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1.
Parasite ; 28: 74, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723788

RESUMO

Echinococcus multilocularis eggs are deposited on the ground with the faeces of the carnivore definitive hosts. A reliable assessment of the spatial distribution of E. multilocularis eggs in environments used by humans is crucial for the prevention of alveolar echinococcosis (AE). This study was conducted in 192 rural and 71 urban vegetable gardens in AE endemic areas of north-eastern France. Its objective was to explore the relationship between the spatial distribution of E. multilocularis estimated from the collection and molecular analysis of two types of samples: faeces and soil. A total of 1024 carnivore faeces and 463 soil samples were collected and analysed by real-time PCR. No fox droppings and no positive soil samples were collected from the urban gardens. Positive soil samples, positive carnivore faeces, or both, were found in 42%, 24% and 6% of the sampled rural gardens, respectively. No significant association was found between the detection of E. multilocularis in soil samples collected from 50 gardens during a single sampling session and the extent and frequency of deposits of fox and cat faeces collected during repeated sampling sessions conducted in the previous months. In 19/50 gardens, E. multilocularis was detected in the soil while no positive faeces had been collected in the previous 12 months. Conversely, in 8/50 gardens, no soil samples were positive although positive faeces had been collected in the previous months. Collecting and analysing faeces provide information on soil contamination at a given time, while analysing soil samples provides an overview of long-term contamination.


Assuntos
Echinococcus multilocularis , Fezes/parasitologia , Solo , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Raposas , Jardins , Solo/parasitologia , Verduras
2.
J Emerg Manag ; 19(5): 505-511, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812485

RESUMO

Many outdoor gardens are designed for plants to grow in soil. Few gardens are designed for plants to be hydroponically grown outside with energy and water capture technologies. The feasibility of a selfsufficient, adaptive hydroponic garden harnessing energy from multiple renewable energy (solar and wind) and rainwater collection techniques while producing food has been considered. This study's primary objective is to conduct a comparative analysis between a traditional soil garden bed and an outdoor hydroponic system, called Pangea. The study findings suggest no significant statistical difference between the plants grown in traditional soil and a Pangea system. Additional objectives of this study include a comparative analysis of water and energy differentials between a standard garden and Pangea. This study's energy findings suggest that the Pangea system produces 0.05 kWh of energy to 0 kWh of energy production in the classic soil over a month timespan. The water production findings indicate that a Pangea system produces 198.01 L of water and a classic soil of 69 L for a timespan of 1 month, concluding a positive water differential of 288.12 L and a negative water differential of 414 L after 6 months. The study findings suggest the combination of sustainable practices can limit the negative effects of weather-related events to create a positive differential for producing food, water, and energy.


Assuntos
Jardins , Solo , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Hidroponia , Água
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574519

RESUMO

This paper is a systematic review of quantitative studies conducted on the benefits of visiting gardens and gardening therapy for people with dementia (PWD) in an effort to assess the effectiveness of such treatments and obtain information on the most appropriate garden design for this population. This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA) guidelines. Four databases were searched (PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Scopus), with no time limits. Out of a total of 480 articles considered, 16 studies were selected for review. In all but two of the studies examined, gardening therapy and the use of therapeutic gardens induced psychophysiological improvements in PWD. The areas showing the greatest effects were Engagement, Agitation, Depression/Mood, Stress, and Medication. It also emerged that interest in this sphere has been growing in the last decade, but there is still a shortage of empirical evidence of the beneficial effects of therapeutic gardens in relation to the type and severity of dementia, and of garden design guidelines. Despite the limited number of studies investigated, the review confirmed the benefits of gardening and therapeutic gardens in PWD. There is nonetheless a need to conduct more quantitative research to support currently-available evidence and generate more information, focusing on garden design criteria, in-garden activities, the type and severity of dementia examined, and effects on caregivers as well as on PWD.


