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1.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 132: 105299, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671667

RESUMO

The exoskeletons of crustaceans are essential for providing protection from predators and other environmental threats. Understanding the structure and mechanical behavior of their natural armor could inspire the design of lightweight and high toughness synthetic materials. Most published work has focused on marine crustacea rather than their terrestrial counterparts, which are exposed to a multitude of unique threats. The interest in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (A. vulgare) has grown but the interrelationship between the microstructure, chemical composition, and mechanical properties has not been thoroughly investigated. Thus, this study aims to elucidate missing details concerning this biological mineralized composite. Exoskeleton specimens were fixated to preserve the intrinsic protein structure. We utilize scanning electron microscopy for microstructure analysis, Raman spectroscopy for elemental analysis, and nanoindentation property mapping to achieve mechanical characterization. The naturally fractured A. vulgare exoskeleton cross-section reveals four subregions with the repeating helicoidal 'Bouligand' arrangement most prominent in the endocuticle. The hardness and reduced modulus distributions exhibit a through-thickness exponential gradient with decreasing magnitudes from the outermost to the innermost layers of the exoskeleton. The Raman spectra show a graded spatial distribution of key constituents such as calcium carbonate across the thickness, some of which are consistent with the mechanical property gradient. Potential microstructure, elemental composition, and mechanical property relationships are discussed to explain how the hierarchical structure of this nanolaminate armor protects this species.


Assuntos
Isópodes , Animais , Carbonato de Cálcio/análise , Isópodes/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Análise Espectral Raman
2.
Zoolog Sci ; 39(3): 270-274, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699930

RESUMO

Although isopods in Anthuroidea are predators, there is little information on their predatory behavior. In this study, we investigated predation by the paranthurid Paranthura japonica, which was originally described from northern Japan but has recently been reported as an invasive alien species in western America and Europe. Six crustacean species (two isopods, two amphipods, and two tanaidaceans, one of which does not co-occur with P. japonica in the wild) and one pycnogonid species were used as prey candidates in our experiments. Paranthura japonica preyed on all candidate species except the pycnogonid, grasping them with its falciform pereopods, inserting its piercing-type mouthparts, and sucking out the internal contents of the prey. Cannibalism or scavenging was observed when several P. japonica individuals were put in a single aquarium. This study showed that P. japonica is an aggressive predator; it consumed various crustaceans, including one it never encounters in the wild. Our results suggest that P. japonica will have a high impact on alien ecosystems it invades as a predator on native crustaceans. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit (COI) nucleotide sequences for putative P. japonica from Oshoro, Japan and a topotypic individual from Muroran confirmed that the population we dealt with was P. japonica.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Isópodes , Animais , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas , Comportamento Predatório
3.
Zoolog Sci ; 39(3): 293, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699933

RESUMO

Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are 'extreme' environments harboring diverse animal communities, powered by chemosynthesis. Though vent-endemic macrofauna have been a center of interest since their discovery in 1977, macroparasites have received little attention. Here, we report a bopyrid epicaridean isopod infesting the symbiotic munidopsid squat lobster Shinkaia crosnieri Baba and Williams, 1998 from three vent fields of Okinawa Trough, and describe it as Pleurocryptella shinkai sp. nov. Although morphologically close to the congeners Pleurocryptella formosa Bonnier, 1900, Pleurocryptella wolffi Bourdon, 1972, and Pleurocryptella altalis Williams, Boyko, and Marin, 2020, both females (via body proportion and characters of barbula, antennae, pleopods, and pleomeres) and males (via features of the head, pleomeres, and uropods) of the new species exhibit distinctive characters. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on the 18S rRNA gene (850 bp) was insufficiently resolved to clarify the relationship of different epicaridean lineages or the exact position of P. shinkai sp. nov., but it recovered P. shinkai sp. nov. in a distant position from the type genus of Pseudioninae, indicating non-monophyly of this subfamily. Crustaceans are successful in vents but this is only the second vent epicaridean reported, after Thermaloniscus cotylophorus Bourdon, 1983 from the East Pacific Rise described from a single cryptoniscus larva. As such, this is the first report of a vent bopyrid isopod and the first vent epicaridean with a known host. Some epicaridean lineages have adapted to tolerating the conditions of hydrothermal vents, and future research will likely uncover more epicarideans and other interesting parasites from these extreme habitats.


