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1.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 827, 2024 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38972908

RESUMO

The "hologenome" concept is an increasingly popular way of thinking about microbiome-host for marine organisms. However, it is challenging to track hologenome dynamics because of the large amount of material, with tracking itself usually resulting in damage or death of the research object. Here we show the simple and efficient holo-2bRAD approach for the tracking of hologenome dynamics in marine invertebrates (i.e., scallop and shrimp) from one holo-2bRAD library. The stable performance of our approach was shown with high genotyping accuracy of 99.91% and a high correlation of r > 0.99 for the species-level profiling of microorganisms. To explore the host-microbe association underlying mass mortality events of bivalve larvae, core microbial species changed with the stages were found, and two potentially associated host SNPs were identified. Overall, our research provides a powerful tool with various advantages (e.g., cost-effective, simple, and applicable for challenging samples) in genetic, ecological, and evolutionary studies.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Invertebrados/genética , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Microbiota , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
2.
Elife ; 132024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38976315

RESUMO

Extant ecdysozoans (moulting animals) are represented by a great variety of soft-bodied or articulated organisms that may or may not have appendages. However, controversies remain about the vermiform nature (i.e. elongated and tubular) of their ancestral body plan. We describe here Beretella spinosa gen. et sp. nov. a tiny (maximal length 3 mm) ecdysozoan from the lowermost Cambrian, Yanjiahe Formation, South China, characterized by an unusual sack-like appearance, single opening, and spiny ornament. Beretella spinosa gen. et sp. nov has no equivalent among animals, except Saccorhytus coronarius, also from the basal Cambrian. Phylogenetic analyses resolve both fossil species as a sister group (Saccorhytida) to all known Ecdysozoa, thus suggesting that ancestral ecdysozoans may have been non-vermiform animals. Saccorhytids are likely to represent an early off-shot along the stem-line Ecdysozoa. Although it became extinct during the Cambrian, this animal lineage provides precious insight into the early evolution of Ecdysozoa and the nature of the earliest representatives of the group.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Filogenia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Animais , China , Invertebrados/anatomia & histologia , Invertebrados/classificação , Invertebrados/genética
3.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2026): 20240868, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955327

RESUMO

Biotic interactions play a critical role in shaping patterns of global biodiversity. While several macroecological studies provide evidence for stronger predation in tropical regions compared with higher latitudes, results are variable even within the tropics, and the drivers of this variability are not well understood. We conducted two complementary standardized experiments on communities of sessile marine invertebrate prey and their associated predators to test for spatial and seasonal differences in predation across the tropical Atlantic and Pacific coastlines of Panama. We further tested the prediction that higher predator diversity contributes to stronger impacts of predation, using both direct observations of predators and data from extensive reef surveys. Our results revealed substantially higher predation rates and stronger effects of predators on prey in the Pacific than in the Atlantic, demonstrating striking variation within tropical regions. While regional predator diversity was high in the Atlantic, functional diversity at local scales was markedly low. Peak predation strength in the Pacific occurred during the wet, non-upwelling season when ocean temperatures were warmer and predator communities were more functionally diverse. Our results highlight the importance of regional biotic and abiotic drivers that shape interaction strength and the maintenance of tropical communities, which are experiencing rapid environmental change.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Comportamento Predatório , Estações do Ano , Clima Tropical , Animais , Biodiversidade , Panamá , Oceano Atlântico , Oceano Pacífico , Invertebrados/fisiologia
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14985, 2024 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951669

RESUMO

Climate change is known to affect the distribution and composition of species, but concomitant alterations to functionally important aspects of behaviour and species-environment relations are poorly constrained. Here, we examine the ecosystem ramifications of changes in sediment-dwelling invertebrate bioturbation behaviour-a key process mediating nutrient cycling-associated with near-future environmental conditions (+ 1.5 °C, 550 ppm [pCO2]) for species from polar regions experiencing rapid rates of climate change. We find that responses to warming and acidification vary between species and lead to a reduction in intra-specific variability in behavioural trait expression that adjusts the magnitude and direction of nutrient concentrations. Our analyses also indicate that species behaviour is not predetermined, but can be dependent on local variations in environmental history that set population capacities for phenotypic plasticity. We provide evidence that certain, but subtle, aspects of inter- and intra-specific variation in behavioural trait expression, rather than the presence or proportional representation of species per se, is an important and under-appreciated determinant of benthic biogeochemical responses to climate change. Such changes in species behaviour may act as an early warning for impending ecological transitions associated with progressive climate forcing.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Invertebrados , Oceanos e Mares , Animais , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Água do Mar , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Aquecimento Global , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0306578, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38959281

