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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9424, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676304

RESUMO

Iris ruthenica Ker Gawl. and I. uniflora Pall. ex Link, which are rare and endangered species in Korea, possess considerable horticultural and medicinal value among Korean irises. However, discrimination of the species is hindered by extensive morphological similarity. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify discriminating features by comparing the species' complete plastid genome (i.e., plastome) sequences and micromorphological features, including leaf margins, stomatal complex distribution (hypostomatic vs. amphistomatic leaves), anther stomata density, and tepal epidermal cell patterns. Plastome comparison revealed slightly divergent regions within intergenic spacer regions, and the most variable sequences, which were distributed in non-coding regions, could be used as molecular markers for the discrimination of I. ruthenica and I. uniflora. Phylogenetic analysis of the Iris species revealed that I. ruthenica and I. uniflora formed a well-supported clade. The comparison of plastomes and micromorphological features performed in this study provides useful information for elucidating taxonomic, phylogenetic, and evolutionary relationships in Iridaceae. Further studies, including those based on molecular cytogenetic approaches using species specific markers, will offer insights into species delimitation of the two closely related Iris species.


Assuntos
Genomas de Plastídeos , Iridaceae , Iris (Planta) , Iris (Planta)/genética , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/genética
2.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 36(7): e5369, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35285530

RESUMO

Iris genus plants are a valuable source of bioactive compounds, which are an important component for pharmaceutical development. The present article shows the potential for mineral nutrition with application of magnesium sulfate, iron chelates and potassium oxide affecting the phenolic compound contents in Iris hybrida 'Tsikavynka', I. hybrida 'Tambo' and I. hybridа 'Widecombe Fire'. The effect of mineral processing was specific to plant organs and varied in the component composition. The Iris rhizomes had an increased total phenolic compound content after treatment (up to 10% of the total isoflavonoid content, up to 8% of phenolic acids, up to 5% of γ-pyrones and up to 13% of flavonoids), determined using UV-vis spectroscopy. A positive effect of nutrition on the biosynthesis and content of individual isoflavonoids (tectoridin, nigricin d-glucoside, genistin, iristectorigenin B, nigricin, irigenin and irisolidone) and xanthone mangiferin in Iris rhizomes by HPLC was established. In addition, an increase in the chlorogenic acid amount in Iris leaves was noted. The results demonstrate the sensitivity of Iris phenylpropanoid metabolism to mineral nutrition and can be used to predict medical plant cultivation with increased content of bioactive constituents.


Assuntos
Iridaceae , Iris (Planta) , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flavonoides/análise , Iris (Planta)/química , Fenóis/análise , Rizoma/química
3.
Fitoterapia ; 157: 105040, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34968640

RESUMO

Five new iridal-type triterpenoid derivatives with 6/5/6 tricyclic ring skeleton (1-5) were obtained from the rhizomes of Belamcanda chinensis. Their structures were determined on the basis of detailed spectroscopic data and ECD calculation. Compounds 1-5 possessed the same 6/5/6-fused carbon skeleton as Belamchinenin A, which further enriched this kind of iridals. In vitro bioassay, compounds 2 and 3 exhibited 51.95 and 54.52% inhibitory activities, respectively, against Fe2+/cysteine-induced liver microsomal lipid peroxidation at a concentration of 10 µM. A putative biogenetic pathway for compounds 1-5 was proposed.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Iridaceae/química , Rizoma/química , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Bioensaio , Dicroísmo Circular , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Rotação Ocular , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Triterpenos/toxicidade
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 284: 114770, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688803