Assuntos
Anomuros , Decápodes , Fontes Hidrotermais , Isópodes , Poliquetos , Animais , Decápodes/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia
4.
Oecologia ; 199(2): 355-366, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597849

RESUMO

The balance between costs and benefits is expected to drive associations between species. While these balances are well understood for strict associations, we have no insights to which extent they determine facultative associations between species. Here, we quantified the costs of living in a facultative association, by studying the effects of red wood ants on the facultatively associated isopod Porcellio scaber. Porcellio scaber frequently occurred in and near hostile red wood ant nests and might outnumber obligate nest associates. The facultative association involved different costs for the isopod. We found that the density of the isopod decreases near the nest with higher ant traffic. Individuals in and near the nest were smaller than individuals further away from the nest. Smaller individuals were also found at sites with higher ant traffic. A higher proportion of wounded individuals was found closer to the nest and with higher ant traffic. We recorded pregnant females and juveniles in the nest suggesting that the life cycle can be completed inside the nests. Lab experiments showed that females died sooner and invested less in reproduction in presence of red wood ants. Porcellio scaber rarely provoked an aggression response, but large numbers were carried as prey to the nest. These preyed isopods were mainly dried out corpses. Our results showed that the ant association incurred several costs for a facultative associate. Consequently, red wood ant nests and their surrounding territory act as an alternative habitat where demographic costs are offset by a stable resource provisioning and protection.


Assuntos
Formigas , Isópodes , Animais , Formigas/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Reprodução , Simbiose
5.
BMC Biol ; 20(1): 113, 2022 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35562825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The deep-sea may be regarded as a hostile living environment, due to low temperature, high hydrostatic pressure, and limited food and light. Isopods, a species-rich group of crustaceans, are widely distributed across different environments including the deep sea and as such are a useful model for studying adaptation, migration, and speciation. Similar to other deep-sea organisms, giant isopods have larger body size than their shallow water relatives and have large stomachs and fat bodies presumably to store organic reserves. In order to shed light on the genetic basis of these large crustaceans adapting to the oligotrophic environment of deep-sea, the high-quality genome of a deep-sea giant isopod Bathynomus jamesi was sequenced and assembled. RESULTS: B. jamesi has a large genome of 5.89 Gb, representing the largest sequenced crustacean genome to date. Its large genome size is mainly attributable to the remarkable proliferation of transposable elements (84%), which may enable high genome plasticity for adaptive evolution. Unlike its relatives with small body size, B. jamesi has expanded gene families related to pathways of thyroid and insulin hormone signaling that potentially contribute to its large body size. Transcriptomic analysis showed that some expanded gene families related to glycolysis and vesicular transport were specifically expressed in its digestive organs. In addition, comparative genomics and gene expression analyses in six tissues suggested that B. jamesi has inefficient lipid degradation, low basal metabolic rate, and bulk food storage, suggesting giant isopods adopt a more efficient mechanism of nutrient absorption, storage, and utilization to provide sustained energy supply for their large body size. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the giant isopod genome may provide a valuable resource for understanding body size evolution and adaptation mechanisms of macrobenthic organisms to deep-sea environments.


