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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 821488, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493359

RESUMO

The microeconomic behavior of enterprises is influenced by the government system and its policies. In this article, we investigate how environmental regulation and environmental decentralization affect enterprise environmental protection investment using the data of China's listed companies from 2009 to 2020 and examine the effect of environmental decentralization on the relationship between environmental regulation and environmental protection investment. First, we find that there is a "U-shaped" relationship between environmental regulation and enterprise environmental protection investment. Second, the estimation results indicate that environmental decentralization can promote enterprise environmental protection investment. Finally, we further provide evidence to show that environmental decentralization has a negative moderating impact on the relationship between environmental regulation and enterprise environmental protection investment. Accordingly, the conclusion of this study is helpful to optimize the environmental decentralization management system, reasonably guide the local government behavior, alleviate the contradiction between environmental protection and economic development, and promote the green transformation of economic development mode.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Investimentos em Saúde , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Política
2.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267055, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511872

RESUMO

Combined with the expected utility theory, this paper constructs a theoretical analysis framework including the development level, financial literacy, and intelligence level of Inclusive Finance, puts forward the hypothesis of the development of digital Inclusive Finance on household asset allocation, and uses the data of China's household finance survey to verify the theory proposed in this paper. The empirical results show that: (1) digital inclusive Finance can significantly improve the allocation proportion of household risk assets, promote the rational participation of households in the risk financial market, and improve the allocation efficiency of household resources. (2) Digital inclusive finance can significantly improve the income level of family financial investment and optimize family investment decision-making.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Investimentos em Saúde , China
5.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 5207003, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35535184

RESUMO

In this study, we use a tripartite evolutionary game model to analyze the financial support for science-tech enterprises' innovation with government participation. Based on the game model, the study uses replication dynamics to analyze the stability of evolutionary trajectory in the eight scenarios of enterprises, the government, and the financial institutes. Then, we discuss the effect of the reputation multiplier, the efficiency of firms' innovation output, and the positive socio-economic externalities multiplier by simulation as the important innovative points in this study. The study draws the following conclusions: (1) enterprises will choose high R&D intensity instead of low R&D intensity if the output of former exceeds that of the latter, (2) enterprises' R&D output is closely related to the strategy choices of the government and financial institutes, and (3) enterprises can attract government subsidy by boosting economic and social externalities. The government subsidies to enterprises with high R&D intensity will improve the innovation output by the innovation investment and reputation multiplier. So, the government can implement subsidy policy to boost high-intensive R&D activity. Financial institutes' strategy choice between equity investment and debt investment is influenced by investment yield difference and can influence enterprises' R&D intensity choices.


Assuntos
Governo , Investimentos em Saúde , China , Apoio Financeiro
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 873433, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400058

RESUMO

European Union (EU) structural funds aim at reducing economic and social disparities between the member states regions. The objectives of the study were to (1) provide a summary overview of all health related projects co-financed by EU structural funds in Poland between 2004 and 2020, (2) define the share of projects/funds devoted to infrastructure investments, and (3) assess the total value of EU structural funds' contribution to health care infrastructure investments in comparison to the national public budgets. Data on projects co-financed by EU structural funds covered all projects realized under three financial perspectives: 2004-2006; 2007-2013; 2014-2020. The extraction of "health-related" projects was done according to both the type priority under which the project was realized as well as the type of beneficiary. Results showed that between 2004 and 2020, 14,179 health related projects were implemented, with a total value of 33.2 billion PLN, including EU contribution of 22.8 billion PLN (68.7%). Although projects focused on education and public health prevailed in terms of their total number, infrastructural projects consumed the vast majority of funds. Within the analyzed period, a total of 6,689 health infrastructure projects were implemented with a total value of 29.5 billion PLN, including 19.7 billion PLN of EU contributions. The results confirm that the EU structural funds constituted an important source of infrastructural investments in the Polish health system and majority of them were consumed by investments in public hospitals.


