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1.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(1991): 20222084, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651052

RESUMO

For decades, biogeographers have sought a better understanding of how organisms are distributed among islands. However, the island biogeography of humans remains largely unknown. Here, we investigate how human population size varies among 486 islands at two spatial scales. At a global scale, we tested whether population size increases with island area and declines with island elevation and nearest mainland, as is common in non-human species, or whether humans escape such biogeographic constraints. At a regional scale, we tested whether population sizes vary among islands within archipelagos according to the positioning of different cultural source pools. Results illustrate that on a global scale, human populations increased in size with island area, similar to non-human species, yet they did not decline in size with elevation and distance to nearest mainland. At a regional scale, human population size often varied among islands within archipelagos relative to the location of different cultural source pools. Despite broad-scale similarities in the geographical distribution of human and non-human species among islands, results from this study indicate that the island biogeography of humans may also be influenced by archipelago-specific social, political and historical circumstances.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Humanos , Ilhas , Densidade Demográfica
2.
Vet Rec ; 191(12): 504-505, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36524636

Assuntos
Animais , Ilhas
3.
Curr Microbiol ; 80(1): 45, 2022 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36538096

RESUMO

Taxonomic and functional characterization of a total of 90 bacterial isolates representing bulk and rhizosphere soils of diverse niches of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India were carried out. Twelve bacterial isolates were found promising for the biological suppression of agriculturally important fungal and bacterial plant pathogens such as Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed their identity as belonging to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. The isolates were positive for plant growth promotion (PGP) traits including siderophore production, and nutrient solubilization especially phosphorous, zinc, and potassium. Interestingly, the PCR test confirmed the presence of 62 antimicrobial peptides (AMP) biosynthesis genes specific to the genus Bacillus. Whilst all tested species of Bacillus harboured the bacD biosynthesis gene, the B. subtilis (Ba_Abi), and B. amyloliquefaciens (Ba_Abi) harboured the maximum AMP biosynthesis genes analysed in the study. Upon in planta evaluation, the biocontrol potential of the bacterial isolates against leaf spot disease of chilli was observed. The study culminated in the isolation and identification of diverse Bacillus species for exploitation as bioinoculants for plant health management programmes.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Gerenciamento Clínico , Ilhas , Plantas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
4.
PeerJ ; 10: e14178, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36518271

RESUMO

Fish populations that bear considerable pressure levels tend to show a decline in the average size of individuals, with the small and unexploited species replacing the large and exploited ones. It is important to carry on with their characterization in areas where they are becoming an important source of food for local human populations. An example of such species are parrotfishes, whose responses to external factors such as fishing need to be understood and predicted. In this study, we used a diver-operated stereo-video to examine individual body size, sex ratios and proportion of species of the parrotfish assemblage and analyze them on a qualitative fishing pressure gradient at four oceanic islands in the Colombian Caribbean. We reported over 10,000 occurrences of eleven parrotfish species, of which we estimated the total length of over 90%, grouping them into three size categories (large, medium, and small). Our data showed a spatial variation of parrotfishes' abundances, biomass, and individual body size. Observed differences are size-category-dependent throughout the qualitative fishing pressure. In general, the medium-bodied species had smaller sizes, lower abundances, and thus lower contribution to the total parrotfish biomass at the most heavily fished island. Unexpectedly, we found evidence of possible indirect effects over the small-bodied species Scarus iseri and Scarus taeniopterus with significantly greater abundances, and larger sizes of males of S. iseri, at the higher fishing pressure sites. Overall, our data highlights the extent of the spatial variation in the parrotfish communities at relatively short distances, and present new insights into the responses of parrotfish species on a spectrum of body sizes along a gradient of human pressure.