RESUMO

Thoughtfully managed hydroperiods in natural and artificial wetlands could potentially provide a combination of desirable flood control services and high ecological functions. To explore how managed freshwater wetlands typical of the Houston, Texas area would respond to different hydrological regimes that might occur if wetlands were drained in anticipation of a heavy rain that did not materialize, we conducted a mesocosm experiment with six flooding depths and seven drought durations, followed by seven months of recovery. We found that the speed in which mesocosms dried out was a function of initial water depth, with mesocosms initially set with greater water depths (30 cm) taking ~ 38 days to dry out versus zero days for wetlands that were completely drained. Individual plant species (14 species planted; 8 species common at the end of the recovery period) were affected by drought length, flooding depth, or their interaction, although details of these responses varied among the species. The composition of the plant community at the end of the drought period was strongly affected by drought length, and the effect of the drought length treatment persisted through seven months of post-drought recovery, with the 80- and 160-day drought treatments diverging most strongly from shorter drought treatments. Above- and below-ground biomass of plants was not affected by the treatments, but above-ground dead biomass (litter) decreased with increasing drought length. Densities of mosquito larvae, snails and tadpoles were temporally variable, and were affected more during the treatment period and early in recovery than after a disturbance event late in recovery. Our results indicate that managed wetlands in southeast Texas would be quite resilient to dry periods of up to 40 days in duration, especially if water was not completely drained at the beginning of the drought. In addition, many species would persist in managed wetlands even with droughts of up to 160 days. This indicates considerable potential for managing the hydroperiods of artificial detention ponds by retaining water longer to increase ecological function, with little to no loss of flood control services, and for managing the hydroperiods of natural wetlands by draining them in advance of anticipated rains to increase flood control services, with little to no loss of ecological function.


Assuntos
Inundações , Água Doce , Invertebrados , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Plantas , Secas , Texas
6.
Curr Biol ; 34(13): R613-R615, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38981422

RESUMO

Increasingly intense and frequent ocean heatwaves are causing widespread coral mortality. These heatwaves are just one of the many stressors - among for instance ocean acidification, nutrient pollution and destructive fishing practices - that have caused widespread decline of coral reefs over the past century. This destruction of reefs threatens the remarkable biodiversity of organisms that depend upon coral reefs. However, recent research suggests that many of the fishes and invertebrates that inhabit coral reefs may play an underappreciated role in influencing the resistance and recovery of corals to stressors, especially those caused by global climate change such as ocean heatwaves. Unraveling the threads that link these coral inhabitants to the corals' response to stressors has the potential to weave a more comprehensive model of resilience that integrates the plight of coral reefs with the breathtaking diversity of life they host. Here, we aim to elucidate the critical roles that coral-associated fishes and invertebrates play in mediating coral resilience to environmental stressors. By integrating recent research findings, we aim to showcase how these often-overlooked organisms influence coral resilience in the face of climate change.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Mudança Climática , Recifes de Corais , Peixes , Invertebrados , Animais , Antozoários/fisiologia , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Peixes/fisiologia , Biodiversidade
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(8): 688, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38958799