Assuntos
Demência , Horticultura Terapêutica , Cuidadores , Demência/terapia , Jardinagem , Jardins , Humanos
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0252087, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555046

RESUMO

The purposes are to analyze the mechanism of digitized landscape architecture design and stablize the garden landscape image display in constructing garden landscape digitization platform. According to previous research and mobile edge computing, a scheme of digitized landscape architecture design is proposed based on edge computing. This scheme uses discrete elevation calculation to preserve the landscape design image's frame. It adopts the Roberts edge detection and Laplacian operator for high-level stable preservation of landscape images. Simultaneously, the displayed image is stablized using edge computing algorithms. Simulation experiments are performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme of digitized landscape architecture design based on mobile edge computing. Results demonstrate that the discrete elevation calculation algorithm can avoid low visual rendering in the 3D image generation process, optimize the seed point matching of edge correlation, and ensure image clarity and stability. The edge computing algorithm can fundamentally avoid the problem of image shaking. The impact of different algorithm models on the classification and accuracy of landscape images is analyzed through parameter optimization. Compared with some latest models, the proposed landscape design scheme based on edge computing has better accuracy. The average accuracy can reach more than 90%, and the Kappa coefficient remains at 86.93%. The designed garden landscape digitization platform can stably display 3D garden landscape images while avoiding the shaking of 3D images, which can provide a theoretical basis and practical value for designing and planning landscape architecture.


Assuntos
Jardins , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Algoritmos , Arquitetura , Computação em Nuvem , Simulação por Computador , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
5.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 17(1): 54, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Homegardens are in situ conservation sources of germplasm diversity for overcoming homogenous germplasm problems in industrial agricultural systems. The Wa people constitute a long-dwelling ethnic group mainly in southwestern Yunnan with a unique culture and rich knowledge of traditional vegetables. We hypothesized that traditional vegetable varieties are well conserved in Wa homegardens because Wa culture promotes the preservation of traditional vegetables. We surveyed vegetable varieties and the practices that are involved in the conservation of traditional vegetables in Wa homegardens, which could form the basis for in situ conservation. METHODS: The methods were used including questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Sixty homegardens were surveyed through purposive sampling in 6 Wa villages. We documented ethnobotanical information about vegetables in homegardens. Plant species were identified according to the Flora of China. And thematic analyses were conducted for in-depth interviews to identify the conservation factors for traditional vegetables. RESULTS: Fifty-two vegetable species belonging to 16 families and 41 genera were recorded from 60 Wa homegardens. Fifty-five traditional vegetable varieties and thirty-six hybrids were recorded. Among all the villages, 23 ± 6 (average ± SD) traditional vegetable varieties per homegarden and 9 ± 3 (average ± SD) introduced varieties per homegarden were recorded. Local seeds were stored in 78% of households, with an additional 9% of households' seed supplies coming from neighbors and relatives; the other 13% of households purchased local seeds from markets. In 83% of families, the female head was mainly responsible for the decision-making concerning traditional vegetables in homegardens; in 10% of families, the male head was responsible for decision-making, and a small percentage (2%) was determined by elderly people. Five percent of families made decisions jointly between male and female household heads. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that rich traditional germplasm diversity is harbored in Wa homegardens because of the unique culture and traditional knowledge of Wa communities, which are practiced daily with homegrown food plants. Local vegetable seed conservation and sharing systems help maintain germplasm diversity in the Wa community homegardens. Wa homegardens constitute a practical solution for protecting traditional germplasm diversity and maintaining traditional lifestyles.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Etnobotânica , Verduras , China , Jardins , Humanos
6.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256913, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492063

RESUMO

The desire for fresh, local food has increased interest in alternative food production approaches, such as private small-scale agriculture, wherein households grow their own food. Accordingly, it is worth investigating private agricultural production, especially in urban areas, given that an increasing share of the world's population is living in cities. This study analyzed the growth of produce at people's homes and in community gardens, focusing on behavioral and socio-demographic factors. Data were collected through an online survey in Detroit, Michigan; 420 citizens were interviewed. The results revealed that trust, attitude, and knowledge affect the growing of produce at home. Involvement and personality are also drivers of community gardening. Regarding socio-demographics, household size affects the growing of produce at home, while gender, age, and income affect community gardening. The findings have valuable implications for stakeholders who wish to foster private small-scale urban agriculture, for example, through city planning and nutrition education.