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The bulb of Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) Urb. is an indigenous medicinal plant traditionally used among Dayak people for the management of diabetes, breast cancer, hypertension, stroke, and fertility problems in women. The bulb has been reported with a potent cytotoxic potential but with limited underlying mechanisms. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic properties of E. bulbosa ethanolic bulb extracted under optimised extraction condition on retinoblastoma cancer cells (WERI-Rb-1) through in vitro cell culture bioassays. The optimised extraction condition has been determined in the previous reports. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxic assay was analysed through MTT assay. Comparison between non-optimised and optimised extraction condition from E. bulbosa ethanolic bulb extract was evaluated. Morphological assessment of apoptotic cells was conducted through acridine orange propidium iodide (AOPI) staining using fluorescence microscopy. Apoptosis assay was carried out through Annexin V-FITC and cell cycle analysis through PI staining. The effect of varying concentrations (IC25, IC50, IC75) of the optimised E. bulbosa ethanolic bulb extract was observed. The mRNA expression was also conducted to confirm the underlying mechanism. RESULTS: The optimised E. bulbosa ethanolic bulb extract markedly suppressed the proliferation of retinoblastoma cancer cells significantly with an IC50 value of 15.7 µg/mL as compared to non-optimised extract (p < 0.01). Fluorescence microscopy revealed that retinoblastoma cancer cells manifested early features of apoptosis-like membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation and formation of apoptotic bodies in a dose-dependent manner. The number of apoptotic cells were greatly observed in early and late apoptosis through Annexin V-FITC and the extract also induced cell arrestment as compared to the untreated group. The apoptosis was confirmed with the upregulation of Bax, Bad, p53, Caspase 3, Caspase 8, and Caspase 9 genes meanwhile, Bcl-2, BcL-xL, Nrf-2, and HO-1 genes were downregulated. CONCLUSION: The optimised E. bulbosa ethanolic bulb extract induced a significant cell death and cell cycle arrestment on retinoblastoma cancer cells. It could be suggested that the induction of apoptosis in retinoblastoma cancer cells may be due to the synergistic effect of the bioactive compounds extracted under optimised extraction condition. Our findings indicated that E. bulbosa bulb could be promising chemotherapeutic potential to treat retinoblastoma cancer cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Iridaceae/química , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Retinoblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química
5.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771010

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to explore anti-inflammatory phytochemicals from B. chinensis based on the inhibition of pro-inflammatory enzyme, human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and anti-inflammatory activities in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage. Three stereoisomers of iridal-type triterpenoids (1-3) were isolated from the roots of B. chinensis and their stereochemistries were completely identified by NOESY spectra. These compounds were confirmed as reversible noncompetitive inhibitors against HNE with IC50 values of 6.8-27.0 µM. The binding affinity experiment proved that iridal-type triterpenoids had only a single binding site to the HNE enzyme. Among them, isoiridogermanal (1) and iridobelamal A (2) displayed significant anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as iNOS, IL-1ß, and TNF-α through the NF-κB pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. This is the first report that iridal-type triterpenoids are considered responsible phytochemicals for anti-inflammatory effects of B. chinensis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Iridaceae/química , Elastase de Leucócito/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Elastase de Leucócito/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Conformação Molecular , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Células RAW 264.7 , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
6.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257478, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Montbretins are rare specialized metabolites found in montbretia (Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora) corms. Montbretin A (MbA) is of particular interest as a novel therapeutic for type-2 diabetes and obesity. There is no scalable production system for this complex acylated flavonol glycoside. MbA biosynthesis has been reconstructed in Nicotiana benthamiana using montbretia genes for the assembly of MbA from its various different building blocks. However, in addition to smaller amounts of MbA, the therapeutically inactive montbretin B (MbB) was the major product of this metabolic engineering effort. MbA and MbB differ in a single hydroxyl group of their acyl side chains, which are derived from caffeoyl-CoA and coumaroyl-CoA, respectively. Biosynthesis of both MbA and MbB also require coumaroyl-CoA for the formation of the myricetin core. Caffeoyl-CoA and coumaroyl-CoA are formed in the central phenylpropanoid pathway by acyl activating enzymes (AAEs) known as 4-coumaroyl-CoA ligases (4CLs). Here we investigated a small family of montbretia AAEs and 4CLs, and their possible contribution to montbretin biosynthesis. RESULTS: Transcriptome analysis for gene expression patterns related to montbretin biosynthesis identified eight different montbretia AAEs belonging to four different clades. Enzyme characterization identified 4CL activity for two clade IV members, Cc4CL1 and Cc4CL2, converting different hydroxycinnamic acids into the corresponding CoA thioesters. Both enzymes preferred coumaric acid over caffeic acid as a substrate in vitro. While expression of montbretia AAEs did not enhance MbA biosynthesis in N. benthamiana, we demonstrated that both Cc4CLs can be used to activate coumaric and caffeic acid towards flavanone biosynthesis in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). CONCLUSIONS: Montbretia expresses two functional 4CLs, but neither of them is specific for the formation of caffeoyl-CoA. Based on differential expression analysis and phylogeny Cc4CL1 is most likely involved in MbA biosynthesis, while Cc4CL2 may contribute to lignin biosynthesis. Both Cc4CLs can be used for flavanone production to support metabolic engineering of MbA in yeast.