RESUMO

Rivers are vital and complex natural systems that provide a wide range of ecosystem services. This study presents a methodology for assessing the riverine provisioning and supporting ecosystem services, whose applicability has been demonstrated over the Budhabalanga River Basin of India. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to generate streamflow time series at various ungauged sites, and then the streamflow is characterized for the evaluation of provisioning services. Further, the diversity and abundance of macroinvertebrates, along with the Lotic-invertebrate Index for Flow Evaluation (LIFE), is used to study the riverine supporting ecosystem services. The streams show intermittent behavior and strong seasonality for low flows, which limits the water availability, particularly during pre-monsoon season. The Baseflow Index (BFI) is greater than 0.6, indicating that groundwater contributes more than 60% of the total streamflow. Interestingly, despite the high BFI, the streams did not conform to the prevailing opinion that a greater baseflow contribution results in a later commencement of the low-flow period in the hydrological year. Furthermore, the study depicts significant variations in the diversity and abundance of the macroinvertebrates across the various sampling sites. However, the LIFE score across the sites remained consistent within a narrow range, i.e., 8 to 9, suggesting a steady supply of supporting ecosystem services. The results of the study can help the policymakers towards an informed decision making and the simplistic methodology proposed in this study can be replicated in other river basins for identifying vulnerable watersheds and prioritizing management actions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrologia , Rios , Índia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Animais , Invertebrados , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Biodiversidade , Água Subterrânea
8.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 202: 105974, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879315

RESUMO

In fact, less than 1% of applied pesticides reach their target pests, while the remainder pollute the neighboring environment and adversely impact human health as well as non-target organisms in agricultural ecosystem. Pesticides can contribute to the loss of agrobiodiversity, which are essential to maintaining the agro-ecosystem's structure and functioning in order to produce and secure enough food. This review article examines the negative effects of pesticides on non-target invertebrates including earthworms, honeybees, predators, and parasitoids. It also highlights areas where further research is needed to address unresolved issues related to pesticide exposure, aiming to improve conservation efforts for these crucial species. These organisms play crucial roles in ecosystem functioning, such as soil health, pollination, and pest control. Both lethal and sub-lethal effects of pesticides on the selected non-target invertebrates were discussed. Pesticides affect DNA integrity, enzyme activity, growth, behavior, and reproduction of earthworms even at low concentrations. Pesticides could also induce a reduction in individual survival, disruption in learning performance and memory, as well as a change in the foraging behavior of honeybees. Additionally, pesticides adversely affect population growth indices, reproduction, development, longevity, and consumption of predators and parasitoids. As a result, pesticides must pass adequate ecotoxicological risk assessment to be enlisted by regulatory authorities. Therefore, it is important to adopt integrated pest management (IPM) strategies that minimize pesticide use and promote the conservation of beneficial organisms in order to maintain agrobiodiversity and sustainable agricultural systems. Furthermore, adopting precision agriculture and organic farming lessen these negative effects as well.less than.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Ecossistema , Invertebrados , Praguicidas , Animais , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Invertebrados/efeitos dos fármacos , Abelhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Abelhas/fisiologia , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 35(4): 1131-1140, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38884248

RESUMO

To understand the macrozoobenthic community composition and spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of macrobenthos in the waters of Miaodao Archipelago, Yantai, Shandong and its response to habitat changes, we conducted surveys of macrobenthos and environmental elements in the waters of Miaodao Islands in May (spring), August (summer), and October (autumn) in 2022. Results showed that a total of 127 macrozoobenthic species were recorded, with Mollusca and Annelida (Polychaeta) as the dominant taxa, consisting of 47 and 45 species, respectively. The key dominant species included Sternaspis chinensis, Glycinde bonhourei, Moerella hilaris, and Amphioplus (Lymanella) japonicus. The average annual density and biomass of macrozoobenthos were 190 ind·m-2 and 28.69 g·m-2, respectively. There was no significant seasonal differences in density and biomass. The Shannon diversity index (H), evenness index (J), and richness index (D) averaged 3.10, 0.90, and 2.40, respectively. Cluster analysis results showed low similarity coefficients of community among the three seasons, suggesting a distinct distribution pattern. Factors such as bottom seawater temperature, chlorophyll a, nutrient, sediment grain size, and organic matter content could significantly influence the structure and diversity of macrozoobenthic community. Compared with historical research data, the Changdao National Wetland Nature Reserve and the implementation of enclosure aquaculture have led to notable changes in the dominant species of macrobenthos. Specifically, there was a noticeable decline in both density and H, and an increase in biomass and J. Additionally, body size of benthic fauna was transitioning from small to big.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Invertebrados , Moluscos , Estações do Ano , China , Animais , Invertebrados/classificação , Invertebrados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Moluscos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Moluscos/classificação , Poliquetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poliquetos/classificação , Dinâmica Populacional , Oceanos e Mares , Água do Mar/análise , Ilhas , Biomassa
10.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 35(5): 1435-1446, 2024 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886443

