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1.
Food Chem ; 371: 131329, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808765

RESUMO

Human breast milk (HBM) has a beneficial impact on health programming, growth and neurodevelopment of newborns.Increase in iodine intake is recommended for pregnant women in order to produce enough thyroid hormones to meet foetal requirements.In this work, a combined analytical multiplatform based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled toquadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometryhas been appliedinthe first metabolomic study of HBM ofiodine-deficientwomen. In addition, the elemental composition of HBM has been determined by inductively coupled plasma triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Remarkably,31 metaboliteswith important biological roles(e.g. glycerophospholipids for neurodevelopment)were seentobe alteredin the HBM of iodine-deficient women. The main metabolic pathwaysalteredinclude lipid metabolism, amino acid cycle, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis.Additionally, the concentration of selenium, zinc and copperwere seento be significantlylowerin HBM of iodine-deficient women.


Assuntos
Iodo , Leite Humano , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Iodo/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Metaboloma , Leite Humano/química , Gravidez
2.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 59-66, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650064

RESUMO

The current study aimed to identify correlative and regressive dependencies between the water iodine concentration and the levels of TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAbs), and thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) in the serum of 168 in patients (34 men and 134 women) with a hypothyroid form of Hashimoto's thyroiditis who use water from the supply network and individual wells. Based on the water iodine concentration, low and moderate degrees of iodine endemia in the location of the patients were determined. In the groups of men and women using water from different water supply sources, there were direct correlations between the water iodine concentrations and the TgAbs and TPOAb titers as well as an inverse dependence between iodine and TSH levels. Multivariate regressive analysis indicated that TgAb and TSH in the group of women using water from a supply network and TPOAb titers in the group of women using well water were independent factors associated with water iodine concentrations. Statistically significant correlations and regressive dependencies between the water iodine concentrations and the biomarkers of the thyroid status of the patients indicate the risk of Hashimoto's thyroiditis progression, especially among women with additional iodine intake.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Doença de Hashimoto , Hipotireoidismo , Iodo , Autoanticorpos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Acta Clin Croat ; 60(2): 259-267, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744276

RESUMO

Lactating women (LW) and infants have high dietary iodine requirements and are at risk of iodine deficiency. The aim of the study was to assess iodine status and thyroid function in LW and their breastfed infants in Zagreb, Croatia. The study included 133 LW and breastfed infant pairs. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and thyroid function parameters were measured in all subjects. In LW, breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) was measured and iodine and salt rich food frequency questionnaire data were collected. Results of analysis indicated that 99.2% of the LW used iodized salt in household and 20.4% used iodine-containing vitamin and mineral supplements. Median (IQR) UIC was 75 µg/L (19.0-180.5 µg/L) in LW and 234 µg/L (151.0-367.5 µg/L) in infants, whereas BMIC was 121 µg/kg (87.8-170.8 µg/kg). Multivariate regression analysis revealed BMIC to be a significant predictor of infant UIC (p<0.001). Positive correlation was recorded between LW and infant thyroid function. This was the first study in Croatia demonstrating BMIC to be a reliable biomarker of iodine status during lactation and predicting iodine intake in breastfed infants. The study confirmed that mandatory salt iodization in Croatia ensured sufficient dietary iodine for LW and optimal iodine intake for breastfed infants via breast milk.


Assuntos
Iodo , Lactação , Croácia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Glândula Tireoide
4.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 380(1): 1, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746982

RESUMO

This review article focuses on the α-functionalization of acetophenones involving Kornblum oxidation and C-H functionalizations. Although various other strategies, such as classical approaches, enamine approaches and umpolung strategy are also known for this functionalization, here we discuss mainly the Kornblum oxidation approach and C-H functionalization strategy as they have advantages over the others. In Kornblum oxidation, the reaction uses iodine and dimethylsulfoxide and proceeds through the formation of arylglyoxal as the key intermediate. In C-H functionalization, the reaction requires metal, or metal-free catalyst, and generates radical intermediate in most cases. α-Functionalization of acetophenones is very important because of their huge applications in the synthesis of various natural products and pharmaceuticals and, therefore, a number of research articles have been published in this area. However, no review articles are available so far. In this article, we present a succinct discussion of various important and novel reactions, along with their mechanisms, published since 2012 to date. We believe that this first review article in this field will give readers one-stop information on this topic and encourage further intriguing work in this area.