Assuntos
Isópodes , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Genoma , Isópodes/genética , Filogenia
6.
Physiol Biochem Zool ; 95(4): 302-316, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594563

RESUMO

AbstractThe effects of chronic thermal stress during development on thermal performance traits are not well characterized under urban heat islands, despite these conditions being biologically relevant for how organisms experience the urban environment and the often strong linkages between thermal performance traits and fitness. Here we use the terrestrial isopod Oniscus asellus to examine the effects of chronic thermal stress during development on voluntary running speed of urban and rural isopods. We used a laboratory common-garden experiment design with two developmental acclimation temperature treatments (21°C, a benign treatment, and 29°C, a stressful treatment) and three test temperatures (19°C, 31°C, 40°C); we tested running speed of individuals from urban and rural populations under each of the temperature combinations. We found that for both urban and rural isopods, running speed across three test temperatures was reduced under developmental acclimation conditions of 29°C compared with 21°C. Importantly, however, urban isopods had a running speed advantage over the rural isopods under the 29°C developmental acclimation conditions at the lower two test temperatures. No population differences were detected under benign developmental acclimation conditions of 21°C. The evolution of higher heat tolerance in urban isopods further supported the interpretation of adaptation to heat stress. Convergence of urban and rural isopod running speed at the highest test temperature, however, suggests potential limits or constraints on adaptation. Our results indicate that thermal adaptation to urban heat islands can mitigate negative effects of chronic developmental thermal stress, even when overall performance is reduced compared with benign conditions.


Assuntos
Isópodes , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Aclimatação , Animais , Cidades , Temperatura Alta
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 867077, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35592321

RESUMO

Invertebrates, including crustaceans, rely on cellular and humoral immune responses to protect against extrinsic and intrinsic factors that threaten their integrity. Recently, different immune parameters have been increasingly used as biomarkers of effects of pollutants and environmental change. Here, we describe the dynamics of the innate immune response of the terrestrial crustacean Porcellio scaber to injection of a single dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an important molecular surface component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The aim was to provide a basis for interpretation of change in immune parameters as a result of different challenges, including microplastics and nanoplastics exposure. Changes in total and differential numbers of hemocytes, hemocyte viability, and humoral immune parameters (i.e., phenoloxidase-like activity, nitric oxide levels) were assessed at different times (3, 6, 12, 24, 48 h). An injection of 0.5 µg/µL LPS into the body of P. scaber resulted in a rapid decrease (3 h after LPS injection) in the total number of hemocytes and reduced viability of the hemocytes. This was accompanied by changed proportions of the different hemocyte types, as a decrease in the numbers of semigranulocytes and granulocytes, and a marked increase in the numbers of hyalinocytes. In addition, phenoloxidase-like activity and nitric oxide levels in the hemolymph were increased at 3 h and 6 h, respectively, after the LPS challenge. Forty-eight hours after LPS injection, the immune parameters in the hemolymph of P. scaber had returned to those before the LPS challenge. This suggests that the innate immune system successfully protected P. scaber from the deleterious effects of the LPS challenge. These data indicate the need to consider the dynamics of innate immune responses of P. scaber when effects of infections, pollutants, or environmental changes are studied. We also propose an approach to test the immunocompetence of organisms after different challenges in ecotoxicity studies, based on the dynamics of their immune responses.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Isópodes , Animais , Imunidade Inata , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Óxido Nítrico , Plásticos
8.
Zootaxa ; 5087(2): 357-371, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390913

RESUMO

Corallana mishrai sp. nov. collected from dead mangrove roots at Kodiyaghat, South Andaman, Andaman Islands, India is described and illustrated in detail. Corallana mishrai sp. nov. the first definitive record of the genus from India, is characterized by: frontal lamina with short straight (or very weakly convex) lateral margins and the anterior margin forming a strong acute median point; pleotelson length 0.76 greatest width, posterior margin with 5 robust setae; uropodal exopod 7 times longer than greatest width, extending beyond endopod by one fourth of its length; endopod lateral margin slightly convex with 4 RS and PMS, apex forms a slightly obtuse angle with long simple setae, mesial margin weakly convex with 2 RS and PMS; mandible bidentate; transverse row of 6 tubercles present on pereonite 1 and pleonites 2, 3 and 4 lacking lateral tubercles. The status of the genus and its species are reviewed, and two species are transferred to new combinations: Argathona kulai (Bruce, 1982) comb. nov. and Tachaea bidentata (Jones et al. 1983) comb. nov.