Assuntos
Caça , Perciformes , Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Ilhas , Índias Ocidentais , Região do Caribe , Alimentos Marinhos
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 22243, 2022 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36564496

RESUMO

The Kerguelen Islands, located in the southern part of the Indian Ocean, are very isolated geographically. The microbial diversity and communities present on the island, especially associated to geothermal springs, have never been analyzed with high-throughput sequencing methods. In this article, we performed the first metagenomics analysis of microorganisms present in Kerguelen hot springs. From four hot springs, we assembled metagenomes and recovered 42 metagenome-assembled genomes, mostly associated with new putative taxa based on phylogenomic analyses and overall genome relatedness indices. The 42 MAGs were studied in detail and showed putative affiliations to 13 new genomic species and 6 new genera of Bacteria or Archaea according to GTDB. Functional potential of MAGs suggests the presence of thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, as well as heterotrophs and primary producers possibly involved in the sulfur cycle, notably in the oxidation of sulfur compounds. This paper focused on only four of the dozens of hot springs in the Kerguelen Islands and should be considered as a preliminary study of the microorganisms inhabiting the hot springs of these isolated islands. These results show that more efforts should be made towards characterization of Kerguelen Islands ecosystems, as they represent a reservoir of unknown microbial lineages.


Assuntos
Fontes Termais , Microbiota , Metagenoma , Fontes Termais/microbiologia , Metagenômica/métodos , Ilhas , Archaea , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 22005, 2022 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36539430

RESUMO

Penetration enhancement of renewable energy sources is a core component of Korean green-island microgrid projects. This approach calls for a robust energy management system to control the stochastic behavior of renewable energy sources. Therefore, in this paper, we put forward a novel reinforcement learning-driven optimization solution for the convex problem arrangement of the Gasa island microgrid energy management as one of the prominent pilots of the Korean green islands project. We manage the convergence speed of the alternating direction method of multipliers solution for this convex problem by accurately estimating the penalty parameter with the soft actor-critic technique. However, in this arrangement, the soft actor-critic faces sparse reward hindrance, which we address here with the normalizing flow policy. Furthermore, we study the effect of demand response implementation in the Gasa island microgrid to reduce the diesel generator dependency of the microgrid and provide benefits, such as peak-shaving and gas emission reduction.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Reforço Psicológico , Ilhas , República da Coreia
7.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277560, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383616

RESUMO

A unique historical architecture was created at Shuri Castle (Shuri-jo) in the Ryukyu Islands by its "Kawara" roof tiles. After the 13th and 14th centuries, Kawara tiles were introduced to the Ryukyu Islands from several regions, including China, Korea, and mainland Japan, and evolved shapes and patterns that are unique to this island region. However, the transition of some internal features, such as the chemical components and microstructure, had not been analyzed. This study used a multi-faceted approach for such internal data and non-destructive quantitative methods to propose a new perspective on the evolution of historical Ryukyuan Kawara. We analyzed two styles of Ryukyuan Kawara from the 13th to 15th centuries and found that the material processing and firing conditions of the two styles were very similar, even though it had been suggested that they had different origins. A quantitative analysis of tiles from the 16th to 19th centuries revealed a transition in color tone to red, leading to the modern traditional Ryukyuan tiles; traces of changes in firing conditions were also found along with this transition. Finally, the study revealed that the evolution of Ryukyuan Kawara consisted of changed factors, e.g. surface color, and unchanged factors, e.g. paste density. Previous archaeological studies mainly focused on changing external characteristics, such as form and pattern; however, our analysis showed that the internal features changed, while the elemental composition and paste density remained constant from the appearance of the roof tiles until the 19th century. We propose that this is related to different responses of individual factors to external stressors, such as the social context, which may be common to other archaeological artifacts as well. Our study provides a new perspective on the evolution of Ryukyuan Kawara and presents a different discussion of and methods for the chronological study of material culture.