Assuntos
Agricultura/tendências , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Jardinagem/tendências , Jardins/normas , Cidades/epidemiologia , Humanos , Michigan/epidemiologia
7.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576927

RESUMO

Garden-cultivated Ginseng (GG) and mountain-cultivated Ginseng (MG) both belong to Panax Ginseng C. A. Meyer. However, the effective substances which can be used to distinguish GG from MG remain obscure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to screen for discriminating markers that can assist in the correct identification of GG and MG. HPLC Q-TOF/MS and various chemometrics methods were used to analyze the chemical profiles of 13 batches of Ginseng and to explore the characteristic constituents of both GG and MG. The hepatocyte-protecting effects of GG and MG were investigated through a paclitaxel-induced liver injury model. Through a combination of correlation analysis and bioinformatic techniques, markers for differentiation between GG and MG were ascertained. A total of 40 and 41 compounds were identified in GG and MG, respectively, and 15 characteristic ingredients contributed significantly to the discrimination of GG from MG. Correlation analysis and network pharmacology were applied and ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rg3 were found to be discriminating markers of GG and MG. Six markers for the identification of GG and MG were screened out by a step-wise mutually oriented "chemical profiling-pharmaceutical effect" correlation strategy, which is of great significance for future quality assessment of Ginseng products.


Assuntos
Quimioinformática/métodos , Panax/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Jardins , Ginsenosídeos/análise , Ginsenosídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacocinética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
8.
JAMA ; 326(6): 481-482, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374719
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 798: 149367, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375266

RESUMO

This work provides an evaluation of the emission factors (EFs) of typical garden waste burning (fallen leaves and hedge trimming) in terms of particulate matter (PM), elemental and organic carbon (EC-OC) together with a detailed chemical characterization of 88 particle-bound organic species including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), levoglucosan and its isomers, lignin breakdown products (methoxyphenols), cholesterol, alkanes, polyols and sugars. Furthermore, wood-log based burning experiments have been performed to highlight key indicators or chemical patterns of both, green waste and wood burning (residential heating) sources, that may be used for PM source apportionment purposes. Two residential log wood combustion appliances, wood stove (RWS) and fireplace, under different output conditions (nominal and reduced) and wood log moisture content (mix of beech, oak and hornbeam), have been tested. Open wood burning experiments using wood logs were also performed. Green waste burning EFs obtained were comparable to the available literature data for open-air biomass burning. For PM and for most of the organic species studied, they were about 2 to 30 times higher than those observed for wood log combustion experiments. Though, poor performance wood combustions (open-air wood log burning, fireplace and RWS in reduced output) showed comparable EFs for levoglucosan and its isomers, methoxyphenols, polyols, PAHs and sugars. Toxic PAH equivalent benzo[a]pyrene EFs were even 3-10 times higher for the fireplace and open-air wood log burning. These results highlighted the impact of the nature of the fuel burnt and the combustion performances on the emissions. Different chemical fingerprints between both biomass burning sources were highlighted with notably a predominance of odd high-molecular weight n-alkanes (higher carbon preference index, CPI), lower levoglucosan/mannosan ratio and lower sinapylaldehyde abundance for green waste burning. However, the use of such indicators seems limited, especially if applied alone, for a clear discrimination of both sources in ambient air.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carvão Mineral/análise , Jardins , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Madeira/química
10.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(9): 5483-5489, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417651