Assuntos
Besouros , Isópodes , Animais , Oceano Índico , Ilhas
9.
Zootaxa ; 5087(3): 484-488, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391277

RESUMO

Parakermania longa sp. nov., the third species of the woodlouse genus Parakermania Vandel, 1973 is described and illustrated from China. The new species differs from the other two congeners in having a different number of dorsal tubercles, and two well-developed ornamentations on the outer sides of the sixth pereonite going beyond the apex of telson. A key to Parakermania species is provided.


Assuntos
Isópodes , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China
10.
Naturwissenschaften ; 109(2): 23, 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377006

RESUMO

Turn alternation (TA) is the tendency to turn in the opposite direction of an immediately preceding turn when moving forward, resulting in an overall linear trajectory. TA has been observed in many animals, and terrestrial isopods are considered model organisms for studying TA. Optimizing their fleeing speed and trajectory helps isopods efficiently escape from predatory threats. However, since reproduction induces morphological and physiological changes, individuals might adjust their trajectories depending on their altered mobility. In this study, we investigated the effect of reproduction-related factors on the frequency of TA, which enables linearity, in the common rough woodlouse Porcellio scaber. The results showed that breeding females enhanced their linearity more than nonbreeding females and males. Furthermore, females without access to a potential mate enhanced their linearity more than females and males with access to a potential mate and maintained a high linearity for approximately 40 days. In terrestrial isopods, continuous TA for linearity may be used to avoid reproductive failure because of lack of encounters with the potential mate or to compensate for low running ability due to physical or physiological loads. Conversely, individuals that do not need to worry about reproductive failures or individuals with small loads could perform the random turn that does not require learning or memory. This is the first study to show that the events involved in reproduction affect the linearity shown by continuous TA in terrestrial isopods.


Assuntos
Isópodes , Animais , Feminino , Isópodes/fisiologia , Masculino , Comportamento Predatório , Reprodução
11.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 253, 2022 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Classification of parasitic bopyrids has traditionally been based on morphological characteristics, but phylogenetic relationships have remained elusive due to limited information provided by morphological data and tendency for loss of morphological features as a result of parasitic lifestyle. Subfamily Argeiinae was separated from Bopyrinae based on morphological evidence, although the assignment of all genera has not been phylogenetically evaluated. Bopyroides hippolytes has been traditionally classified in Bopyrinae, but divergent morphological characters make this assignment questionable. To investigate the relationship of bopyrines, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of B. hippolytes and four mitochondrial genes of two other Bopyrinae. RESULTS: The phylogenetic trees based on separate and combined cox1and 18S sequence data recovered Bopyridae as robustly monophyletic, but Bopyrinae as polyphyletic. Bopyroides hippolytes was a close sister to Argeia pugettensis, type species to Argeiinae. Mitochondrial phylogenomics also suggested that B. hippolytes was close to Argeiinae. We also found a novel gene order in B. hippolytes compared to other isopods. CONCLUSIONS: Bopyroides hippolytes should be excluded from the Bopyrinae and has a close affinity with Argeia pugettensis based on molecular and morphological data. The conserved syntenic blocks of mitochondrial gene order have distinctive characteristics at a subordinal level and may be helpful for understanding the higher taxonomic level relationships of Isopoda.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Isópodes , Animais , Ordem dos Genes , Genes Mitocondriais , Isópodes/genética , Filogenia
12.
Parasitology ; 149(2): 203-208, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35234597

RESUMO

Bopyrid isopods of the genus Probopyrus are well-known parasites of freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium. The parasitism of coastal populations of Macrobrachium amazonicum by Probopyrus bithynis, for example, has been documented since the late 1980s. Despite this, molecular data on different populations are not available for any Probopyrus species. The present study is the first to describe Probopyrus populations from distinct regions of the Amazon basin based on sequences of two genes, the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase C subunit I (COI) and the nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) gene. The analyses indicated the presence of two Probopyrus species, each parasitizing either the coastal or the inland populations of M. amazonicum. The results indicated the potential use of the COI barcode for the identification of Probopyrus species. We discuss the potential implications of the findings for the taxonomy of Probopyrus bithynis and other species of the genus Probopyrus.