Assuntos
Materiais de Construção , China , Ilhas , Japão , República da Coreia
8.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(10): 2753-2759, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384611

RESUMO

It is of great significance to understand the pattern of soil respiration rate in fragmented forests for further revealing terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycling. With different habitats (island vs. mainland, island edge vs. island interior) of the artificial land-bridge island system in Thousand Island Lake (TIL) region as the objects, we analyzed the seasonal dynamics of soil respiration rate and its relationships with soil physicochemical factors. The results showed that: 1) Soil respiration rates varied significantly across different seasons, with an order of summer (3.74 µmol·m-2·s-1) > autumn (2.30 µmol·m-2·s-1) > spring (1.82 µmol·m-2·s-1) > winter (1.40 µmol·m-2·s-1). 2) Forest fragmentation had significant effects on soil respiration rate, with soil respiration rate of island (2.37 µmol·m-2·s-1) being significantly higher than that of mainland (2.08 µmol·m-2·s-1) and the soil respiration rate of island edge (2.46 µmol·m-2·s-1) being significantly higher than that of island interior (2.03 µmol·m-2·s-1). 3) Soil temperature significantly promoted soil respiration rate, explaining 56.1% of the total variation. 4) There was a significant positive correlation between soil respiration rate and soil total carbon, ammo-nium nitrogen content, and vegetation coverage. The soil total carbon and ammonium nitrogen content of island edge were significantly higher than those of island interior. In all, forest fragmentation promoted soil respiration rate, with soil physicochemical factors as the drivers for its variation.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , Carbono , Ilhas , Nitrogênio , Solo/química
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19344, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369519

RESUMO

Volcanic activity provides a unique opportunity to study the ecological responses of organisms to catastrophic environmental destruction as an essential driver of biodiversity change on islands. However, despite this great scientific interest, no study of the biodiversity at an erupting volcano has yet been undertaken. On La Palma (Canary archipelago), we quantified the main species affected and their fate during the 85-day eruption (September-December 2021). Our main objective consisted of monitoring the biodiversity subjected to critical stress during this volcanic eruption. We found that all biodiversity within a 2.5 km radius was severely affected after the first two weeks. It is challenging to assess whether volcanism can drive evolutionary traits of insular organisms. Examples are the adaptation of an endemic conifer to high temperatures, selection of functional plant types-secondary woodiness-, effects of the disappearance of invertebrates and their influence in trophic nets and vertebrate trophic plasticity. However, our data suggest that such previous evolutionary changes might continue to favour their resilience during this eruption. Lastly, it is a very good opportunity to assess the extent to which these periodic volcanic catastrophes may constitute temporary windows of repeated opportunities for the evolution and speciation of oceanic island biota.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Erupções Vulcânicas , Animais , Ilhas , Oceanos e Mares , Invertebrados
10.
J Genet ; 1012022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36330786

RESUMO

The tick, Rhipicephalus microplus is considered as the most notorious ectoparasite of veterinary importance in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The present study deals with the molecular characterization of R. microplus in different regions of Andaman and Nicobar Islands using sequence information of mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COX1) and their phylogenetic relationship with other Indian R. microplus genotypes. DNA polymorphism study identified a total of eight haplotypes with haplotype diversity of 0.909 ± 0.065 and nucleotide diversity of 0.01911 ± 0.00493. Currently, R. microplus complex consists of five taxa; R. microplus clade A sensu Burger et al. (2014), R. microplus clade B sensu Burger et al. (2014), R. microplus clade C sensu Low et al. (2015), R. australis and R. annulatus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of two clades (clade A and clade C) of R. microplus in Andaman and Nicobar isolates; Nicobar isolates belonged to clade A whereas Andaman isolates belonged to clade C of R. microplus complex. All the other Indian sequences retrieved from GenBank belonged to clade C of R. microplus complex. Andaman isolates under clade C of R. microplus were phylogenetically distinct from Indian isolates, which indicates independent speciation under isolated island milieu. In Indian isolates, no host-specific or geographical location-specific sub-clustering was observed which indicates the species jumping potential of the R. microplus tick. Therefore, this study indicated the presence of two different genetic makeup of R. microplus complex in two areas of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago separated by a natural geographical barrier. This indicates presence of two different founding populations of ticks, one in the south and north-middle Andaman and the other in Nicobar Island.