RESUMO

A ginsenoside Rg2-producing, Gram stain-negative, aerobic, catalase and oxidase-positive, rod-shaped, non-motile and orange pigmented novel bacterium designated strain MAH-28 T was isolated from soil sample of a grape garden. Strain MAH-28 T hydrolyzed aesculin, casein and DNA. Flexirubin-type pigments are present. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain MAH-28 T formed a cluster within the genus Chitinophaga and the most close relatives were Chitinophaga alhagiae T22T (98.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Chitinophaga humicola Ktm-2 T (98.8%), Chitinophaga barathri YLT18T (98.3%) and Chitinophaga lutea ZY74T (97.4%). The novel strain MAH-28 T has a draft genome size of 6,043,180 bp (14 contigs), annotated with 4,863 protein-coding genes, 53 tRNA and 6 rRNA genes. The ANI and dDDH values between strain MAH-28 T and the closely related type strains were in the range of 76.0-83.4% and 20.3-26.7%, respectively. The novel strain MAH-28 T was able to synthesize ginsenoside Rg2 from major ginsenoside Re. The genome annotation revealed 152 carbohydrate genes which may involve with the synthesis of ginsenoside Rg2. The respiratory quinone of strain MAH-28 T was MK-7 and the dominant cellular fatty acids were C15:0 iso, C16:1 ω5c and C17:0 iso 3-OH. The DNA G + C content of strain MAH-28 T was 53.3 mol%. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies, strain MAH-28 T represents a new member of genus Chitinophaga for which the name Chitinophaga chungangae sp. nov. is proposed with type strain MAH-28 T (= KACC 19968 T = CGMCC 1.16605 T).


Assuntos
Vitis , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Bacteroidetes , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Jardins , Ginsenosídeos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Microbiologia do Solo , Vitamina K 2
11.
Naturwissenschaften ; 108(5): 38, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448943

RESUMO

Chemical communication plays a fundamental role in many aspects of an animal's life from assessing habitat quality to finding mating partners. Behavioural observations show that chemical communication likewise plays an important role in spiders, but the contexts and the substances involved are little explored. Here, we investigate the chemical communication in the garden cross spider Araneus diadematus (Clerck, 1757) between and within the sexes. Using choice trials, we demonstrate that males are attracted to odours of adult females, but not to those of subadult females. Our data further suggest that adult females avoid odours of conspecific adult females, possibly in order to reduce reproductive competition with other females. Cuticle and silk extracts as well as headspace samples of subadult and adult virgin females were analysed via GC-MS. Available candidate compounds for the female sex pheromone were tested via electroantennography on palps (electropalpography) of adult virgin females and on females in behavioural trials. We propose sulcatone (6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one) as a candidate substance for the female volatile pheromone and several long-chained alkanes and alcohols as candidates for contact pheromones. Apart from demonstrating that attraction of males to females depends on the latter's developmental stage, our study suggests that pheromones can also play an important role between females, an aspect that requires further attention.


Assuntos
Atrativos Sexuais , Aranhas , Animais , Comunicação , Feminino , Jardins , Masculino , Feromônios
12.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255621, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358279

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There has been growing interest in community gardens as an effective and affordable health promotion strategy. However, most available evidence is derived from qualitative studies, whereas quantitative research on this subject is limited. OBJECTIVES: To synthetize the literature about physical and mental health outcomes associated with community gardening. Two main questions were addressed: a) is there evidence, from quantitative studies, that community gardening is associated to physical and mental health and well-being of non-institutionalized individuals? b) Does community gardening provokes any discomfort in terms of physical health, i.e., bodily pain, to their beneficiaries? METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was carried out following PRISMA guidelines by searching relevant electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science). Empirical, quantitative studies published in English with no restrictions concerning the date of publication were considered eligible. The quality of the evidence was appraised using the tool developed by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. RESULTS: Overall, 8 studies were considered eligible, of which seven studies were rated as having good methodological quality (one scored as fair). Community gardeners had significantly better health outcomes than their neighbours not engaged in gardening activities in terms of life satisfaction, happiness, general health, mental health, and social cohesion. CONCLUSION: Community gardens are associated to health gains for their users, irrespective of age, being an affordable and efficient way of promoting physical and mental health and well-being. To encourage the design, maintenance, and prospective evaluation of supportive urban environments promoting healthy and, at the same time, sustainable lifestyles, is essential to achieve public health gains and environmental sustainability.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Jardinagem/métodos , Jardins/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Saúde Mental , Características de Residência , Humanos
13.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1955): 20211287, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315264