Assuntos
Administração Financeira , Atenção à Saúde , União Europeia , Investimentos em Saúde , Polônia
7.
Popul Health Manag ; 25(2): 192-198, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442785

RESUMO

Greater investment in the social determinants of health (SDOH) is positively associated with improved health outcomes of both individuals and their communities, which in turn may help to bend the health care cost curve and reduce health care spending. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between local governments' spending on the SDOH and the health care costs of privately insured nonelderly adults. Annual spending by local governments on the SDOH for the years 2007-2017 was obtained from the Census of Governments. Annual health care costs for privately insured nonelderly adults for the years 2013-2017 was obtained from the Health Care Cost Institute. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine the association between county-level local governments' per capita spending on the SDOH and the per member health care costs of privately insured adults living in these counties controlling for community characteristics. All analyses were conducted in 2021. For near-elderly adults ages 55-64, health care costs were significantly higher in counties with the lowest levels of local governmental spending on the SDOH. For adults ages 18-54, in contrast, health care costs were unrelated to local governmental spending. Investments of local governments in the SDOH may have rather limited potential to yield meaningful savings in health care costs for privately insured nonelderly adults at the population level, especially once such investments exceed a minimum threshold.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Investimentos em Saúde , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266741, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443002

RESUMO

Controlling persons are the ultimate decision-makers of listed companies. Their illegalities have impacts on investors' wealth, firm development, and capital market's quality. Against this backdrop, we provide a quantitative analysis of the short-term stock price reaction to the criminal detention announcements of controlling persons throughout 2007-2019. We applied the Elman neural network (ENN) model into the classical event study methodology and demonstrated that the combination of them helps to improve the estimation accuracy of the stock price reaction. The results show that the stock price has a significant negative reaction to the criminal detention announcements of listed companies' controlling persons on the announcement day, and the average reaction level is -6.67%. Additionally, the crisis communication measures of the firms could diminish the negative impact of such mandatory disclosure information on their stock price, but the effect is limited. Finally, the 31 companies in our sample cause a total loss of RMB 21.1 billion in market capitalization on the announcement day alone. The above results indicate that the impact of listed companies' controlling persons on the capital market is tremendous, although the number of this group is small. Our work enriches the listed companies' illegalities research and provides a reference for investors' investment choices and follow-up decision making of regulatory authorities. It also provides some guidance for most of the researchers to further explore the application of data mining techniques in nonlinear problems.


Assuntos
Revelação , Investimentos em Saúde , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 794177, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35444980

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study is to study the spatial effects of health expenditure and health output in China. Methods: Using the spatial panel data of 31 provinces in China from 2011 to 2018, the spatial weight matrix was introduced to analyze the spatial correlation, and the spatial Durbin model (SDM) was used to investigate the health output effect of health expenditure. Results: Excluding the number of doctors per thousand, the provincial health expenditure, the number of beds per thousand population, and per capita education level had a positive impact on the regional health output. The health effect of China's health inputs showed a spatial spillover effect. Conclusion: Due to the significant spatial effect, the health output of 31 provinces in China benefits not only from the local health inputs, but also from the health inputs of neighboring provinces. Suggestions: This article puts forward some suggestions based on the conclusion: China should strengthen the health cooperation among neighboring provinces, promote the free flow of various health factors among provinces, make full use of the spillover and interdependence of health investment among provinces, and improve the medical policy environment in China.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Investimentos em Saúde , China , Análise Espacial
11.
Chaos ; 32(4): 043114, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489841

RESUMO

In nature and human society, social relationships and behavior patterns are usually unpredictable. In any interaction, individuals will constantly have to deal with prior uncertainty. The concept of "reputation" can provide some information to mitigate such uncertainty. In previous studies, researchers have considered that only cooperators are able to maintain a high reputation; no matter the circumstances of a defector, they are classified as a faithless individual. In reality, however, some individuals will be forced to defect to protect themselves against exploitation. Therefore, it makes sense that defectors in bad circumstances could also obtain higher reputations, and cooperators can maintain higher reputations in comfortable circumstances. In this work, the reputations of individuals are calculated using the fraction of their neighbors who have the same strategy. In this way, some defectors in a population may obtain higher reputations than some cooperators. We introduce this reputation rule using heterogeneous investments in public goods games. Our numerical simulation results indicate that this reputation rule and heterogeneous investments can better stimulate cooperation. Additionally, stronger investment heterogeneity can further increase the level of cooperation. To explain this phenomenon, dynamical evolution is observed in Monte Carlo simulations. We also investigated the effects of the noise intensity of the irrational population and the original proportion of cooperation in the population. The robustness of this cooperation model was also considered with respect to the network structure and total investment, and we found that the conclusions remained the same.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Teoria do Jogo , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde , Incerteza
12.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 4964394, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35422853

RESUMO

In this work, we propose AGKN (attention-based graph learning kernel network), a novel framework to incorporate information of correlated firms of a target stock for its price prediction in an end-to-end way. We first construct a stock-axis attention module to extract dynamic and asymmetric spatial correlations through the kernel method and a graph learning module into which more accurate information can be integrated. An ensemble time-axis attention module is then applied to learn temporal correlations within each stock and market index. Finally, we utilize a transformer encoder to jointly attend to obtain information from different levels for correlations' aggregation and prediction. Experiments with data collected from the Chinese stock market show that AGKN outperforms state-of-the-art baseline methods, making up to 4.3% lower error than the best competitors. The ablation study shows that AGKN pays more attention to hidden correlation between stocks, which improves model's performance greatly.