Assuntos
Rhipicephalus , Animais , Rhipicephalus/genética , Filogenia , Haplótipos , Geografia , Mitocôndrias/genética , Índia , Ilhas
11.
Med Mycol J ; 63(4): 99-107, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36450569

RESUMO

The taxon Aspergillus section Fumigati comprises several causative agents of aspergillosis. Here, the distribution of Aspergillus sect. Fumigati in outdoor environments of Izu and Ogasawara Islands was investigated. Different strains were isolated from soil samples collected from 68 sites on 9 islands (Izu-oshima, Toshima, Shikinejima, Kozushima, Miyakejima, Hachijojima, Mukojima, Chichijima, and Hahajima), including different landscapes, and identified using morphological characteristics and calmodulin (CaM) sequences. Seven Aspergillus sect. Fumigati species were identified. The occurrence frequency of Aspergillus fumigatus was higher in forest sites on the islands, except for Ogasawara Islands, whereas that of species other than A. fumigatus was higher in bare land and grassland sites on all islands. The occurrence frequency of A. fumigatus was more than 50% on islands between Izu-oshima and Toshima, decreased on islands between Shikinejima and Hachijojima, and was zero on Ogasawara Islands. Considering other Aspergillus species, Aspergillus felis showed high occurrence frequency on islands between Izu-oshima and Shikinejima, Aspergillus pseudoviridinutans on islands between Kozushima and Hachijojima, and Aspergillus udagawae on Ogasawara Islands. At two study sites (grassland and forest sites), the soil was sampled throughout the year to evaluate whether the occurrence frequency of each fungal species was affected by sampling season. At the grassland site, A. pseudoviridinutans was isolated at more than 90% frequency, regardless of the sampling season. A. fumigatus occurrence frequency at the forest site ranged from 0% to 60% and greatly varied among sampling seasons. Thus, differences in island location and landscape affected the distribution of Aspergillus sect. Fumigati.


Assuntos
Aspergilose , Aspergillus fumigatus , Aspergillus fumigatus/genética , Ilhas , Japão/epidemiologia , Solo
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 185(Pt B): 114350, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435018

RESUMO

Surface seawater, collected from three fishing harbors during different seasons of the years 2015, 2016 and 2017, were assessed for physico-chemical analyses. Results showed that seawater was mainly polluted by hydrocarbons and some heavy metals. Microbial communities' composition and abundance in the studied harbors were performed using molecular approaches. SSCP analysis indicated the presence of Bacteria, Archaea and Eucarya, with dominance of the bacterial domain. Illumina Miseq analysis revealed that the majority of the sequences were affiliated with Bacteria whereas Archaea were detected at low relative abundance. The bacterial community, dominated by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi phyla, are known to be involved in a variety of biodegradation/biotransformation processes including hydrocarbons degradation and heavy metals resistance. The main objectives of this study are to assess, for the first time, the organic/inorganic pollution in surface seawater of Kerkennah Islands harbors, and to explore the potential of next generation marine microbiome monitoring to achieve the planning coastal managing strategies worldwide.


Assuntos
Caça , Microbiota , Ilhas , Água do Mar , Archaea , Biodegradação Ambiental
13.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0258632, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206266