RESUMO

A key conservation goal in agroecosystems is to understand how management practices may affect beneficial species, such as pollinators. Currently, broad gaps exist in our knowledge as to how horticultural management practices, such as irrigation level, might influence bee reproduction, particularly for solitary bees. Despite the extensive use of ornamental plants by bees, especially little is known about how irrigation level may interact with insecticides, like water-soluble neonicotinoids, to influence floral rewards and bee reproduction. We designed a two-factor field cage experiment in which we reared Megachile rotundata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) on containerized ornamental plants grown under two different irrigation levels and imidacloprid treatments (30% label rate dosage of a nursery formulation or an untreated control). Lower irrigation was associated with modest decreases in nectar volume and floral abundance in untreated plants, whereas irrigation did not affect plants treated with imidacloprid. Furthermore, higher irrigation decreased the amount of imidacloprid entering nectar. Imidacloprid application strongly reduced bee foraging activity and reproduction, and higher irrigation did not offset any negative effects on bees. Our study emphasizes the impact of a nursery neonicotinoid formulation on solitary bee foraging and reproduction, while highlighting interactions between irrigation level and neonicotinoid application in containerized plants themselves.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Animais , Abelhas , Jardins , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Néctar de Plantas
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 222: 112497, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273850

RESUMO

Sewage sludge (SS) and garden waste (GW) compost can be used as soil amendments to improve the soil environment. Studies done till date have been focused on the changes of harmful substances during sludge composting, but the safety and efficacy of SS and GW composting on woodland soil environment are still unclear. In the study, a field experiment was performed using to investigate the safety and efficacy of SS and GW compost as a soil amendment on woodland soil. Soil nutrients (such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium), organic matter and electrical conductivity were significantly increased after the addition of the SS and GW compost, while there were no significant changes in soil heavy metals content and soil enzyme activities. From these soil properties, it was found that SS and GW compost was safe and efficacious in improving the soil environment. The application of SS and GW compost had no significant effect on microbial diversity. Co-occurrence network analysis revealed that SS and GW compost efficaciously enhanced the interaction between bacterial communities, which proved that it was safe and efficacious. Furthermore, SS and GW compost enhanced ABC transporters and carbohydrate metabolism of bacterial community, while reduced the pathotroph action (such as the plant pathogen) and wood saprotrophs. Overall, these results proved the safety and efficacy of SS and GW compost as soil amendments after being added to the soil. This study contributes to the use of harmless treatments and reutilization processes of SS and GW.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Poluentes do Solo , Florestas , Jardins , Esgotos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300073

RESUMO

Though botanical gardens are an important and widely visited component of urban green spaces (UGS) worldwide, their pollution is rarely studied. The aim of this study was to assess botanical garden soil contamination and ecotoxicity and to evaluate whether urban botanical gardens are more contaminated than urban parks. Soil assessments showed serious contamination with Cd, Pb and Zn, emitted predominantly by traffic, agrochemicals and past construction and demolition waste. The discovery of hazardous historical ecological burden in the UGS calls for the necessity of detailed surveys of such areas. Despite prevailing moderate-to-heavy contamination, the soil was only slightly ecotoxic. Maximum immobilisation inhibition of Daphnia magna reached 15%. Growth of Sinapis alba L. was predominantly stimulated (73%), and Desmodesmus subspicatus Chodat was exclusively stimulated, possibly due to soil alkalinity and fertiliser-related nutrients. The hypothesis of a higher contamination of urban botanical gardens compared to urban parks was confirmed. However, urban parks can face a greater risk of soil ecotoxicity, hypothetically due to decreased activity of soil organisms resulting from adverse soil conditions caused by active recreation. The results highlight the need for an increased focus on botanical and ornamental gardens when assessing and managing UGS as areas potentially more burdened with contamination.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Cidades , República Tcheca , Monitoramento Ambiental , Jardins , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Parques Recreativos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 149060, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325881