Assuntos
Acetofenonas , Iodo , Catálise , Metais , Oxirredução
5.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(5): 788-798, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749873

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish a method for the determination of iodine species in human serum by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). METHODS: Total iodine was determined by ICP-MS in helium mode after dilution of serum with tetramethylammonium hydroxide solution. The serum was added to methanol solution to precipitate the protein, and the supernatant was separated by liquid chromatography(LC) followed by ICP-MS for the determination of inorganic iodine. RESULTS: The limit of detection(LOD) of serum I~- by ICP-MS was 0.17 µg/L, the limit of quantification(LOQ) was 0.57 µg/L, and the linear correlation coefficient R~2=0.9998; the LOD of serum IO_3~- was 0.16 µg/L, the LOQ was 0.55 µg/L, and the linear correlation coefficient R~2=0.9998.The I~- recoveries were 96.2%-104.5% for the total serum iodine assay and 93.7%-98.6% for the inorganic iodine assay. Analysis of the iodine species of the actual serum samples showed that the I~- content was 2.6-12.2 µg/L, the organic iodine content was 45.3-66.0 µg/L, and the serum samples were essentially free of IO_3~-. CONCLUSION: A convenient, efficient and accurate method for the determination of serum iodine species was established using high performance liquid chromatography tandem with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.


Assuntos
Iodo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Iodetos , Espectrometria de Massas
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 4859-4870, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787181

RESUMO

The scope of this article is to evaluate the potentialities of indicators of the nutritional status of iodine in individuals or populations. The review was based on PRISMA. The search for articles occurred in January 2019, in the Pubmed, Scopus and LILACS databases, using the key words: indicators AND nutritional status AND iodine. The selection followed the stages of excluding the duplicates, reading the titles, abstracts and analyses in full. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated by the Downs and Black instrument. A total of 178 studies were identified and 20 were included. Urinary Iodine Concentration (UIC) was analyzed in 65% of the studies and was considered the best indicator to evaluate the nutritional status of iodine in the population. Thyroglobulin was determined in 20% of the studies and reflected the pre-existing state of iodine. Thyroid stimulating hormone was verified in 45% of the articles and was important for the surveillance of iodine deficiency among newborns. Only one study evaluated capillary iodine, useful for analyzing long-term dietary intake. In the evaluation of methodological quality, the lowest score was 12 and the highest 16, in 17 possible points. The use of UIC is recommended for the diagnosis of deficiency and excess of iodine in the population.


Assuntos
Iodo , Desnutrição , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estado Nutricional , Tireoglobulina
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(11)2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833429

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Adequate dietary intake of iodine and selenium is essential during pregnancy. While iodine is vital for maternal thyroid function and fetal development, selenium contributes to the regulation of thyroid function and thyroid autoimmunity. This study aimed to assess the consumption of iodine- and selenium-containing products by women of reproductive age and the iodine and selenium nutritional status of pregnant women in Latvia. Materials and Methods: Population health survey (2010-2018) data were used to characterize dietary habits in women of reproductive age. Additionally, 129 pregnant women in the first trimester were recruited; they completed a questionnaire and were tested for thyroid function, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and serum selenium and selenoprotein P levels. Results: The use of some dietary sources of iodine (e.g., milk and dairy products) and selenium (e.g., bread) has decreased in recent years. Less than 10% of respondents reported the use of iodized salt. The use of supplements has become more common (reported by almost 50% of respondents in 2018). Dietary habits were similar in pregnant women, but the use of supplements was even higher (almost 70%). Nevertheless, most supplements used in pregnancy had insufficient contents of iodine and selenium. Thyroid function was euthyreotic in all women, but 13.9% of participants had a thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-ab) level above 60 IU/mL. The median UIC (IQR) was 147.2 (90.0-248.1) µg/gCr, and 52.8% of pregnant women had a UIC below 150 µg/gCr. The mean selenium (SD) level was 101.5 (35.6) µg/L; 30.1% of women had a selenium level below 80 µg/L. The median selenoprotein P level was 6.9 (3.1-9.0) mg/L. Conclusions: Iodine nutrition in Latvian population of pregnant women was near the lower limit of adequate and a third of the population had a selenium deficiency. Supplements were frequently used, but most did not contain the recommended amounts of iodine and selenium.