RESUMO

The Baja California Pacific Islands (BCPI) is a seabird hotspot in the southern California Current System supporting 129 seabird breeding populations of 23 species and over one million birds annually. These islands had a history of environmental degradation because of invasive alien species, human disturbance, and contaminants that caused the extirpation of 27 seabird populations. Most of the invasive mammals have been eradicated and colonies have been restored with social attraction techniques. We have recorded the number of breeding pairs annually for most of the colonies since 2008. To assess population trends, we analyzed these data and show results for 19 seabird species on ten island groups. The maximum number of breeding pairs for each nesting season was used to estimate the population growth rate (λ) for each species at every island colony. We performed a moving block bootstrap analysis to assess whether seabird breeding populations are increasing or decreasing. San Benito, Natividad, and San Jerónimo are the top three islands in terms of abundance of breeding pairs. The most widespread species is Cassin's Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) with 14 colonies. Thirty-one populations of 14 species are significantly increasing while eleven populations of seven species are decreasing. We did not find statistical significance for 19 populations, however, 15 have λ>1 which suggest they are growing. Twelve of the 18 species for which we estimated a regional population trend are significantly increasing, including seven surface-nesting species: Brandt's Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus), Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis), Caspian Tern (Hydroprogne caspia), Double-crested Cormorant (P. auritus), Elegant Tern (Thalasseus elegans), Laysan Albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) and Western Gull (Larus occidentalis), and five burrow-nesting species: Ainley's (Hydrobates cheimomnestes), Ashy (H. homochroa) and Townsend's (H. socorroensis) Storm-Petrels, and Craveri's (Synthliboramphus craveri) and Guadalupe (S. hypoleucus) Murrelets. The BCPI support between 400,000 and 1.4 million breeding individuals annually. Our results suggest that these islands support healthy and growing populations of seabirds that have shown to be resilient to extreme environmental conditions such as the "Blob", and that such resilience has been strengthen from conservation and restoration actions such as the eradication of invasive mammals, social attraction techniques and island biosecurity.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Melhoramento Vegetal , Animais , Aves , Humanos , Ilhas , Mamíferos , México , Dinâmica Populacional
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(1): 18, 2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279043

RESUMO

The present investigation accounts for the environmental impact assessment of an intense algal bloom caused by the dinoflagellate Noctilucas scintillans. The bloom was first observed on the 10th of September 2019, in the vicinity of the Mandapam group of Islands, spreading from Rameswaram Coast in the North (9° 14' 15″ N, 79° 9' 46″ E) to Hare Island in the South (9° 14' 51″ N, 79° 5' 48″ E). The coastal waters in and around the Mandapam region appeared dark green, and the microscopic examination of the water sample revealed the presence of N. scintillans in large numbers. N. scintillans is a bioluminescent organism; it is inflated and sub-spherical in shape, and the size of the organisms ranged from 350 to 1300 microns. During the intense periods of the bloom, the average density of N. scintillans was recorded with 226.5 × 103 cells/l, and the dissolved oxygen content was very low and the ammonia content was extremely high in certain sites (avg. 4.3635 µm/l). Intensive bloom may lead to a loss of biodiversity in the affected areas of the region. Subsequent investigations indicated that the resilience of the ecosystem in response to natural adversity.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Fitoplâncton , Ecossistema , Amônia , Ilhas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Eutrofização , Água , Oxigênio , Índia
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17110, 2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36224217

RESUMO

In island systems, nitrogen-rich seabird guano is a marine subsidy that can shape terrestrial plant communities. In zones of nutrient upwelling such as the Gulf of California, copious seabird guano is commonplace on bird islands. Several bird islands host regionally unique cactus forests, especially of the large columnar cactus, cardón (Pachycereus pringlei). We show that a chain of interactions across the land-sea interface yields an allochthonous input of nitrogen in the form of seabird guano, fueling the production of some of the densest cactus populations in the world. Fish, seabird, guano, soil, and cactus samples were taken from the representative seabird island of San Pedro Mártir for nitrogen stable isotope ratio measurements, which were compared to soil and cactus samples from other seabird and non-seabird Gulf islands and terrestrial ecosystems throughout the range of the cardón. Isla San Pedro Mártir δ15N values are distinctively high, ranging from fish + 17.7, seabird + 19.7, guano + 14.8, soil + 34.3 and cactus + 30.3 compared to average values across non-bird sites of + 13.0 (N = 213, S.D. = 3.7) for soil and + 9.8 (N = 212, S.D. = 3.4) for cactus. These δ15N values are among the highest ever reported for plants. Seabird island soil and cactus δ15N values were consistently significantly enriched relative to mainland and non-bird islands, a relationship expected due to the progressive volatilization of 14N rich ammonia from decomposing guano deposits. Our findings demonstrate that seabird-mediated marine nutrient deposits provide the source for solubilized nitrogen on desert islands, which stimulate terrestrial plant production in the cardón cactus beyond that seen in either mainland ecosystems or non-seabird islands.