Assuntos
Investimentos em Saúde , Redes Neurais de Computação , Aprendizagem
13.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267455, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35482809

RESUMO

By exploring the China International Fair for Investment and Trade's development process, this study analyzes its absolute advantages in future development, gradually lost comparative advantages, and potential crises. Through the data envelopment analysis model, the study analyzes its resource allocation efficiency based on two cooperation modes: traditional "Offline" investment mode and "Online + Offline" investment mode. Then we use vector autoregressive model to comprehensively investigate the impact and causality of the two input factors on output. We find that its comprehensive allocation efficiency presents a "U" shape that reflects the characteristics of its three stages: the first stage, 2001-2005; the second stage, 2006-2012; and the third stage, 2013-2020. The main factors affecting resource allocation efficiency are then deduced from the results: exhibition scale utilization, booth design innovation, project strength of participating enterprises, and the signing rate of overseas customers. The number of industrial and commercial groups (X4) and participating countries and regions (X6) have an important impact on the output indicators: signed contract projects (Y1). The empirical results verify that the "Online + Offline" investment mode is an effective and suitable mechanism to solve the problem of cooperation and investment constrained by the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on the results of empirical analysis, this study posits the path and countermeasures of realizing the transformation to "cloud" exhibition in the post-pandemic era. Especially, we should focus on building new mechanisms of business environment that will promote the active participation of national, regional, and international industrial and commercial groups. The purpose is to continuously strengthen the foundation of cooperative trust and innovate a new trust model of online cooperative trading.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde , Pandemias , Alocação de Recursos
14.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266199, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417498

RESUMO

Corporate charitable donations under different motivations will have different effects on innovation investment through different action paths, which provides a new perspective to solve the inconsistency of existing research results. Based on the resource-dependent and principal-agent theories, this paper compares and discusses the relationship between charitable donations and innovation investment under different motivations. Using 2008 ~2019 relevant data of listed companies as research samples, a mixed regression model is established for the hypothesis test, and further examines the state-ownership of its moderating role. The results show that the altruistic motivation-oriented corporate donations have a significant inverted u-shaped effect on innovation investment. The tool motivation-oriented corporate donations have a significant U-shaped effect on innovation investment. Moreover, it is further found that for ST (Special Treatment) corporates with the risk of delisting in the tool motivation-oriented charitable donations type, the corporate charitable donations have a significant negative effect on innovation investment. State-ownership can enhance the inverted U-shaped relationship between altruistic motivation-oriented corporate donations and innovation investment but weaken the U-shaped relationship between tool motivation-oriented corporate donations and innovation investment.


Assuntos
Investimentos em Saúde , Motivação , China , Criatividade , Organizações
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 839030, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35433586

RESUMO

Bilateral investment agreements are bilateral treaties between capital exporting countries and host countries, which is specially used to protect international investment, and the contract execution is directly related to the daily operation of multinational enterprises. Based on the panel data of 73 developing countries from 2005 to 2019, this paper examines the improvement effect of BITs on the contract execution of host countries. The study found that both the overall bilateral investment agreements and the bilateral investment agreements in force can significantly improve the contract execution of the host country. Due to the differences between the civil law system and the common law system in many aspects, such as the source of evidence and trial mode, the effect of BITs on the improvement of contract execution in host countries of the common law system is more prominent. In terms of specific impact, the improvement effect of BITs on time is significantly better than cost. The core conclusion is still valid after changing the estimation method and eliminating abnormal samples.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Países em Desenvolvimento , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Investimentos em Saúde
16.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(4): 268-275, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35386551