Assuntos
Acil Coenzima A/metabolismo , Flavonas/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/metabolismo , Iridaceae/metabolismo , Ligases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Trissacarídeos/metabolismo , Acil Coenzima A/genética , Vias Biossintéticas , Flavonas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Engenharia Genética , Iridaceae/genética , Ligases/genética , Engenharia Metabólica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Trissacarídeos/genética
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16623, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404889

RESUMO

The genetic diversity in 11 populations of Gladiolus imbricatus in five mountain ranges, including the Tatra, Pieniny, Gorce, Beskid Niski (Western Carpathians) and Bieszczady Mts (Eastern Carpathians), was studied with inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The species is a perennial plant occurring in open and semi-open sites of anthropogenic origin (meadows and forest margins). We checked a hypothesis on the microrefugial character of the plant populations in the Pieniny Mts, a small calcareous Carpathian range of complicated relief that has never been glaciated. Plant populations in the Tatra and Pieniny Mts had the highest genetic diversity indices, pointing to their long-term persistence. The refugial vs. the non-refugial mountain ranges accounted for a relatively high value of total genetic variation [analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), 14.12%, p = 0.003]. One of the Pieniny populations was of hybridogenous origin and shared genetic stock with the Tatra population, indicating there is a local genetic melting pot. A weak genetic structuring of populations among particular regions was found (AMOVA, 4.5%, p > 0.05). This could be an effect of the frequent short-distance and sporadic long-distance gene flow. The dispersal of diaspores between the remote populations in the Western Carpathians and Eastern Carpathians could be affected by the historical transportation of flocks of sheep from the Tatra to Bieszczady Mts.


Assuntos
Asparagales/genética , Genes de Plantas , Iridaceae/genética , Asparagales/classificação , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Iridaceae/classificação , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogeografia , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15597, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341425

RESUMO

Salinity is challenging threats to the agricultural system and leading cause of crop loss. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important endogenous signal molecule, which by regulating growth and physiological processes improves the plant ability to tolerate salt stress. Considering the prime importance of Gladiolus grandiflorus (L.) in the world's cut-flower market, the research work was undertaken to elucidate salinity tolerance in G. grandiflorus by exogenous application of SA irrigated with saline water. Results revealed that increasing salinity (EC: 2, 4 and 6 dS m-1) considerably altered morpho-growth indices (corm morphology and plant biomass) in plants through increasing key antioxidants including proline content and enzymes activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase), while negatively affected the total phenolic along with activity of defense-related enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and polyphenol oxidase activity). SA application (50-200 ppm) in non-saline control or saline conditions improved morpho-physiological traits in concentration-dependent manners. In saline conditions, SA minimized salt-stress by enhancing chlorophyll content, accumulating organic osmolytes (glycine betaine and proline content), total phenolic, and boosting activity of antioxidant and defense-related enzymes. Principle component analysis based on all 16 morphological and physiological variables generated useful information regarding the classification of salt tolerant treatment according to their response to SA. These results suggest SA (100 or 150 ppm) could be used as an effective, economic, easily available and safe phenolic agent against salinity stress in G. grandiflorus.