Assuntos
Cactaceae , Ecossistema , Amônia , Animais , Aves , Florestas , Ilhas , Nitrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Plantas , Solo
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(10): e0010419, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215334

RESUMO

The World Health Organization's revised NTD Roadmap and the newly launched Guidelines target elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem in all endemic areas by 2030. Key to meeting this goal is elucidating how selective pressures imposed by interventions shape parasite populations. Our aim was to identify any differential impact of a unique cluster-randomized tri-armed elimination intervention (biannual mass drug administration (MDA) applied alone or in association with either mollusciciding (snail control) or behavioural change interventions) across two Zanzibarian islands (Pemba and Unguja) on the population genetic composition of Schistosoma haematobium over space and time. Fifteen microsatellite loci were used to analyse individual miracidia collected from infected individuals across islands and intervention arms at the start (2012 baseline: 1,522 miracidia from 176 children; 303 from 43 adults; age-range 6-75, mean 12.7 years) and at year 5 (2016: 1,486 miracidia from 146 children; 214 from 25 adults; age-range 9-46, mean 12.4 years). Measures of genetic diversity included allelic richness (Ar), Expected (He) and Observed heterozygosity (Ho), inbreeding coefficient (FST), parentage analysis, estimated worm burden, worm fecundity, and genetic sub-structuring. There was little evidence of differential selective pressures on population genetic diversity, inbreeding or estimated worm burdens by treatment arm, with only the MDA+snail control arm within Unguja showing trends towards reduced diversity and altered inbreeding over time. The greatest differences overall, both in terms of parasite fecundity and genetic sub-structuring, were observed between the islands, consistent with Pemba's persistently higher mean infection intensities compared to neighbouring Unguja, and within islands in terms of infection hotspots (across three definitions). These findings highlight the important contribution of population genetic analyses to elucidate extensive genetic diversity and biological drivers, including potential gene-environmental factors, that may override short term selective pressures imposed by differential disease control strategies. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov ISRCTN48837681.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Esquistossomose Urinária , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Genética Populacional , Ilhas , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Schistosoma haematobium/genética , Esquistossomose Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/genética , Caramujos/parasitologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
17.
Zoolog Sci ; 39(5): 489-499, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205370

RESUMO

The subterranean amphipod genus Pseudocrangonyx is diverse in Far East Asia, including the Japanese Archipelago. However, Pseudocrangonyx species have not been recorded from the Ryukyu Islands, which extend southwest of the Japanese Archipelago. This study describes a new species of Pseudocrangonyx, Pseudocrangonyx dunan sp. nov., from Yonaguni Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that P. dunan sp. nov. is a sister species to Pseudocrangonyx sp. 4 from Honshu Island, Japan. In addition, three monophyletic groups were found in Pseudocrangonyx, although the phylogenetic positions of several species remain unknown. Our divergence dating indicates that the differentiation of major lineages of Pseudocrangonyx, which contains species from both the Asian continent and the Japanese Archipelago, is concentrated around 20 MYA. These results suggest that the opening of the Sea of Japan is one of the major factors promoting the speciation of Pseudocrangonyx endemic to the archipelago.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Anfípodes/genética , Animais , Ásia , Ilhas , Japão , Filogenia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293211