RESUMO

As regulators of the surface land processes, soil fauna communities are the vital foundations for healthy terrestrial ecosystems. Soil fauna have been studied in China for more than 70 years. Great progresses have been achieved in exploring soil fauna species composition and geographical distribution patterns. Soil fauna eco-geography, as a bridge between soil fauna geographic patterns and ecosystem services, has a new development opportunity with the deep recognition of soil fauna ecological functions. Soil fauna eco-geography research could be partitioned into four dimensions including the spatio-temporal patterns of: 1) the apparent characteristics of soil fauna community, such as species composition, richness and abundance; 2) the intrinsic characteristics of soil fauna community, such as dietary and habits; 3) soil fauna-related biotic and abiotic interactions especially those indicating drivers of soil fauna community structure or shaping the roles of soil fauna in ecosystems; and 4) soil fauna-related or -regulated key ecological processes. Current studies focus solely on soil fauna themselves and their geographical distributions. To link soil fauna geography more closely with ecosystem services, we suggested that: 1) converting the pure biogeography studies to those of revealing the spatio-temporal patterns of the soil fauna-related or regulated key relationships and ecological processes;2) expanding the temporal and spatial scales in soil fauna geographical research;3) exploring the integrated analysis approach for soil fauna-related data with multi-scales, multi-factors, and multi-processes;and 4) establishing standard reference systems for soil fauna eco-geographical researches. Hence, the change patterns of ecological niche of soil fauna communities could be illustrated, and precision mani-pulations of soil fauna communities and their ecological functions would become implementable, which finally contributes to ecosystem health and human well-being.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Solo , China , Solo/química , Animais , Invertebrados/classificação , Invertebrados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Geografia
11.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 679, 2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38914539

RESUMO

We present 4k video and whole transcriptome data for seven deep-sea invertebrate animals collected in the Eastern Pacific Ocean during a research expedition onboard the Schmidt Ocean Institute's R/V Falkor in August of 2021. The animals include one jellyfish (Atolla sp.), three siphonophores (Apolemia sp., Praya sp., and Halistemma sp.), one larvacean (Bathochordaeus mcnutti), one tunicate (Pyrosomatidae sp.), and one ctenophore (Lampocteis sp.). Four of the animals were sequenced with long-read RNA sequencing technology, such that the reads themselves define a reference assembly for those animals. The larvacean tissues were successfully preserved in situ and has paired long-read reference data and short read quantitative transcriptomic data for within-specimen analyses of gene expression. Additionally, for three animals we provide quantitative image data, and a 3D model for one siphonophore. The paired image and transcriptomic data can be used for species identification, species description, and reference genetic data for these deep-sea animals.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Transcriptoma , Animais , Invertebrados/genética , Oceano Pacífico , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 96(3): e20230502, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38922268

RESUMO

Over two decades, the area with sugarcane has more than doubled, from 4.8 million hectares in 2000 to 10 million in 2018, in Brazil. São Paulo State is mostly responsible for the sugarcane production in the country, accounting for 51% of the national production. In 2008, a study was conducted analysing the relationship between sugarcane cultivation and the aquatic macroinvertebrate community, showing the impacts of sugarcane on the macroinvertebrate aquatic fauna. The present study aims to gather actual information on the aquatic macroinvertebrate community in the same streams studied in 2008, to make a historical comparison with studies previously carried out. Eight streams were selected; four located in areas of sugarcane cultivation and four located in preserved areas. Three samples were carried out between 2018 and 2020. The aquatic macroinvertebrates were collected using a D-frame aquatic net (250 µm) including riffle and pools areas and identified using specific identification keys. The results of the historical assessment showed better ecological conditions of the streams in 2008 when compared to 2018 in areas of sugarcane cultivation, suggesting that the environmental impact was maintained and increased after ten years.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Saccharum , Saccharum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brasil , Animais , Invertebrados/classificação , Invertebrados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/métodos , Rios , Organismos Aquáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Organismos Aquáticos/classificação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Biodiversidade
13.
Ecotoxicology ; 33(4-5): 397-414, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836941