RESUMO

Preventing noncommunicable diseases is a global priority, for which the World Health Organization has recommended policies to reduce the consumption of tobacco products, alcohol and unhealthy foods. However, regulation has been strongly opposed by affected industries, who have invoked the provisions of legally binding trade and investment agreements. The aim of this analysis of the legal, economic and public health literature was to present a short primer on the relationship between noncommunicable disease prevention policy and trade and investment agreements to help public health policy-makers safeguard public health policies. The analysis identified opportunities for protecting, and even promoting, public health in trade and investment agreements, including: (i) ensuring exceptions for public health measures are included in agreements; (ii) committing to good regulatory practice that balances transparency and cooperation with the need for governments to limit the influence of vested interests; (iii) ensuring trade and investment agreement preambles acknowledge the importance of public health; (iv) excluding investor-state dispute settlement mechanisms from agreements; and (v) limiting the scope and definition of key provisions on investor protection to reduce the risk of investment disputes. This synthesis of the multidisciplinary literature also provides support for greater strategic and informed engagement between the health and trade policy sectors. In addition, ensuring a high level of health protection in trade and investment agreements requires cooperation between disciplines, engagement with experts in law, economics and public health policy, and fully transparent policy processes and governance structures.


La prévention des maladies non transmissibles constitue une priorité mondiale. Dans ce contexte, l'Organisation mondiale de la Santé a recommandé des politiques visant à réduire la consommation de produits du tabac, d'alcool et d'aliments nocifs pour la santé. Néanmoins, cette régulation s'est heurtée à une forte opposition de la part des industries concernées, qui ont invoqué les dispositions prévues dans les accords juridiquement contraignants en matière de commerce et d'investissement. La présente analyse se penche sur la littérature juridique, économique et de santé publique. Son but: décrire brièvement la relation entre les mesures de prévention des maladies non transmissibles d'une part, et les accords en matière de commerce et d'investissement d'autre part, afin d'aider les législateurs compétents à défendre les politiques de santé publique. Cette analyse a identifié divers moyens de préserver, voire de promouvoir la santé publique dans les accords de commerce et d'investissement, notamment: (i) en veillant à inclure des exceptions pour les mesures de santé publique dans les accords; (ii) en s'engageant à respecter les bonnes pratiques réglementaires, qui concilient la transparence et la coopération avec la nécessité, pour les gouvernements, de limiter l'influence des intérêts en place; (iii) en s'assurant que les accords de commerce et d'investissement mentionnent dans leur préambule l'importance de la santé publique; (iv) en excluant de ces accords les mécanismes de règlement des différends entre États et investisseurs; et enfin, (v) en limitant la portée et la définition des dispositions fondamentales sur la protection des investisseurs afin de diminuer le risque de différend. Cette synthèse de littérature multidisciplinaire contribue également à plus d'engagement stratégique et éclairé entre les politiques sanitaires et commerciales. En outre, garantir un haut niveau de protection sanitaire dans les accords de commerce et d'investissement implique une collaboration entre plusieurs disciplines, la mobilisation d'experts en droit, en économie et en politiques de santé publique, ainsi que des structures de gouvernance et des processus d'élaboration des politiques entièrement transparents.


La prevención de las enfermedades no transmisibles es una prioridad mundial, por lo que la Organización Mundial de la Salud ha recomendado la adopción de políticas para reducir el consumo de productos de tabaco, alcohol y alimentos malsanos. Sin embargo, las industrias afectadas se han opuesto con firmeza a la regulación, invocando las disposiciones de los acuerdos comerciales y de inversión jurídicamente vinculantes. El objetivo de este análisis sobre la documentación jurídica, económica y de salud pública fue presentar una breve introducción sobre la relación entre la política de prevención de las enfermedades no transmisibles y los acuerdos comerciales y de inversión para ayudar a las autoridades responsables de formular las políticas de salud pública a protegerlas. El análisis identificó oportunidades para proteger, e incluso promover, la salud pública en los acuerdos comerciales y de inversión, que incluyen i) garantizar la inclusión de excepciones para las medidas de salud pública en los acuerdos; ii) comprometerse con las buenas prácticas regulatorias que equilibran la transparencia y la cooperación con la necesidad de los gobiernos de limitar la influencia de los intereses creados; iii) garantizar que los preámbulos de los acuerdos comerciales y de inversión reconocen la importancia de la salud pública; iv) excluir de los acuerdos los mecanismos de resolución de disputas entre inversores y Estados; y v) limitar el alcance y la definición de las disposiciones clave sobre la protección de los inversores para reducir el riesgo de disputas sobre las inversiones. Esta síntesis de la documentación multidisciplinar también respalda un mayor compromiso estratégico e informado entre los sectores de la salud y la política comercial. Además, se requiere la cooperación entre las disciplinas, la participación de especialistas en derecho, economía y política de salud pública, y procesos políticos y estructuras de gobernanza totalmente transparentes para garantizar un alto nivel de protección de la salud en los acuerdos comerciales y de inversión.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Comércio , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Política Pública
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 884324, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35462843

