model using CAMEL financial ratios rank as independent variable and banks' total deposits as a dependent variable. Using the stepwise regression method, the results indicated that the best regression model has an adjusted R2 of 73.4% and a standard error of around 0.58. The results further indicated that capital measured by CAR, management as an efficiency ratio, earning with ROE proxy, and liquidity as loans to deposits have positive effects on banks' total deposits. Meanwhile, earnings as net interest income to net revenue and liquidity calculated by CASA have a negative effect on banks' total deposits. Finally, asset quality ratios and the rest of the ratios have no significant effect on banks' total deposits.


Assuntos
Financiamento de Capital/normas , Administração Financeira , Investimentos em Saúde/economia , Financiamento de Capital/economia , Humanos , Arábia Saudita
9.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260724, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919550

RESUMO

This paper uses NASDAQ order book data for the S&P 500 exchange traded fund (SPY) to examine the relationship between one-minute, informational market efficiency and high frequency trading (HFT). We find that the level of efficiency varies widely over time and appears to cluster. Periods of high efficiency are followed by periods of low efficiency and vice versa. Further, we find that HFT activity is higher during periods of low efficiency. This supports the argument that HFTs seek profits and risk reduction by actively processing information, through limit order additions and cancellations, during periods of lower efficiency and revert to more passive market-making and rebate-generation during periods of higher efficiency. These findings support the argument that the adaptive market hypothesis (AMH) is an appropriate description of how prices evolve to incorporate information.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Investimentos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Econométricos , Eficiência , Humanos
10.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261615, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936682

RESUMO

One of the most pressing challenges facing food systems in Africa is ensuring availability of a healthy and sustainable diet to 2.4 billion people by 2050. The continent has struggled with development challenges, particularly chronic food insecurity and pervasive poverty. In Africa's food systems, fish and other aquatic foods play a multifaceted role in generating income, and providing a critical source of essential micronutrients. To date, there are no estimates of investment and potential returns for domestic fish production in Africa. To contribute to policy debates about the future of fish in Africa, we applied the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agriculture Commodities and Trade (IMPACT) to explore two Pan-African scenarios for fish sector growth: a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and a high-growth scenario for capture fisheries and aquaculture with accompanying strong gross domestic product growth (HIGH). Post-model analysis was used to estimate employment and aquaculture investment requirements for the sector in Africa. Africa's fish sector is estimated to support 20.7 million jobs in 2030, and 21.6 million by 2050 under the BAU. Approximately 2.6 people will be employed indirectly along fisheries and aquaculture value chains for every person directly employed in the fish production stage. Under the HIGH scenario, total employment in Africa's fish food system will reach 58.0 million jobs, representing 2.4% of total projected population in Africa by 2050. Aquaculture production value is estimated to achieve US$ 3.3 billion and US$ 20.4 billion per year under the BAU and HIGH scenarios by 2050, respectively. Farm-gate investment costs for the three key inputs (fish feeds, farm labor, and fish seed) to achieve the aquaculture volumes projected by 2050 are estimated at US$ 1.8 billion per year under the BAU and US$ 11.6 billion per year under the HIGH scenario. Sustained investments are critical to sustain capture fisheries and support aquaculture growth for food system transformation towards healthier diets.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros/economia , África , Comércio/economia , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Emprego , Pesqueiros/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde , Modelos Econômicos
11.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(12): 1785-1804, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34968090

RESUMO

We examine how firms' prepandemic investments in human capital influence their use of workforce reductions and layoffs (hereafter, workforce reductions) as a response to financial pressures during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. We contend that workforce reductions must be examined in the context of firms' broader financial and resource orchestration environments. First, we suggest that firms' relative exposure to pandemic financial pressures (PFPs) will determine their need to cut costs during the pandemic. Second, we argue that a firm's prior investments in employees' human capital will reduce the attractiveness of workforce reductions as a cost-cutting response to PFPs, as human capital investment (HCI) increases the value of employees' knowledge, skills, and abilities and motivation, thus inducing firms to seek alternative measures to reduce costs. We then argue that the attenuating influence of HCI on the effect of PFPs on workforce reductions will be stronger when HCI is matched with greater investments in physical capital, as employees' human capital will create more value-and will translate to a bigger loss following employee departures-in such circumstances. We demonstrate support for our hypotheses in a sample of 1,364 U.S. banks using data from quarterly Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) reports, news articles, and Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notifications (WARN) Act filings through the fourth quarter of 2020. We discuss implications for our understanding of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on organizations and employees and for research on resource orchestration and human capital. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Estresse Financeiro , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Recursos Humanos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948935