Assuntos
Iodo , Selênio , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Letônia , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta
9.
Water Res ; 206: 117755, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695669

RESUMO

Iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs) formed in water treatment are of emerging concern due to their high toxicity and the tase-and-odor problems associated with iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs). Iodoacetic acid and dichloroiodomethane are currently regulated in Shenzhen, China and the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China has also been considering regulating I-DBPs. Iodide (I-), organoiodine compounds (e.g., iodinated X-ray contrast media [ICM]), and iodate (IO3-) are the three common iodine sources in aquatic environment that lead to I-DBP formation. While UV irradiation effectively inactivate a wide range of microorganisms in water, it induces the transformation of these iodine sources, enabling the formation of I-DBPs. This review focuses on the fate and transformation of these iodine sources in UV-based water treatment (i.e., UV irradiation and UV-based advanced oxidation processes [UV-AOPs]) and the formation of I-DBPs in post-disinfection. I- released in UV-based treatments of ICM and can be oxidized in subsequent disinfection to hypoiodous acid (HOI), which reacts with natural organic matter (NOM) to produce I-DBPs. Both UV and UV-AOPs are not able to fully mineralize ICM and completely oxidize the released I- to (except UV/O3). Results reveal that UV and UV-AOPs are adequate for I-DBP degradation but require high UV doses. While the ideal I-DBP mitigation strategy awaits to be developed, understanding their sources and formation pathways aids in informed selections of water treatment processes, empowers water suppliers to meet drinking water standards, and minimizes consumers' exposure to I-DBPs.


Assuntos
Iodo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Humanos , Iodetos , Trialometanos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Med Phys ; 48(11): 6740-6754, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622973

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Conventional cone-beam computed tomography CT (CBCT) provides limited discrimination between low-contrast tissues. Furthermore, it is limited to full-spectrum energy integration. A dual-energy CBCT system could be used to separate photon energy spectra with the potential to increase the visibility of clinically relevant features and acquire additional information relevant in a multitude of clinical imaging applications. In this work, the performance of a novel dual-layer dual-energy CBCT (DL-DE-CBCT) C-arm system is characterized for the first time. METHODS: A prototype dual-layer detector was fitted into a commercial interventional C-arm CBCT system to enable DL-DE-CBCT acquisitions. DL-DE reconstructions were derived from material-decomposed Compton scatter and photoelectric base functions. The modulation transfer function (MTF) of the prototype DL-DE-CBCT was compared to that of a commercial CBCT. Noise and uniformity characteristics were evaluated using a cylindrical water phantom. Effective atomic numbers and electron densities were estimated in clinically relevant tissue substitutes. Iodine quantification was performed (for 0.5-15 mg/ml concentrations) and virtual noncontrast (VNC) images were evaluated. Finally, contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and CT number accuracies were estimated. RESULTS: The prototype and commercial CBCT showed similar spatial resolution, with a mean 10% MTF of 5.98 cycles/cm and 6.28 cycles/cm, respectively, using a commercial standard reconstruction. The lowest noise was seen in the 80 keV virtual monoenergetic images (VMI) (7.40 HU) and the most uniform images were seen at VMI 60 keV (4.74 HU) or VMI 80 keV (1.98 HU), depending on the uniformity measure used. For all the tissue substitutes measured, the mean accuracy in effective atomic number was 98.2% (SD 1.2%) and the mean accuracy in electron density was 100.3% (SD 0.9%). Iodine quantification images showed a mean difference of -0.1 (SD 0.5) mg/ml compared to the true iodine concentration for all blood and iodine-containing objects. For VNC images, all blood substitutes containing iodine averaged a CT number of 43.2 HU, whereas a blood-only substitute measured 44.8 HU. All water-containing iodine substitutes measured a mean CT number of 2.6 in the VNC images. A noise-suppressed dataset showed a CNR peak at VMI 40 keV and low at VMI 120 keV. In the same dataset without noise suppression applied, a peak in CNR was obtained at VMI 70 keV and a low at VMI 120 keV. The estimated CT numbers of various clinically relevant objects were generally very close to the calculated CT number. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of a prototype dual-layer dual-energy C-arm CBCT system was characterized. Spatial resolution and noise were comparable with a commercially available C-arm CBCT system, while offering dual-energy capability. Iodine quantifications, effective atomic numbers, and electron densities were in good agreement with expected values, indicating that the system can be used to reliably evaluate the material composition of clinically relevant tissues. The VNC and monoenergetic images indicate a consistent ability to separate clinically relevant tissues. The results presented indicate that the system could find utility in diagnostic, interventional, and radiotherapy planning settings.