RESUMO

The viable chelator-based soil washing has yet to be demonstrated on a larger scale. Soil containing 1850, 3830 and 21 mg kg-1 Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively, was washed with 100 mmol EDTA kg-1 in a series of 16 batches (1 ton soil/batch) using the new ReSoil® technology. The ReSoil® recycled the process water and 85% of the EDTA, producing no wastewater and 14.4 kg ton-1 of waste. The soil washing removed 71, 28 and 53% of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively, mainly from the carbonate fraction, saturated the soil with basic cations and increased the soil pH by up to 0.5 units. Raised beds (4 × 1 × 0.5 m) with original (contaminated) and remediated soil were constructed as lysmeters, and local produce was grown from July 2018 to November 2019. Throughout the gardening period, the concentration of Pb and Cd in the leachates from the remediated soil was lower and that of Zn was higher than in the original soil. Remediation decreased the concentration of plant-available and mobile toxic metals, as determined by CaCl2 and NH4NO3 extractions, and reduced the bioavailability of Pb, Zn, and Cd in the simulated human gastrointestinal phase by an average of 4.3, 1.7 and 2.7-fold, respectively. Revitalization with vermicompost, earthworms and rhizosphere soil, and spring fertilisation with compost and manure, had no significant effect on the mobility and accessibility of the toxic metals. The ReSoil® is a cost-effective technology (material cost = 18.27 € ton-1 soil) and showed the prospect of sustainable reuse of remediated soil.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Ácido Edético , Jardinagem , Jardins , Humanos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
17.
Environ Pollut ; 288: 117699, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271519

RESUMO

Sludge landscaping after compost stabilization is a popular recycling process; however, until trace elements (TEs) are extracted by plants and reduced to safe concentrations, they present a potential exposure risk. Three garden plants, Liriope platyphylla Wang et Tang (L. platyphylla), Iris tectorum Maxim (I. tectorum), and Photinia x fraseri Dress (P. x fraseri), were selected for field experiments, and their ability to phytoremediate TEs and the promotion effect of citric acid (CA) were studied over 3 months of observation. Among the three kinds of plants, L. platyphylla had the highest biomass per unit soil area, and the CA treatment further increased the biomass of this plant per unit soil area as well as the uptake of TEs. When treated with 3 mmol kg-1 CA, L. platyphylla showed increases in the bioconcentration factors of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd by 24%, 63%, 27%, and 123%, respectively. Because of the large biomass and high concentrations of TEs, L. platyphylla had high phytoremediation indexes for Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd, which reached 18.5, 3.7, 3.2, 2.2, and 0.4 mg m-2, respectively, and were further improved by 60%-187% by the CA treatment. These advantages indicate the potential usefulness of L. platyphylla for phytoremediation. The results provide basic data and technical support for the use of sludge-based compost and phytoremediation by garden plants.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Oligoelementos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ácido Cítrico , Jardins , Metais Pesados/análise , Esgotos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
18.
Soc Sci Med ; 284: 114214, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274709