RESUMO

Mercury is a ubiquitous pollutant of global concern but the threat of exposure is not homogenously distributed at local, regional, or global scales. The primary route of human exposure to mercury is through consumption of aquatic foods, which are culturally and economically important in the wider Caribbean Region, especially for Small Island Developing States (SIDS). We compiled more than 1600 samples of 108 unique species of fish and aquatic invertebrates collected between 2005 and 2023 from eleven countries or territories in the wider Caribbean Region. There was wide variability in total mercury concentrations with 55% of samples below the 0.23 µg/g wet weight (ww) guideline from the U.S. FDA/EPA (2022) for 2 or 3 weekly servings and 26% exceeding the 0.46 µg/g ww guideline consistent with adverse effects on human health from continual consumption, particularly for sensitive populations. Significant relationships were found between total mercury concentrations and taxonomic family, sampling country, fish length, and trophic level. The data analyzed here support the need for further sampling with concrete geospatial data to better understand patterns and mechanisms in mercury concentrations and allow for more informed decision making on the consumption of fish and invertebrates from the wider Caribbean Region as well as supporting efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of national, regional, and international mercury policies.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Invertebrados , Mercúrio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Mercúrio/análise , Região do Caribe , Animais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 945: 173914, 2024 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38885715

RESUMO

As anthropogenic disturbance on deep-sea seamount ecosystems grows, there is an urgent need for a better understanding of the biodiversity and community structure in benthic ecosystems, which can vary at local and regional scales. A survey of the benthic megafauna on two adjacent deep-water seamounts in the northwestern Pacific Ocean was conducted, which are covered by cobalt-rich crusts, to assess the biodiversity patterns and dissimilarity of assemblage composition. Based on a multidisciplinary dataset generated from video recordings, multibeam bathymetry data, and near-bottom currents, environmental and spatial factors impacting the megabenthic communities were explored. Results showed that these two deep-water seamounts were dominated by hexactinellids, crinoids, and octocorals. The seamounts were able to support diverse and moderately abundant megafauna, with a total of 6436 individuals classified into 94 morphospecies. The survey covered a distance of 52.2 km across a depth range of 1421-3335 m, revealing multiple distinct megabenthic assemblages. The megabenthic communities of the two deep-water seamounts, with comparable environmental conditions, exhibited similarities in overall density, richness, and faunal lists, while dissimilarities in the relative abundance of taxa and assemblage composition. No gradual depth-related change in terms of abundance, richness, or species turnover was observed across the two seamounts, despite the statistical significance of depth in structuring the overall communities. The spatial distribution of megabenthic communities displayed a discontinuous and patchy pattern throughout the two deep-water seamounts. This patchiness was driven by the interactive effects of multiple environmental factors. Near-bottom currents and microhabitat features were the primary drivers influencing their dissimilarities in megabenthic community structure. This case study on the megabenthic community structure of two adjacent seamounts with cobalt-rich crusts can serve as an environmental baseline, providing a reference status for the conservation and management of seamount ecosystems, particularly valuable for areas being considered for deep-sea mining.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Cobalto , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oceano Pacífico , Cobalto/análise , Animais , Ecossistema , Organismos Aquáticos , Invertebrados
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 945: 174045, 2024 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38908590