Assuntos
Iodo , Imagem Radiográfica a Partir de Emissão de Duplo Fóton , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Imagens de Fantasmas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Razão Sinal-Ruído
11.
Med Clin North Am ; 105(6): 1017-1031, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688412

RESUMO

Thyroid nodules may be discovered in a variety of settings. Familiarity with their management is important for medical specialists. Workup should start with history and physical examination, proceed to laboratory studies, and then to imaging. Nodules are selected for fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy based on imaging criteria. Most nodules can be accurately diagnosed on cytopathology, but some may require additional molecular testing to evaluate risk of malignancy. Patients with malignant lesions require additional investigation before referral to an experienced thyroid surgeon. Those who have benign lesions may require monitoring by periodic ultrasound to identify nodules requiring reevaluation.


Assuntos
Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Humanos , Iodo/deficiência , Anamnese , Exposição à Radiação , Fatores de Risco , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
12.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684487

RESUMO

Since the Italian iodoprophylaxis strategy is based on the use of iodized salt, we assessed the relationship between dietary salt consumption and iodine intake in the Italian adult population. We estimated the relative contribution given by the use of iodized salt and by the iodine introduced by foods to the total iodine intake. The study population included 2219 adults aged 25-79 years (1138 men and 1081 women) from all Italian regions, participating to the Osservatorio Epidemiologico Cardiovascolare/Health Examination Survey 2008-2012 (OEC/HES), and examined for sodium and iodine intake in the framework of the MINISAL-GIRCSI Programme. Dietary sodium and total iodine intake were assessed by the measurement of 24 h urinary excretion, while the EPIC questionnaire was used to evaluate the iodine intake from food. Sodium and iodine intake were significantly and directly associated, upon accounting for age, sex, and BMI (Spearman rho = 0.298; p < 0.001). The iodine intake increased gradually across quintiles of salt consumption in both men and women (p < 0.001). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) adequacy level for iodine intake was met by men, but not women, only in the highest quintile of salt consumption. We estimated that approximately 57% of the iodine intake is derived from food and 43% from salt. Iodized salt contributed 24% of the total salt intake, including both discretionary and non-discretionary salt consumption. In conclusion, in this random sample of the Italian general adult population examined in 2008-2012, the total iodine intake secured by iodized salt and the iodine provision by food was insufficient to meet the EFSA adequate iodine intake.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Iodo/análise , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Iodo/química , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 23(11): 1771-1781, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612297

RESUMO

Gaseous iodomethane (CH3I) is naturally emitted into the atmosphere by biological activity in oceans and during severe accidents (SAs) in nuclear power plants. In this latter case, a part of radioactive iodine such as 131I may be released. Improving the knowledge of CH3I transport and reactivity in the atmosphere is important since they are strongly linked to first the cycle of ozone and second to the dispersion of radioactive CH3I with potential radiological consequences on both the environment and human health. Here, the interaction process of CH3I with NaCl as a surrogate of atmospheric aerosols was investigated under ambient air conditions by using Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The DRIFTS spectra of NaCl clearly evidenced CH3I adsorption on the NaCl particle surface. A part of CH3I ((1.68 ± 0.85) × 1014 molecule per mgNaCl) was found to be strongly bonded to NaCl since no desorption was observed. The CH3I adsorption on the NaCl surface presented a 1st order kinetics relative to its gas phase concentration. The uptake coefficient was determined to be in the order of 10-11. These results show a low probability of CH3I to be taken up by halide-containing aerosols. These data are crucial for completing the iodine atmospheric chemical scheme.