Assuntos
Isópodes , Palaemonidae , Animais , Brasil , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Água Doce , Isópodes/genética , Palaemonidae/parasitologia
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 431: 128562, 2022 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35248963

RESUMO

The reclamation of geogenic As-contaminated excavated soils as construction additives can reduce the post-disposal impact on the ecosystem and space. Although retaining soil characteristics while reducing contaminant load is a challenging task, washing remediation with biodegradable surfactants or chelators is a promising alternative to non-biodegradable counterparts. In this study, newly synthesized biodegradable surfactants (SDG: sodium N-dodecanoyl-glycinate, SDBA: sodium N-dodecanoyl-ß-alaninate, SDGBH: sodium N-dodecanoyl-α,γ-glutamyl-bis-hydroxyprolinate, SDT: sodium N-dodecanoyl-taurinate, and DCPC: N-dodecyl-3-carbamoyl-pyridinium-chloride) and biodegradable chelators (EDDS: ethylenediamine N,N'-disuccinic acid, GLDA: L-glutamate-N, N'-diacetic acid, and HIDS: 3-hydroxy-2,2'-imino disuccinic acid) are evaluated for the remediation of As-contaminated soil. The operating variables, such as washing duration, solution pH, and surfactant or chelator concentration, are optimized for maximum As extraction. SDT shows the highest As-extraction efficiency irrespective of solution pH and surfactant variants, while HIDS is the superior chelator under acidic or alkaline conditions. A binary blend of SDT and HIDS is evaluated for As extraction under varying operating conditions. The SDT-HIDS binary blend demonstrates 6.9 and 1.6-times higher As-extraction rates than the SDT and HIDS-only washing, respectively, under acidic conditions. The proposed approach with a binary blend of a biodegradable surfactant and chelator is a green solution for recycling As-contaminated excavated soils for geotechnical applications.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Isópodes , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Quelantes , Ecossistema , Metais Pesados/análise , Sódio , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Tensoativos
14.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 41(4): 961-974, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35188296

RESUMO

Bioaccumulation tests with invertebrates have recently been discussed as a suitable alternative to bioaccumulation tests with metal- or metal oxide-based nanoparticles in fish for regulatory assessment. In the present study, as a first step, we investigated the suitability of three invertebrate species for bioaccumulation tests with nano- and microplastics. In a laboratory approach the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea, the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca, and the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber were exposed to fluorescently labeled nano- and microplastics to evaluate their suitability to estimate the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of these test items. No bioaccumulation was observed in H. azteca or P. scaber. In contrast, the measurement of the relative fluorescence of the test items in the soft tissue and the feces of the filter-feeding bivalve allowed us to derive data that may be useful for the regulatory bioaccumulation assessment of manufactured nano- and microplastics. The developed measurement method using fluorescence represents a time-efficient and cost-effective analytical method for manufactured nano- and microplastics in laboratory studies for regulatory assessment. Environ Toxicol Chem 2022;41:961-974. © 2022 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of SETAC.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Isópodes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Invertebrados , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos/toxicidade , Polímeros , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
15.
Mar Drugs ; 20(2)2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35200613

RESUMO

Streptomyces sp. GET02.ST and Achromobacter sp. GET02.AC were isolated together from the gut of the wharf roach, Ligia exotica, inhabiting the intertidal zone of the west coast of Korea. The co-cultivation of these two strains significantly induced the production of two new metabolites, ligiamycins A (1) and B (2), which were barely detected in the single culture of Streptomyces sp. GET02.ST. The planar structures of ligiamycins A (1) and B (2) were elucidated as new decalins coupled with amino-maleimides by the analysis of various spectroscopic data, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), ultraviolet (UV), and mass (MS) data. The assignment of two nitrogen atoms in amino-maleimide in 1 was accomplished based on 1H-15N heteroatom single quantum coherence spectroscopy (HSQC) NMR experiments. The relative configurations of the ligiamycins were determined using rotating frame Overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY) NMR data, and their absolute configurations were deduced by comparing their experimental and calculated optical rotations. Ligiamycin A (1) displayed antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica, while ligiamycin B (2) exhibited mild cell cytotoxicity against human colorectal cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Achromobacter/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Cocultura , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Isópodes/microbiologia , Naftalenos/química , Naftalenos/isolamento & purificação , Streptomyces/metabolismo
16.
Zoolog Sci ; 39(1): 87-98, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35106996