Assuntos
Iridaceae/fisiologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Betaína/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Iridaceae/anatomia & histologia , Iridaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Iridaceae/enzimologia , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Componente Principal , Prolina/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
9.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361635

RESUMO

Freesia hybrida is a group of cultivars in the genus Freesia with a strong floral scent composed of diverse volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, the VOCs of 34 F. hybrida were extracted and analyzed by headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). A total of 164 VOCs whose relative contents were higher than 0.05% were detected. The numbers of VOCs in all germplasms differed between 11 to 38, and the relative contents ranged from 32.39% to 94.28%, in which most germplasms were higher than 80%. Terpenoids, especially monoterpenes, were the crucial type of VOCs in most germplasms, of which linalool and D-limonene were the most frequently occurring. Principal component analysis (PCA) clearly separated samples based on whether linalool was the main component, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) clustered samples into 4 groups according to the preponderant compounds linalool and (E)-ß-ocimene. Comparison of parental species and hybrids showed heterosis in three hybrids, and the inherited and novel substances suggested that monoterpene played an important role in F. hybrida floral scent. This study established a foundation for the evaluation of Freesia genetic resources, breeding for the floral aroma and promoting commercial application.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Acíclicos/química , Alcenos/química , Flores/química , Iridaceae/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/metabolismo , Alcenos/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Iridaceae/genética , Iridaceae/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201683

RESUMO

Natural product is an excellent candidate for alternative medicine for disease management. The bulb of E. bulbosa is one of the notable Iridaceae family with a variety therapeutic potential that is widely cultivated in Southeast Asia. The bulb has been used traditionally among the Dayak community as a folk medicine to treat several diseases like diabetes, breast cancer, nasal congestion, and fertility problems. The bulb is exceptionally rich in phytochemicals like phenolic and flavonoid derivatives, naphthalene, anthraquinone, and naphthoquinone. The electronic database was searched using various keywords, i.e., E. bulbosa, E. americana, E. palmifolia, E. platifolia, and others due to the interchangeably used scientific names of different countries. Scientific investigations revealed that various pharmacological activities were recorded from the bulb of E. bulbosa including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, anti-fungi, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, dermatological problems, anti-oxidant, and anti-fertility. The potential application of the bulb in the food industry and in animal nutrition was also discussed to demonstrate its great versatility. This is a compact study and is the first study to review the extensive pharmacological activities of the E. bulbosa bulb and its potential applications. The development of innovative food and pharma products from the bulb of E. bulbosa is of great interest.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Iridaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos
11.
Bioorg Chem ; 114: 105067, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120020

RESUMO

Belamcandaoids A-N (1-14), fourteen new triterpenoids were isolated from the seeds of Belamcanda chinensis. Their structures including absolute configurations were assigned by using spectroscopic, computational, and crystallographic methods. All the compounds except 1 and 2 are 3,4-seco-triterpenoids belonging to fernane type. Biological evaluation results indicated that 3 and 13 could reduce fibronectin and collagen I expression respectively in TGF-ß1 induced kidney proximal tubular cells.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Iridaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/antagonistas & inibidores , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/efeitos dos fármacos , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Sementes/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
12.
Am J Bot ; 108(5): 828-843, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019302

RESUMO

PREMISE: There is little direct evidence linking floral development and pollination biology in plants. We characterize both aspects in plain and ornamented flowers of Trimezieae (Iridaceae) to investigate how changes in floral ontogeny may affect their interactions with pollinators through time. METHODS: We examined floral ontogeny in 11 species and documented pollination biology in five species displaying a wide range of floral morphologies. We coded and reconstructed ancestral states of flower types over the tribal phylogeny to estimate the frequency of transition between different floral types. RESULTS: All Trimezieae flowers are similar in early floral development, but ornamented flowers have additional ontogenetic steps compared with plain flowers, indicating heterochrony. Ornamented flowers have a hinge pollination mechanism (newly described here) and attract more pollinator guilds, while plain flowers offer less variety of resources for a shorter time. Although the ornamented condition is plesiomorphic in this clade, shifts to plain flowers have occurred frequently and abruptly during the past 5 million years, with some subsequent reversals. CONCLUSIONS: Heterochrony has resulted in labile morphological changes during flower evolution in Trimezieae. Counterintuitively, species with plain flowers, which are endemic to the campo rupestre, are derived within the tribe and show a higher specialization than the ornamented species, with the former being visited by pollen-collecting bees only.