RESUMO

Understanding diversity patterns and underlying drivers is one of the central topics in the fields of biogeography and community ecology. Aquatic macroinvertebrates are widely distributed in various wetlands and play vital ecological roles. Previous studies mainly have focused on macroinvertebrate diversity in a single type of wetland. Our understanding of the differences in diversity patterns and underlying drivers between different wetland types remains limited. Here, we compared diversity patterns and community assembly of floodplain wetlands (FWs) and non-floodplain wetlands (NWs) in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. We found that the taxonomic richness and abundance were higher in NWs than those in FWs. Nineteen taxa were identified as habitat specialists in the NWs, whereas only four taxa were designated as habitat specialists in the FWs. In addition, the FW and NW assemblages exhibited contrasting compositions. Spatial and environmental variables explained the largest variations in the macroinvertebrate assemblages of NWs and FWs, respectively. Normalised stochasticity ratios and Sloan neutral models confirmed that the macroinvertebrate community assembly of both wetland types was driven largely by stochastic processes. Stochastic processes were more prominent in shaping macroinvertebrate communities of FWs, whereas a stronger dispersal limitation was detected in NWs. Our results revealed contrasting diversity patterns and assembly mechanisms of macroinvertebrate communities in FWs and NWs. We underscore the importance of flood disturbance in shaping wetland ecosystems in the Sanjiang Plain and highlight that conservation and restoration actions cover different types of wetland habitats.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Invertebrados , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Invertebrados/fisiologia , China , Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ecossistema , Inundações
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 257, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38867296

RESUMO

Macroinvertebrate predators such as backswimmers (Heteroptera: Notonectidae), dragonflies (Odonata: Aeshnidae), and predatory diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) naturally inhabit aquatic ecosystems. Some aquatic ecosystems inhabited by these macroinvertebrate predator taxa equally form malaria vector larval habitats. The presence of these predators in malaria vector larval habitats can negatively impact on development, adult body size, fecundity, and longevity of the malaria vectors, which form important determinants of their fitness and future vectorial capacity. These potential negative impacts caused by aquatic macroinvertebrate predators on malaria vectors warrant their consideration as biocontrol agents in an integrated program to combat malaria. However, the use of these macroinvertebrate predators in malaria biocontrol is currently constrained by technical bottlenecks linked to their generalist predatory tendencies and often long life cycles, demanding complex rearing systems. We reviewed the literature on the use of aquatic macroinvertebrate predators for biocontrol of malaria vectors from the An. gambiae s.l. complex. The available information from laboratory and semi-field studies has shown that aquatic macroinvertebrates have the potential to consume large numbers of mosquito larvae and could thus offer an additional approaches in integrated malaria vector management strategies. The growing number of semi-field structures available in East and West Africa provides an opportunity to conduct ecological experimental studies to reconsider the potential of using aquatic macroinvertebrate predators as a biocontrol tool. To achieve a more sustainable approach to controlling malaria vector populations, additional, non-chemical interventions could provide a more sustainable approach, in comparison with the failing chemical control tools, and should be urgently considered for integration with the current mosquito vector control campaigns.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Anopheles/fisiologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária/transmissão , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Larva/fisiologia , Heterópteros/fisiologia , Odonatos/fisiologia , Besouros/fisiologia , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Invertebrados/fisiologia
17.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 601, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849407

RESUMO

Freshwater macroinvertebrates are a diverse group and play key ecological roles, including accelerating nutrient cycling, filtering water, controlling primary producers, and providing food for predators. Their differences in tolerances and short generation times manifest in rapid community responses to change. Macroinvertebrate community composition is an indicator of water quality. In Europe, efforts to improve water quality following environmental legislation, primarily starting in the 1980s, may have driven a recovery of macroinvertebrate communities. Towards understanding temporal and spatial variation of these organisms, we compiled the TREAM dataset (Time seRies of European freshwAter Macroinvertebrates), consisting of macroinvertebrate community time series from 1,816 river and stream sites (mean length of 19.2 years and 14.9 sampling years) of 22 European countries sampled between 1968 and 2020. In total, the data include >93 million sampled individuals of 2,648 taxa from 959 genera and 212 families. These data can be used to test questions ranging from identifying drivers of the population dynamics of specific taxa to assessing the success of legislative and management restoration efforts.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Rios , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Água Doce , Dinâmica Populacional , Qualidade da Água , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(7): 635, 2024 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38900337