RESUMO

Ctenostome bryozoans were collected from depths of 150-300 m in Suruga Bay, the Kumano Sea, and off Sendai Bay on the Pacific coast of Japan. Among these samples were five new species, three of which were epibiotic on other animals. Alcyonidium clavum n. sp., found encrusting cirri of the stalked crinoid Metacrinus rotundus, was previously reported in Japan as Alcyonidium mamillatum, but differs from the latter in lacking rings on the peristome. Triticella parvacrista n. sp. and Triticella cunabula n. sp. were epibiotic on the isopod Bathynomus doederleini and the pycnogonid Ascorhynchus japonicum, respectively. This is the first record of the genus Triticella from Japanese waters. These species differ from previously described species in autozooidal morphology, particularly the dimensions of the autozooidal dilatation, in the presence or absence of the frenaculum, and in the septate junction between the dilatation and pedicel. Bockiella arcatumida n. sp., found as erect colonies on pebbles and hydroids collected off Sendai Bay, differs from previously known species in the size and arrangement of the kenozoids in the branch. Metalcyonidium morum n. sp., collected southwest of the Izu Peninsula, occurred as small colonies having a peduncle of short kenozooids. This is the first record from the northwestern Pacific for both the genus Metalcyonidium and the family Clavoporidae. Metalcyonidium morum n. sp differs from Metalcyonidium gautieri, the only other species known in the genus, in having the capitulum divided into two parts, and in the length of the kenozooids comprising the peduncle.


Assuntos
Briozoários , Isópodes , Thoracica , Animais , Equinodermos , Japão
17.
Zoolog Sci ; 39(1): 124-139, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35107000

RESUMO

Gnathiid larvae (Crustacea; Isopoda; Gnathiidae) infesting elasmobranch and holocephalan fishes from mainly bathyal depths off Suruga Bay, off Kume-jima Island, and five sites from off Tokyo Bay to Shimoda City, Japan were examined. A total of 1460 gnathiid larvae were sampled from 87 host individuals belonging to seven families and 10 species. The morphology of these larvae was distinguishable from other gnathiid species by the head appendages. These larvae presented two pigmentation patterns, stripes or spots, on their dorsal thoraxes in live specimens. Furthermore, they were determined as the second and third stage praniza larvae on the basis of allometric variance of maximum head and abdomen widths. A third stage praniza with stripe pigmentation metamorphosed into an adult male and could be identified as a new species of the genus Thaumastognathia Monod, 1926. The duration between detachment from the host and metamorphosis into male adult required 204 days. This paper describes Thaumastognathia bicorniger sp. nov. on the basis of P3/stripe larvae and the male adult. This report is the first record of the larva and host information for a species of Thaumastognathia.


Assuntos
Elasmobrânquios , Doenças dos Peixes , Isópodes , Animais , Peixes , Larva , Masculino
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(24): 35977-35985, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35060027