RESUMO

Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) are key regulators in plant heat stress response, and therefore, they play vital roles in signal transduction pathways in response to environmental stresses, as well as in plant growth and development. Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC. is an extremophile halophyte with good adaptability to high temperature and salt-drought tolerance, and it can be used as a pioneer species for ecological reconstruction on tropical coral islands. To date, very little is known regarding the functions of Hsfs in the adaptation mechanisms of plant species with specialized habitats, especially in tropical leguminous halophytes. In this study, a genome-wide analysis was performed to identify all the Hsfs in C. rosea based on whole-genome sequencing information. The chromosomal location, protein domain or motif organization, and phylogenetic relationships of 28 CrHsfs were analyzed. Promoter analyses indicated that the expression levels of different CrHsfs were precisely regulated. The expression patterns also revealed clear transcriptional changes among different C. rosea tissues, indicating that the regulation of CrHsf expression varied among organs in a developmental or tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, the expression levels of most CrHsfs in response to environmental conditions or abiotic stresses also implied a possible positive regulatory role of this gene family under abiotic stresses, and suggested roles in adaptation to specialized habitats such as tropical coral islands. In addition, some CrHsfAs were cloned and their possible roles in abiotic stress tolerance were functionally characterized using a yeast expression system. The CrHsfAs significantly enhanced yeast survival under thermal and oxidative stress challenges. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the plant Hsf gene family and provide a basis for further study of CrHsf functions in environmental thermotolerance. Our results also provide valuable information on the evolutionary relationships among CrHsf genes and the functional characteristics of the gene family. These findings are beneficial for further research on the natural ecological adaptability of C. rosea to tropical environments.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Canavalia/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Antozoários/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Ilhas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
19.
Anim Genet ; 53(6): 849-862, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073189

RESUMO

Runs of homozygosity (ROH) are defined as long stretches of DNA homozygous at each polymorphic position. The proportion of genome covered by ROH and their length are indicators of the level and origin of inbreeding. In this study, we analysed SNP chip datasets (obtained using the Axiom OrcunSNP Array) of a total of 702 rabbits from 12 fancy breeds and four meat breeds to identify ROH with different approaches and calculate several genomic inbreeding parameters. The highest average number of ROH per animal was detected in Belgian Hare (~150) and the lowest in Italian Silver (~106). The average length of ROH ranged from 4.001 ± 0.556 Mb in Italian White to 6.268 ± 1.355 Mb in Ermine. The same two breeds had the lowest (427.9 ± 86.4 Mb, Italian White) and the highest (921.3 ± 179.8 Mb, Ermine) average values of the sum of all ROH segments. More fancy breeds had a higher level of genomic inbreeding (as defined by ROH) than meat breeds. Several ROH islands contain genes involved in body size, body length, pigmentation processes, carcass traits, growth, and reproduction traits (e.g.: AOX1, GPX5, IFRD1, ITGB8, NELL1, NR3C1, OCA2, TRIB1, TRIB2). Genomic inbreeding parameters can be useful to overcome the lack of information in the management of rabbit genetic resources. ROH provided information to understand, to some extent, the genetic history of rabbit breeds and to identify signatures of selection in the rabbit genome.


Assuntos
Endogamia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Coelhos , Animais , Ilhas , Homozigoto , Genômica , Carne , Genótipo
20.
Mol Ecol ; 31(20): 5270-5284, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36082782

RESUMO

Understanding the structure and connectivity of coral populations is fundamental for developing marine conservation policies, especially in patchy environments such as archipelagos. The Nansei Islands, extending more than 1000 km in southwestern Japan, are characterized by high levels of biodiversity and endemism, supported by coral reefs, which make this region ideal for assessing genetic attributes of coral populations. In this study, we conducted population genomic analyses based on genome-wide, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Acropora digitifera, a common species in the Nansei Islands. By merging newly obtained genome resequencing data with previously published data, we identified more than 4 million genome-wide SNPs in 303 colonies collected at 22 locations, with sequencing coverage ranging from 3.91× to 27.41×. While population structure analyses revealed genetic similarities between the southernmost and northernmost locations, separated by >1000 km, several subpopulations in intermediate locations suggested limited genetic admixture, indicating conflicting migration tendencies in the Nansei Islands. Although migration networks revealed a general tendency of northward migration along the Kuroshio Current, a substantial amount of southward migration was also detected, indicating important contributions of minor ocean currents to coral larval dispersal. Moreover, heterogeneity in the transition of effective population sizes among locations suggests different histories for individual subpopulations. The unexpected complexity of both past and present population dynamics in the Nansei Islands implies that heterogeneity of ocean currents and local environments, past and present, have influenced the population structure of this species, and similar unexpected population complexities may be expected for other marine species with similar reproductive modes.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Recifes de Corais , Genômica , Ilhas , Japão
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