RESUMO

In the wake of the acceleration of China's industrialization and rapid economic growth, environmental pollution has also attracted great attention. The technological innovation of heavily polluting enterprises is conducive to reducing pollution emissions and promoting environmental health. The financial investment tendency and behavior of real enterprises have a significant impact on the technological innovation decision-making of enterprises. A panel model is used in this paper in order to empirically test the impact of financialization of Chinese heavily polluting enterprises on technological innovation based on the data of Listed Companies in Chinese heavily polluting industries from 2008 to 2019. The + results show that the financialization of heavily polluting enterprises has a significant crowding out effect on technological innovation. After introducing arbitrage motivation as the regulating variable, further research finds that arbitrage motivation weakens the inhibitory effect of enterprise financialization on technological innovation, that is, the stronger the arbitrage motivation, the smaller the negative effect of financialization on enterprise technological innovation, which weakens this crowding out effect. Finally, the listed enterprises in heavily polluting industries are divided into state-owned enterprises and non-state-owned enterprises according to their corporate attributes. Compared with state-owned enterprises, the financialization of non-state-owned enterprises has a greater squeeze out of technological innovation; and arbitrage motivation has a more significant regulatory effect on the impact of enterprise financialization on technological innovation.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Invenções , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Indústrias , Investimentos em Saúde
13.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 2917577, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34963777

RESUMO

Risk management and stock investment decision-making is an essential topic for investors and fund managers, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The problem becomes easier if the market is efficient, where stock prices fully reflect potential risk. Nevertheless, if the market is not efficient, investors may have an opportunity to find an effective investment method. Vietnam is one of the emerging markets; the efficiency is still weak. Thus, there will be an opportunity for astute investors. This study aims to test the weak-form efficient market and provide a modern approach to investors' decision-making. To achieve that aim, this study uses historical data of stocks in the VN-Index and VN30 portfolio to buy and sell within a one-day period under the rolling window approach to test the Ho Chi Minh City Stock Exchange (HoSE) through a runs test and to perform stock trading using the support vector machine (SVM) and logistic regression. The buying/selling of stocks is guided by the forecasted outcomes (increase/decrease) of logistic regression and SVM. This study adjusted the return rate in proportion to the risks and compared it with index investments of VN-Index and VN30 to evaluate investment efficiency. The test results dismissed the weak-form efficient-market hypothesis, which opens up many opportunities for short-term traders. This study's primary contribution is to provide a stock trading strategy for short-term investors to maximize trading profits. Because logistic regression and SVM have proven effective trading methods, investors can use them to achieve abnormal returns.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde , Aprendizado de Máquina , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9463

RESUMO

A saúde digital é de suma importância para a qualificação das informações adequadas. Esta live conduzida pelo Conasems em parceria com o Ministério da Saúde (SAPS e DATASUS) tem o objetivo de apresentar e esclarecer aspectos dos projetos de Conectividade das Unidades Básicas de Saúde e o Informatiza APS, além da Rede Nacional de Dados em Saúde - RNDS. Será um momento importante para que os municípios possam se apropriar do que está em andamento e as melhorias que irão ocorre.


Assuntos
Informática em Saúde Pública/economia , Centros de Saúde , Estratégias de eSaúde , Acesso à Internet , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Investimentos em Saúde/economia , Governo Local , Parcerias Público-Privadas , Conselhos de Saúde ,
15.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês, Espanhol, Francês, Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48535

RESUMO

Com os países das Américas relatando graves interrupções nos serviços essenciais de atenção primária à saúde, investimentos urgentes são fundamentais para melhorar os sistemas de saúde continuamente enfraquecidos pela pandemia, afirmou a diretora da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS), Carissa F. Etienne.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , América/epidemiologia , Investimentos em Saúde
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 719839, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746077

RESUMO

Hospital infrastructure has been addressed as the prerequisite of healthcare delivery which intensively affects medical quality. Over the past decade, China has proposed a series of investment plans for hospital infrastructure in order to promote healthcare development in underdeveloped regions. Focusing on the construction of hospital buildings as the key component of hospital infrastructure, this study aims to examine whether the investment efficiency is lower where a government prioritizes equity and to explore what kind of geographical predispositions should be embedded in governmental investment plans for hospital infrastructures from the perspectives of both investment equity and efficiency. Relevant data from 330 governmental-invested hospital building construction projects in Sichuan province, China, from 2009 to 2018 were collected. Concentration index was used to evaluate the equity in the distribution of the investments. Tobit model was employed to explore the relationship between regional economic development and investment efficiency measured by an integrated approach of principal component analysis and data envelopment analysis. The results demonstrated a slight concentration of governmental investments in economically developed regions, while a negative association with regional economic development was identified with investment efficiency. Our study illustrated the investment efficiency was higher where a government prioritized equity and provided empirical evidences on switching governmental investment predisposition in the aspect of healthcare infrastructure construction toward less developed regions in China from the perspectives of both investment allocation equity and efficiency, which would further assist in the formulation of region-specific policies and strategies for underdeveloped regions.