Assuntos
Iodo , Ozônio , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Atmosfera , Humanos , Radioisótopos do Iodo , Cloreto de Sódio
14.
J Exp Biol ; 224(20)2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605889

RESUMO

Maternal hormones constitute a key signalling pathway for mothers to shape offspring phenotype and fitness. Thyroid hormones (THs; triiodothyronine, T3; and thyroxine, T4) are metabolic hormones known to play crucial roles in embryonic development and survival in all vertebrates. During early developmental stages, embryos exclusively rely on exposure to maternal THs, and maternal hypothyroidism can cause severe embryonic maldevelopment. The TH molecule includes iodine, an element that cannot be synthesised by the organism. Therefore, TH production may become costly when environmental iodine availability is low. This may yield a trade-off for breeding females between allocating the hormones to self or to their eggs, potentially to the extent that it even influences the number of laid eggs. In this study, we investigated whether low dietary iodine may limit TH production and transfer to the eggs in a captive population of rock pigeons (Columba livia). We provided breeding females with an iodine-restricted (I-) diet or iodine-supplemented (I+) diet and measured the resulting circulating and yolk iodine and TH concentrations and the number of eggs laid. Our iodine-restricted diet successfully decreased both circulating and yolk iodine concentrations compared with the supplemented diet, but not circulating or yolk THs. This indicates that mothers may not be able to independently regulate hormone exposure for self and their embryos. However, egg production was clearly reduced in the I- group, with fewer females laying eggs. This result shows that restricted availability of iodine does induce a cost in terms of egg production. Whether females reduced egg production to preserve THs for themselves or to prevent embryos from exposure to low iodine and/or THs is as yet unclear.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Iodo , Animais , Gema de Ovo , Feminino , Hormônios Tireóideos , Tiroxina , Tri-Iodotironina
15.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(Suppl 4): 622-624, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718290

RESUMO

The impairment of adaptive mechanisms of functional systems of the body plays an important role in the occurrence of gastrointestinal diseases. This impairment is caused by unfavorable ecological and radiation conditions, external stress factors, food containing carcinogens, macro - and microelements deficiency. Technogenic environmental pollution contributes to decrease in the level of iodine in the body and more severe course of thyroid pathology. Diseases of the digestive and endocrine systems and their combination will occupy one of the leading places among the existing pathologies according to the forecasts of WHO experts in the XXI century. Adaptation of the body to various environmental influences is the most important factor in the quality of life. The relevance of the study was determined by the high incidence of psychological disadaptation, borderline personality disorders and, as a consequence, decrease in the quality of life in patients with gastrointestinal pathology and hypothyroidism. The article presents the results of comparative analysis of the quality of life indications of patients with gastric ulcer and / or gastroesophageal reflux disease in combination with hypothyroidism. The Russian-language analogue of the international questionnaire SF36 was used to analyze the indicatoions of patients' quality of life. The results of the study will allow to formulate the diagnosis exactly and organize adequate, comprehensive multidisciplinary treatment.