RESUMO

Detecting human impact on freshwater ecosystems is problematic without rigorous assessment of temporal changes. Assessments of mining impacts are further complicated by the strong influence of local catchment geology on surface waters even in unmined environments. Such influence cannot be effectively considered by using broad-scale reference frameworks based on regionalization and stream types. Using the BACI (Before-After Control-Impact) design, we examined the impact of mining discharges on freshwater algae and macroinvertebrate communities resulting from the rerouting of treated wastewaters through a pipeline to larger water bodies in Northern and North-Eastern Finland. Impacted sites and control sites were sampled 1 to 2 years before and 1 to 3 years after the pipelines became operational. Stream diatom communities recovered from past loadings upstream of the pipeline (which was no longer impacted by wastewaters) after rerouting of the wastewaters, while no changes downstream from the pipeline were detected. Upstream from the pipeline, diatom species richness increased and changes in relative abundances of the most common diatom taxa as well as in the overall community composition were observed. The effects of the pipeline were less evident for stream macroinvertebrate communities. There was an indication that regional reference conditions used in national biomonitoring may not represent diatom communities in areas with a strong geochemical background influence. Lake profundal macroinvertebrate communities were impacted by past loadings before the construction of the pipeline, and the influence of the pipeline was observed only as changes in the abundances of a few individual species such as phantom midges (which increased in abundance in response to discharges directed through the pipeline). Our results highlight the variable influence of mining discharges on aquatic communities. Statistically strong monitoring programmes, such as BACI designs, are clearly needed to detect these influences.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce , Invertebrados , Mineração , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Animais , Água Doce/química , Finlândia , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(7): 649, 2024 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38909348

RESUMO

The presence of elevated levels of heavy metals in soil poses a significant environmental concern with implications for human health and other organisms. The main objective of our study was to reduce the gap information of seasonal abundance, distribution of heavy metals in soil, leaf litter, and some macroinvertebrates in a citrus orchard (Citrus sinensis) in Sohag Governorate, Egypt. The heavy metals copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Degree of contamination (DC) was determined for both soil and leaf litter contamination. However, the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was estimated to determine metal accumulation in the macroinvertebrates including earwigs Anisolabis maritima, chilopoda Scolopendra moristans, spider Dysdera crocata, and earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa. The study area had clay-loam with varying organic matter, salinity, and pH levels. The degree of contamination varied among seasons, with the highest levels typically observed in autumn in both soil and leaf litter. The soil ranged from low contamination (1.82) to high contamination levels (4.4), while the leaf litter showed extremely high (30.03) to ultra-high (85.92) contamination levels. The mean ecological risk index results indicated that the sampling area had moderate ecological risk levels for Cd (44.3), Zn (42.17), and Pb (80.05), and extremely high levels for Cu (342.5). Heavy metal concentrations in the selected fauna were the highest in autumn, and the bioaccumulation factor varied among species and seasons with some species classified as e-concentrators, micro-concentrators, and macro-concentrators of certain heavy metals. Scolopendra moristans exhibited the highest mean metal concentrations (Cd, Pb, and Zn), while Aporrectodea caliginosa had the lowest. Thus, the differences in heavy metal concentrations found in different soil taxa highlight the significance of taxing a holistic understanding of feeding mechanisms into account when evaluating the potential risk for animals that consume invertebrates.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Invertebrados , Metais Pesados , Folhas de Planta , Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Egito , Animais , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Solo/química , Invertebrados/metabolismo , Bioacumulação
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13334, 2024 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858480

RESUMO

The Namib Desert is a hyperarid coastal desert where fog is a major moisture source. We hypothesized that the fog-harvesting grass Stipagrostis sabulicola establishes an important ecological niche, termed the "Fog-Plant-Oases" (FPOs), and serves as the primary carbon source for the invertebrate community. To determine this, we measured the natural variations of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) of invertebrates as well as that of plant biomass and belowground detritus and estimated the contributions of the fog plants in their diets. Our findings revealed a complex trophic structure and demonstrated that S. sabulicola fuels carbon flow from lower to higher trophic levels in the aboveground food web. The distinct δ13C values of bacterial- and fungal-feeding nematodes indicated however the separation of the aboveground niche, which is primarily sustained by S. sabulicola, from the belowground niche, where wind-blown sediments may serve as the main energy source for the soil biota. Our findings further accentuate the critical role of S. sabulicola FPOs in establishing complex trophic dynamics and a distinctive food web within the hyperarid Namib dunes.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Namíbia , Poaceae/metabolismo , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Biomassa , Clima Desértico , Solo/química , Carbono/metabolismo , Invertebrados
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