RESUMO

Artificial Light at Night (ALAN) is expanding worldwide, and the study of its influence remains limited mainly to documenting impacts, overlooking the variation in key characteristics of the artificial light such as its intensity. The potential dose-response of fitness-related traits to different light intensities has not been assessed in sandy beach organisms. Hence, this study explored dose-responses to ALAN by exposing the intertidal sandy beach isopod Tylos spinulosus to a range of light intensities at night: 0 (control), 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 lx. We quantified the response of this species at the molecular (RNA:DNA ratios), physiological (absorption efficiency) and organismal (growth rate) levels. Linear and non-linear regressions were used to explore the relationship between light intensity and the isopod response. The regressions showed that increasing light intensity caused an overall ~ threefold decline in RNA:DNA ratios and a ~ threefold increase in absorption efficiency, with strong dose-dependent effects. For both response variables, non-linear regressions also identified likely thresholds at 80 lx (RNA:DNA) and 40 lx (absorption efficiency). By contrast, isopod growth rates were unrelated (unaltered) by the increase in light intensity at night. We suggest that ALAN is detrimental for the condition of the isopods, likely by reducing the activity and feeding of these nocturnal organisms, and that the isopods compensate this by absorbing nutrients more efficiently in order to maintain growth levels.


Assuntos
Isópodes , Animais , Causalidade , DNA , Isópodes/efeitos da radiação , RNA
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 818: 151816, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813818

RESUMO

Microplastics are very common contaminants in the environment. Despite increasing efforts to assess the effects of microplastics on soil organisms, there remains a lack of knowledge on how organisms respond to diverse types of microplastics after different exposure durations. In the present study, we investigated the immune response of the terrestrial crustacean Porcellio scaber exposed to the two most common microplastic particles in the environment: polyester fibres and tyre particles. We also tested two natural particles: wood dust and silica powder, with all treatments performed at 1.5% w/w. The response of P. scaber was evaluated at the level of the immune system, and also the biochemical, organism and population level, after different exposure durations (1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 days). These data reveal dynamic changes in the levels of some immune parameters shortly after exposure, with a gradual return to control values. The total number of haemocytes was significantly decreased after 4 days of exposure to tyre particles, while the proportion of different haemocyte types in the haemolymph was altered shortly after exposure to both polyester fibres and tyre particles. Moreover, 7 days of exposure to tyre particles resulted in increased superoxide dismutase activity in the haemolymph, while metabolic activity in whole woodlice (measured as electron transport system activity) was increased after exposure for 7, 14 and 21 days. In contrast, the natural particles did not elicit any significant changes in the measured parameters. Survival and feeding of P. scaber were not altered by exposure to the microplastics and natural particles in soil. Overall, this study defines a time-dependent transient immune response of P. scaber, which indicates that immune parameters represent sensitive biomarkers of exposure to microplastics. We discuss the importance of using natural particles in studies of microplastics exposure and their effects.


Assuntos
Isópodes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Imunidade , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos/toxicidade , Solo/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
20.
Mol Ecol ; 31(1): 313-330, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676606

RESUMO

The crustacean marine isopod species Haploniscus bicuspis (Sars, 1877) shows circum-Icelandic distribution in a wide range of environmental conditions and along well-known geographic barriers, such as the Greenland-Iceland-Faroe (GIF) Ridge. We wanted to explore population genetics, phylogeography and cryptic speciation as well as investigate whether previously described, but unaccepted subspecies have any merit. Using the same set of specimens, we combined mitochondrial COI sequences, thousands of nuclear loci (ddRAD), and proteomic profiles, plus selected morphological characters using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Five divergent genetic lineages were identified by COI and ddRAD, two south and three north of the GIF Ridge. Assignment of populations to the three northern lineages varied and detailed analyses revealed hybridization and gene flow between them, suggesting a single northern species with a complex phylogeographic history. No apparent hybridization was observed among lineages south of the GIF Ridge, inferring the existence of two more species. Differences in proteomic profiles between the three putative species were minimal, implying an ongoing or recent speciation process. Population differentiation was high, even among closely associated populations, and higher in mitochondrial COI than nuclear ddRAD loci. Gene flow is apparently male-biased, leading to hybrid zones and instances of complete exchange of the local nuclear genome through immigrating males. This study did not confirm the existence of subspecies defined by male characters, which probably instead refer to different male developmental stages.


Assuntos
Isópodes , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Especiação Genética , Variação Genética , Genômica , Islândia , Isópodes/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Proteômica
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