RESUMO

Many Small Island Developing States (SIDS) lead global rates in obesity and non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs). Drivers for this are complex and include lack of food sovereignty, evidenced by an increasing reliance on cheap nutrient-poor food imports and a focus on export orientated cash crop production for much local agriculture. To better inform SIDS' policy goals of improving nutrition through increased local food production, we explored in two SIDS current practices of food production and consumption. Teams of researchers from the two main regional universities conducted 28 focus groups in Fiji in the Pacific and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in the Caribbean with rural and urban communities of different socio-economic or land-owning status. In both countries home gardens were still common, valued as providing staple foods to households and contributing to health and livelihoods. Yet social changes had been experienced over the life course and across generations, such as increased purchase of foods, consumption of processed and often imported foods, and fast foods. While participants associated local foods with better nutrition and health outcomes than imported foods, some local foods were also acknowledged as unhealthy (e.g. locally produced tinned products, pesticide contaminated fresh produce). Finally, as food and related health advice moves globally, crossing national boundaries, and through formal and informal channels, local experiences can be confusing and contested. We suggest the need to understand temporal and spatial aspects of social practices, as social practices and their meaning change over time, travel globally and are experienced locally. To enhance and support re-localising food to counteract unhealthy consumption of ultra-processed, shop-bought, often imported foods, it is vital to understand these lived experiences of changes and resulting uncertainties, and to explicitly build on the longstanding positive relationships that people continue to express about home gardens and local food.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Jardins , Dieta , Fast Foods , Humanos , Obesidade , População Rural
19.
Phytother Res ; 35(11): 5961-5979, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254374

RESUMO

Plant-derived molecules have enduring usefulness in treating diseases, and herbal drugs have emerged as a vital component of global therapeutic demand. Angelica archangelica L. (A. archangelica), commonly known as garden angelica, is an aromatic food plant used in culinary procedures as a flavoring agent. In the traditional medicine system, it is regarded as an "Angel plant" due to its miraculous curative power. This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the plant's taxonomic profile, ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities. Various in vivo and in vitro experiments have validated that the plant possesses broad pharmacological potential. The biological activities attributed to the plant include anti-anxiety activity, anti-convulsant activity, cognition enhancer, antiviral activity, cholinesterase inhibitory potential, antiinflammatory activity, gastroprotective activity, and radioprotective activity. The beneficial effects of the plant are credited to its bioactive components, that is, coumarins and volatile oils. The review summarizes the pharmacological activities of crude extract and its bioactive fractions and has also explored their target-oriented effects. This review will be of value in undertaking further investigations on the plant with regard to exploring mechanism-based pharmacological approaches on A. archangelica.


Assuntos
Angelica archangelica , Angelica , Etnofarmacologia , Jardins , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
20.
J Environ Manage ; 293: 112895, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062421

RESUMO

Urban green infrastructure (UGI) has gained increasing attention for its potential to provide numerous benefits. Cultural ecosystem services (CES) refers to those non-materials benefits that play an important role in improving the quality of human life and environmental sustainability. However, to date, a comprehensive study on status quo of CES generated by UGI is limited, especially evaluation methods and indicators specific for UGI. In this study, we reviewed 67 empirical studies on this topic in order to identify: the geographic distribution of research; the UGI types that supply CES; the addressed CES subcategories; the effective methods and indicators for assessing CES; and the challenges and directions for future CES and UGI research. The results revealed that: (1) the majority of the studies were more focused on certain specific UGI types, such as parks, waters, and gardens, while studies that consider UGI as a network are lacking; (2) the studies tend to focus on recreation and ecotourism, followed by aesthetic values, educational values, and cultural heritage values; (3) they employed various methods and their authors tended to combine different methods in evaluation; and (4) various indicators were developed to assess CES in UGI. Based on those findings, we recommend: (1) examining more UGI types and particulars on the UGI network; (2) taking into account all services during evaluation; (3) developing more methods for evaluating CES to address specific UGI situations, especially when dealing with the evaluation boundary and the relationships between CES; and (4) focusing more on increasing the quantity and quality of indicators, which need to communicate UGI characteristics clearly without ambiguity.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Ecossistema , Cidades , Pesquisa Empírica , Jardinagem , Jardins , Humanos
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