Assuntos
Iridaceae , Polinização , Animais , Abelhas , Biologia , Flores , Pólen
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(2): 290-297, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645114

RESUMO

In order to identify the species and biological characteristics of the pathogen of southern blight from three kinds of Chinese medicine of Iridaceae(Belamcanda chinensis, Iris tectorum and I. japonica) in Dabie Mountains, the isolation, identification, pathogenicity and biological characteristics of the pathogens were studied according to Koch's postulates. In addition, 9 chemical fungicides, 3 botanical fungicides and 5 microbial fungicides were used to evaluate their inhibition to the isolates in vitro. The results showed that all the strains(SG-Q, YW-Q, and HDH-Q) isolated and purified from the diseased plants of B. chinensis, I. tectorum and I. japonica, respectively, were identified as Sclerotium rolfsii through morphological observation and sequence aligement of 18 S rDNA, rDNA-ITS and TEF. Field observations showed that the intensity of the disease incidence of three Iridaceae plants was B. chinensis>I. japonica> I. tectorum, and the pathogenicity of the strains was SG-Q>YW-Q>HDH-Q. For biological characteristics, SG-Q strain was suitable for growth under the 12 h light/12 h dark cycle, with the optimal growth temperature of 30 ℃ and pH of 5. Among the 9 tested chemical fungicides, 29% lime sulphure and 10% flusilazole had stronger inhibitory effect on mycelia growth of SG-Q. For 3 botanical fungicides, 1% osthol, 20% eugenol and 0.5% berberine could effectively inhibt the mycelial growth of SG-Q and cause the morphological variation of the pathogen. For 5 microbial fungicides, Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis had better inhibition on the mycelium growth of SG-Q.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Iridaceae , Medicina , Hypocreales
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 166: 127-137, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098905

RESUMO

In this study, starches from underground stems of Trimezia juncifolia were evaluated during dry season (DSS), wet season (WSS) and sprouting (SS). Results evidenced that drought stress did not interfere with the yield, amylose content and degree of polymerization (DP) of amylopectin. However, the extraction yield in SS was 58% lower, being observed and increase of 7.5% in the content of amylose, and 13.5% in DP values for SS amylopectin, with a predominance of A-chains. The amount of total sugar, the starch granules size as well as solubility and swelling properties varied as function of the phenological status. Also, starch granules changed from A-type polymorph in DSS and SS to a CA-type in WSS. Nevertheless, it was observed a crystallinity reduction from 56% in DSS to 37.1% in SS. In addition, thermograms evidenced the presence of amylose-lipid complexes, with endothermic transition temperatures being affected by drought stress and sprouting. Finally, results demonstrate that underground stems from T. juncifolia have adaptative strategies involving changes in the morphological and physicochemical properties of the starch granules.


Assuntos
Amilopectina/química , Secas , Iridaceae/química , Caules de Planta/química , Amilopectina/análise , Iridaceae/metabolismo , Polimerização , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura de Transição , Molhabilidade
15.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 21(12): 3579-3586, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369455

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Eleutherine palmifolia (L.) Merr. extract (EPE) containing isoliquiritigenin and oxyresveratrol is believed to be an anticancer agent. This study evaluates colon histopathology, TNF-α, TGF-ß, and hepatotoxicity on BALB/c mice colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) model treated with EPE. METHODS: In vivo study was performed on BALB/c mice CAC model induced by 10 mg/kgBW AOM on the first day followed by administration that each cycle consisted of 5% DSS in water for seven days and regular water for seven days. The indicators of the formation of CAC were observed by a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) and serum amyloid α (SAA) test. The treatment was conducted once a week started from the seventh week up to the twentieth week with six treatment groups: I was administrated by regular water only (negative control), II was administrated by AOM and DSS only (positive control), III was administrated by doxorubicin,  IV-VI were treated by EPE (0.25 mg/kg BW, 0.50 mg/kg BW, and 1.00 mg/kg BW) respectively. The colon and liver's histopathology was observed using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, TNF-α with immunohistochemistry (IHC), and level measurement of TGF-ß colon with ELISA reader. The data were used one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc as statistical analysis. RESULTS: The administration of EPE increased the expression of TNF-α, the total of goblet cells of the colon, and decreased the level of TGF-ß. Administration of EPE 0.50 mg/20g BW decreased a liver histopathological score but induced a histopathological alteration of the liver at a dose of 1.00 mg/20g BW. CONCLUSION: This study indicate that EPE could be recommended as a colon anticancer through increase the goblet cells, induce apoptosis through increase TNF-α, and decrease TGF-ß.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Associadas a Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/complicações , Iridaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Associadas a Colite/etiologia , Neoplasias Associadas a Colite/patologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Feminino , Células Caliciformes/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Toxicidade , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
16.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 154: 439-450, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912484