RESUMO

In recent years, a series of uncertain events, including the spread of COVID-19, has affected the Chinese stock market. When people face uncertainty, they often turn to internet search engines to obtain more information to support their investment decisions. This paper uses the uncertainty index, investor sentiment reflected by search engine data, and Chinese stock return data during the pandemic to examine the relationships among the three. Using daily data from March 2, 2020, to March 2, 2021, our empirical findings reveal that stock returns during a pandemic lead to an increase in investor retrieval of search engine data and that uncertainty affects stock returns during a pandemic. However, the reverse is not true. Therefore, in the face of an uncertainty such as market volatility caused by the spread of the pandemic, the active release of favorable information by regulators can help guide investor sentiment, prevent sharp stock market volatility, and improve the effectiveness of policy governance.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde , Ferramenta de Busca , Incerteza
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 844015, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35462844

RESUMO

This article is aimed to examine the effect of economic growth on the health of residents from the perspective of local government behavior. First of all, it is theoretically proved that in an economy with economic decentralization and political centralization, because the local government implements the central planner's "people-oriented" and "people-centered" requirements, the local government pays attention to both its own consumption and the health of residents. For this reason, he prefers public health investment, and the conclusion is that there is a stable and balanced relationship between residents' health and economic growth. When the local government's relative importance to people's livelihood is greater than its own consumption, the economic growth will have a significant and positive impact on residents' health. And the internal mechanism of economic growth affecting residents' health is combed mathematically. Secondly, using panel data from China's 31 inland provinces from 2003 to 2019, empirical tests show that the hypothesis that China's economic growth promotes residents' health is established. The work of this article means that the improvement of residents' health depends not only on the total amount of available resources brought about by economic growth, but also on the government's livelihood preferences. The public health investment behavior of local governments in China is an important clue to explains that China's economic growth can promote residents' health.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Governo Local , China , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde , Saúde Pública
19.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 4144073, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35463268

RESUMO

According to Dunning's eclectic theory, the location advantages play a key role in international investment mode choice, in which the country relations are important determinants. In some previous studies, the country relations and another bilateral factor, the country distance, are often confused, which can result in the inconsistency of conclusions. And excepting political factors, the economic dependence and other relations are insufficiently considered in the literature. This article makes a distinction between relation and distance, and puts forward a simplified analytical framework, the indicator system, and some quantitative methods for country relations. The indicators, including political, economic, and social factors, can better satisfy the horizontal analysis of the outbound investment. The economic and social indicators are determined by the magnitude of interaction as well as the share in the home country, and hence, the evaluation results can reflect the differences between the two countries. Finally, by evaluating the relations of other BRICS countries with China, the rationality is illustrated.


Assuntos
Internacionalidade , Investimentos em Saúde , China
20.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 9208640, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35371218

RESUMO

Stock price prediction is one of the major challenges for investors who participate in the stock markets. Therefore, different methods have been explored by practitioners and academicians to predict stock price movement. Artificial intelligence models are one of the methods that attracted many researchers in the field of financial prediction in the stock market. This study investigates the prediction of the daily stock prices for Commerce International Merchant Bankers (CIMB) using technical indicators in a NARX neural network model. The methodology employs comprehensive parameter trails for different combinations of input variables and different neural network designs. The study seeks to investigate the optimal artificial neural networks (ANN) parameters and settings that enhance the performance of the NARX model. Therefore, extensive parameter trails were studied for various combinations of input variables and NARX neural network configurations. The proposed model is further enhanced by preprocessing and optimising the NARX model's input and output parameers. The prediction performance is assessed based on the mean squared error (MSE), R-squared, and hit rate. The performance of the proposed model is compared with other models, and it is shown that the utilisation of technical indicators with the NARX neural network improves the accuracy of one-step-ahead prediction for CIMB stock in Malaysia. The performance of the proposed model is further improved by optimising the input data and neural network parameters. The improved prediction of stock prices could help investors increase their returns from investment in stock markets.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Investimentos em Saúde , Comércio , Movimento , Redes Neurais de Computação
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