Assuntos
Bócio Endêmico , Hipotireoidismo , Iodo , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Incidência , Qualidade de Vida
16.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1000, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, whether daily excess iodized salt intake increases the risk of thyroid nodules and even thyroid cancer remains controversial. Our research group aimed to provide a theoretical basis for the clinical guidance of daily iodized salt intake and the prevention of thyroid nodules through a retrospective analysis of the correlation between daily iodized salt intake and the risk of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer in Hunan, China. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed the data of subjects who underwent a physical examination at the Health Management Center, Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2019. Subjects enrolled in this study underwent thyroid ultrasonography and tests to urine routines and liver and kidney function, and all subjects completed a questionnaire survey. The daily iodized salt intake of the study subjects was estimated based on spot urine methods (Tanaka). A multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between daily iodized salt intake and thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer. RESULTS: Among the 51,637 subjects included in this study, the prevalence of thyroid nodules was 40.25%, and the prevalence of thyroid cancer was 0.76%; among all enrolled subjects, only 3.59% had a daily iodized salt intake less than 5 g. In addition, we found that a daily intake of more than 5 g of iodized salt was not only an independent risk factor for the occurrence of thyroid nodules (odds ratio (OR): 2.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.86-2.31, p < 0.001) but also an independent risk factor for the occurrence of thyroid cancer (OR: 5.81, 95% CI: 1.44-23.42, p = 0.012). A pooled analysis showed a significantly higher risk of thyroid nodules in subjects aged > 60 years with a daily iodized salt intake of more than 5 g compared to subjects aged < 60 years with a daily iodized salt intake of no more than 5 g (OR: 4.88, 95% CI: 4.29-5.54, p < 0.001); the risk of thyroid cancer was not significantly different between subjects aged > 60 years with a daily iodized salt intake of more than 5 g and those aged < 60 years with a daily iodized salt intake of no more than 5 g (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 0.52-8.95, p = 0.281). The risk of thyroid nodules was not increased in physically active subjects with a daily iodized salt intake of more than 5 g compared to physically inactive subjects with a daily iodized salt intake of no more than 5 g (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.97-1.28, p = 0.111). The same protective effect of physical activity was observed for thyroid cancer in subjects whose daily iodized salt intake exceeded 5 g. The risk of thyroid nodules was reduced for subjects with an education level of postgraduate and above, even when the daily iodized salt intake exceeded 5 g, compared to those with high school education and below and a daily iodized salt intake of no more than 5 g (OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.66-0.93, p = 0.005); however, a protective effect of education level on the occurrence of thyroid cancer was not observed. Independent risk factors affecting daily iodized salt intake greater than 5 g included age, triglycerides, family history of tumors, physical activity, and marital status. CONCLUSIONS: Daily intake of more than 5 g of iodized salt increased the risk of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer, while increased physical activity and education level reduced the risk of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer caused by iodized salt intake.


Assuntos
Iodo/efeitos adversos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/induzido quimicamente , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
17.
Environ Int ; 157: 106869, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several endocrine-disrupting metals may affect thyroid function, but the few available studies of exposure during pregnancy and thyroid hormones are inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To explore if environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and methylmercury (MeHg) impacts thyroid function in pregnancy, and interacts with iodine and selenium status. METHODS: Women in a Swedish birth cohort provided blood and urine samples in early third trimester. Concentrations of erythrocyte Cd, Pb, and Hg (n = 544), urinary Cd and iodine (n = 542) and plasma selenium (n = 548) were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.Free and total thyroxine (fT4, tT4) and triiodothyronine (fT3, tT3), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), were measured in plasma (n = 548) with electrochemiluminescence immunoassays. Metal-hormone associations were assessed in regression models, and metal mixture effects and metal-nutrient interactions were explored in Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR). RESULTS: In multivariable-adjusted regression models, a doubling of urinary Cd was associated with a mean increase in tT4 of 2.7 nmol/L (95% CI: 0.78, 4.6), and in fT3 and tT3 of 0.06 pmol/L (0.02, 0.10) and 0.09 nmol/L (0.05, 0.13), respectively. A doubling of urinary Cd was associated with a -0.002 (-0.003, -0.001) and -0.03 (-0.05, -0.02) decrease in the fT4:tT4 and fT3:tT3 ratio, respectively. A doubling of erythrocyte Hg (>1 µg/kg) was associated with a decrease in fT3 and tT3 by -0.11 pmol/L (-0.16, -0.05) and -0.11 nmol/L (-0.16, -0.06), respectively, and a -0.013 (-0.02, -0.01) decrease in the fT3:fT4 ratio. BKMR did not indicate any mixture effect of toxic metals or interactions between metals and iodine or selenium in relation to the hormones. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that exposure to Cd and Hg, at levels globally prevalent through the diet, may affect thyroid function during pregnancy, independently of iodine and selenium levels. Further studies on potential implications for maternal and child health are warranted.