RESUMO

Safranal and crocin, commonly derived from the oxidative cleavage reaction of zeaxanthin in plants, are two kinds of apocarotenoids with versatile functions, which were only found in limited number of plant species. In this study, both metabolites were detected and varied concomitantly with the expression of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) genes in Freesia hybrida, Red River® and Ambiance cultivars. The newly isolated CCD, denoted here as FhCCD2, was phylogenetically clustered with other reported saffron CCD2s. Besides, ten introns were also observed in the genomic DNA sequence of FhCCD2 and the presence of N-terminal transporter peptide suggested its plastidial sub-localization. Biochemical analysis showed that the FhCCD2 cleaved zeaxanthin at the 7, 8 and 7', 8' double bonds to generate intermediates prerequisite for the biosynthesis of safranal and crocin. Further, gene transient expression analysis showed that the promoter of FhCCD2 was functional in Ambiance as well as Red River® cultivars, even with slight variation in their promoter sequence. At present, CCD2 proteins have only been found in Freesia and Crocus genus of Iridaceae family. Phylogenetic and intron position analysis infer that CCD2 perhaps emerged after the intron loss during evolutionary process of CCD1 or their shared ancestry.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Cicloexenos/análise , Dioxigenases , Iridaceae , Terpenos/análise , Clonagem Molecular , Dioxigenases/genética , Iridaceae/enzimologia , Iridaceae/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
17.
New Phytol ; 228(6): 1864-1879, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696979

RESUMO

Floral flavonols play specific pivotal roles in pollinator attraction, pollen germination and fertility, in addition to other functions in vegetative organs. For many plants, the process of flavonol biosynthesis in late flower development stages and in mature flower tissues is poorly understood, in contrast to early flower development stages. It is thought that this process may be regulated independently of subgroup 7 R2R3 MYB (SG7 MYB) transcription factors. In this study, two FLS genes were shown to be expressed synchronously with the flower development-specific and tissue-specific biosynthesis of flavonols in Freesia hybrida. FhFLS1 contributed to flavonol biosynthesis in early flower buds, toruses and calyxes, and was regulated by four well-known SG7 MYB proteins, designated as FhMYBFs, with at least partial regulatory redundancy. FhFLS2 accounted for flavonols in late developed flowers and in the petals, stamens and pistils, and was targeted directly by non SG7 MYB protein FhMYB21L2. In parallel, AtMYB21 and AtMYB24 also activated AtFLS1, a gene highly expressed in Arabidopsis anthers and pollen, indicating the conserved regulatory roles of MYB21 against FLS genes in these two evolutionarily divergent angiosperm plants. Our results reveal a novel regulatory and synthetic mechanism underlying flavonol biosynthesis in floral organs and tissues which may be exploited to investigate supplementary roles of flavonols in flowers.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Iridaceae , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Flavonóis , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
18.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 396, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719499