Assuntos
Hospitais Públicos , Investimentos em Saúde , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Governo
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770073

RESUMO

R&D investment is the source of technological innovation of pharmaceutical enterprises, but it will be restricted by the funding level, especially in the context of major public health emergencies occurring more frequently, therefore exploring the impact of monetary policy uncertainty on the R&D investment smoothing behavior of pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises has important theoretical and practical value. Based on the relevant data of Chinese pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises from 2012 to 2018, this paper studies the impact of monetary policy uncertainty on R&D investment smoothing behavior of pharmaceutical enterprises, and investigates whether there is a threshold effect. First, our results demonstrate that the empirical test results of this article support the hypothesis of R&D investment smoothing behavior of pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises. Second, there is a negative correlation between monetary policy uncertainty and R&D investment smoothing behavior, and the shorter the period is, the higher the financing constraints of pharmaceutical enterprises are, and the more obvious the negative correlation is. Third, financing constraints have a single threshold effect on the R&D investment smoothing behavior of pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises, with a threshold of -13.7693. Moreover, this conclusion can better promote the virtuous circle of the real economy of financial and pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises. It is recommended that pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises establish and improve the enterprise R&D reserve system, reduce the risk of R&D investment, play the role of R&D smoothing, and realize the sustainable development of enterprise R&D.


Assuntos
Investimentos em Saúde , Preparações Farmacêuticas , China , Pesquisa Empírica , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Incerteza
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770195

RESUMO

Free trade zones (FTZ) are designated areas for promoting trade openness and investment facilitation. In China, FTZs are also regarded as "green areas" in which planning actions and institutional innovations are implemented, and there is a commitment to promoting urban green and healthy development. Given that green total factor productivity (GTFP) is an important measure of a city's health and green performance, this study exploits the difference-in-differences method to explore the impact of pilot FTZs on urban GTFP in 280 cities in China for the period between 2005 and 2017. The results show that the green areas positively contributed to the growth of GTFP. Moreover, the outcome holds with robustness tests. Statistically, the positive effect emerged in cities during the first three years after introducing the initiative, with the effect disappearing afterward. It also had a strong positive impact in the central and western regions and in large and medium-sized cities, while the influence remained insignificant in the remaining areas in China. Furthermore, the paper also reveals that the promotion of foreign direct investment and industrial structure upgrading are the primary channels through which the positive relationship between pilot FTZs and GTFP is established.


Assuntos
Eficiência , Investimentos em Saúde , China , Cidades , Indústrias
19.
Washington D.C; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; 1 ed; Nov. 2021. 106 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LIPECS, MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1344727

RESUMO

En la presente publicación se proporciona información útil sobre las iniciativas de disminución del consumo de sal y sodio en la Región de las Américas. Se cartografían las políticas y las iniciativas vigentes en los países de la Región de las Américas orientadas a disminuir el consumo de sal y sodio en los alimentos. También se reconocen las brechas que hay en las políticas en el marco de las "mejores inversiones" de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, es decir, las recomendaciones más costo, eficaces para prevenir y controlar las enfermedades no transmisibles relacionadas con la alimentación. Además, se pone a disposición del público un repositorio de políticas, leyes y regulaciones orientadas a reducir la ingesta de sal y sodio en la Región de las Américas. Por último, se utiliza la información recopilada sobre las brechas en las políticas con el fin de analizar los aspectos que deben ser prioritarios para la labor que se llevará a cabo en la Región


Assuntos
Sais , Sódio , Medição de Consumo , Fatores de Risco , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Alimentos , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Investimentos em Saúde
20.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 7348599, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630551

RESUMO

Based on the theoretical mechanism analysis of FDI, regional innovation, and green economic efficiency, this article uses China's provincial panel data to calculate the provincial green economic efficiency level based on the three-stage DEA method and uses the system GMM model, intermediary effect model, and threshold model to empirically test the specific effects and transmission paths of FDI on the efficiency of the green economy. Research shows that FDI is one of the important factors that promote the improvement of green economic efficiency. Subregional tests have found that FDI has a significant regional heterogeneity in promoting the efficiency of the green economy. The mediation effect test found that the mediation effect of regional innovation is significant, and FDI can significantly promote the growth of green economic efficiency through regional innovation. The threshold effect analysis found that there are significant and effective double thresholds for regional economic levels, and the impact of FDI on green economic efficiency is heterogeneous within different threshold intervals. The research conclusions provide new inspiration for China to allocate FDI more rationally and efficiently under the new development pattern.


Assuntos
Internacionalidade , Investimentos em Saúde , China
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