Assuntos
Iodo , Selênio , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Hormônios Tireóideos , Tireotropina , Tiroxina , Tri-Iodotironina
18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488281

RESUMO

Iodine transporters of basement membrane of thyroid follicular epithelial cells can participate and exchange the iodine ions across intracellular and extracellular. Among all of the iodine rich organs, iodine ions which only exist in colloidal of thyroid follicular epithelial cells can be functioned as the raw materials, which after oxidation, iodization and coupling, to synthesize thyroid hormone (TH) and to exert its biological functions. Therefore, the iodine transported function of iodide transporters plays a pivotal role for TH biosynthesis. Furthermore, functional studies show that the abnormal expression or dysfunction of iodide transporters might serves as tumor promoters or inhibitors via regulated the mTOR signal pathway, the MAPKs signal pathway, and the NF-κB signal pathway, together contributed to the regulation of cell proliferation, invasion, metastasis and apoptosis, in which plays the role of non iodide transported function. Therefore, the non iodine transported function of iodide transporters may plays the crucial role of tumor occurrence and progression of carcinoma. Based on this information, present study was devoted to systematic summarize the iodine transported function and non iodine transported function (may affects occurrence and progression of carcinoma) of the classical iodide transporters [sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and pendrin] and novel iodine transporters[ (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) , sodium multivitamin transporter (SMVT) , and anoctamin 1 (ANO1) ], respectively, in order to provide a theoretical basis and literature review reference for underlying the mechanism of iodine transporters and its regulated signal pathways for the occurrence and progression of carcinomas.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Iodo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Humanos
19.
Rozhl Chir ; 100(6): 261-265, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465114

RESUMO

Surgical therapy of non-palpable malignant breast lesions requires precise preoperative localisation. Recently, radioactive iodine seed localisation has excelled among the number of localisation methods. We present our first experience with this method at our department. We describe the structure of the radioactive iodine seed, the principles of preoperative localisation and peroperative detection of the seed, the specimen transport process, histopathological examination, storage and disposal of the seed, as well as aspects of radiation protection.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Iodo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Radioisótopos do Iodo , Mastectomia , Mastectomia Segmentar
20.
Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) ; 67(4): 84-93, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Bryansk region is one of the regions of the Russian Federation most affected by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on April 26, 1986.In the conditions of a chronic uncompensated deficiency of iodine in the diet in the first months after the accident, an active seizure of radioactive iodine by the thyroid tissue took place, which inevitably resulted in an increase in thyroid diseases from the population in the future. The article presents the results of a control and epidemiological study carried out in May 2021 by specialists of the National Medical Research Center of Endocrinology of the Ministry of Health of Russia, aimed at assessing the current state of iodine provision in the population of the Bryansk region. AIM: Assessment of iodine supply of the population of the Bryansk region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The research was carried out in secondary schools of three districts of the Bryansk region (Bryansk, Novozybkov and Klintsy).The study included 337 schoolchildren of pre-pubertal age (8-10 years), all children underwent: measurement of height and weight immediately before the doctor's examination, which included palpation of the thyroid gland (thyroid gland); Thyroid ultrasound using a portable device LOGIQe (China) with a multi-frequency linear transducer 10-15 MHz; determination of iodine concentration in single portions of urine. A qualitative study for the presence of potassium iodate in samples of table salt (n = 344) obtained from households and school canteens was carried out on the spot using the express method. RESULTS: According to the results of a survey of 337 pre-pubertal children, the median urinary iodine concentration (mCIM) is 98.3 µg / L (range from 91.5 to 111.5 µg / L, the proportion of urine samples with a reduced iodine concentration was 50.1%). According to the ultrasound of the thyroid gland, 17% of the examined children had diffuse goiter, the frequency of which varied from 9.4 to 29% in the areas of study. The share of iodized salt consumed in the families of schoolchildren in the study areas was 17.8% (values range from 15.6 to 19%), which indicates an extremely low level of iodized salt consumption by the population. All salt used for cooking in school canteen areas of the study was iodized, which confirms compliance with the requirements of SanPiN 2.4.5.2409-08. CONCLUSION: Despite the active implementation in the Bryansk region of various preventive programs of IDD and social activities to promote the use of iodized salt, in the absence of mass prevention with the help of iodized salt to date, their unsatisfactory results should be noted.


Assuntos
Bócio , Iodo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Criança , Humanos , Radioisótopos do Iodo , Prevalência
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