RESUMO

Floral anthocyanin has multiple ecological and economic values, its biosynthesis largely depends on the conserved MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) activation complex and MYB repressors hierarchically with the MBW complex. In contrast to eudicots, the MBW regulatory network model has not been addressed in monocots because of the lack of a suitable system, as grass plants exhibit monotonous floral pigmentation patterns. Presently, the MBW regulatory network was investigated in a non-grass monocot plant, Freesia hybrida. FhMYB27 and FhMYBx with different functional manners were confirmed to be anthocyanin related R2R3 and R3 MYB repressors, respectively. Particularly, FhMYBx could obstruct the formation of positive MBW complex by titrating bHLH proteins, whereas FhMYB27 mainly defected the activator complex into suppressor via its repression domains in C-terminus. Furthermore, the hierarchical and feedback regulatory loop was verified, indicating the synergistic and sophisticated regulatory network underlying Freesia anthocyanin biosynthesis was quite similar to that reported in eudicot plants.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Iridaceae/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Fatores Genéricos de Transcrição/genética , Repetições WD40/genética , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Antocianinas/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Iridaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Substâncias Macromoleculares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 61(7): 1365-1380, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392327

RESUMO

Anthocyanin biosynthesis is mainly controlled by MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) complexes that modulate the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (ABGs). The MYB regulators involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis arose early during plant evolution and thus might function divergently in different evolutionary lineages. Although the anthocyanin-promoting R2R3-MYB regulators in eudicots have been comprehensively explored, little consensus has been reached about functional discrepancies versus conservation among MYB regulators from different plant lineages. Here, we integrated transcriptome analysis, gene expression profiles, gain-of-function experiments and transient protoplast transfection assays to functionally characterize the monocot Freesia hybrida anthocyanin MYB regulator gene FhPAP1, which showed correlations with late ABGs. FhPAP1 could activate ABGs as well as TT8-clade genes FhTT8L, AtTT8 and NtAN1 when overexpressed in Freesia, Arabidopsis and tobacco, respectively. Consistently, FhPAP1 could interact with FhTT8L and FhTTG1 to form the conserved MBW complex and shared similar target genes with its orthologs from Arabidopsis. Most prominently, FhPAP1 displayed higher transactivation capacity than its homologs in Arabidopsis and tobacco, which was instantiated in its powerful regulation on ABGs. Moreover, we found that FhPAP1 might be the selected gene during the domestication and rapid evolution of the wild Freesia species to generate intensive flower pigmentation. These results showed that while the MBW complex was highly evolutionarily conserved between tested monocot and core eudicot plants, participating MYB regulators showed functional differences in transactivation capacity according to their activation domain and played important roles in the flower coloration domestication and evolution of angiosperms.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Flores/metabolismo , Iridaceae/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Arabidopsis , Clonagem Molecular , Sequência Conservada , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Iridaceae/genética , Iridaceae/fisiologia , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
20.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 102: 218-227, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268178

RESUMO

This study investigated the influence of Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) Urb. on the immune responses, bacterial population in the intestines, and resistance of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, against infection with Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Shrimp were fed with three dosages of powder, at 6.25 g kg-1 (P6.25), 12.5 g kg-1 (P12.5), and 25 g kg-1 (P25). One dosage of the crude extract was provided, 1.25 g kg-1 (E1.25), and the controls without administration of E. bulbosa consisted of a positive control (PC) and a negative control (NC). Feed supplementation was carried out for 30 days; then shrimp from all treatments were challenged by intramuscular injection with V. parahaemolyticus (106 cfu/mL), except for the NC. The results showed that supplementation with the powder and extract of E. bulbosa for 30 days resulted in significantly higher (P < 0.05) immune responses (total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity (PO), respiratory bursts (RBs)), gene expression (prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide- and ß-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP)), and total bacterial count (TBC) compared to PC/NC. In post challenge testing, there were significantly higher levels for THC, PO, RBs, proPO, LGBP, and PE (peroxinetin), and the treatments were able to suppress V. parahaemolyticus in the intestines, hepatopancreas, and muscles and to reduce damage to the muscles and hepatopancreas. The survival rate with P12.5 was significantly higher compared to the other treatments. It was concluded that the shrimp receiving supplementation with the powder and extract of E. bulbosa had increased immunity and resistance against V. parahaemolyticus infection, with the best dosage being the P12.5 treatment.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Iridaceae/química , Penaeidae/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/fisiologia , Animais , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pós/química , Pós/farmacologia
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