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1.
Food Chem ; 398: 133864, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35969996

RESUMO

The ability of bovine κ-casein-derived caseinomacropeptide (CMP) to exert bioactivity in the human gut depends on its digestive survival. Sampling from the human jejunum after feeding CMP and top-down glycopeptidomics analysis facilitates the determination of CMP survival. To reduce interference from non-target molecules in mass spectrometric analysis, CMP must be isolated from digestive fluid. To identify an optimal extraction method, this study compared the profiles of CMP extracted from feeding material (commercial CMP in water) and digestive fluid by ethanol precipitation, perchloric acid (PCA) precipitation, and ultrafiltration. Ethanol precipitation yielded the highest ion abundances for aglycosylated CMP and glycosylated CMP in both feeding material and jejunal samples. Notably, PCA precipitation yielded the highest abundance of partially digested CMP-derived fragments in jejunal samples. Overall, ethanol precipitation was the most effective among the methods tested for intact CMP extraction from jejunal fluids, whereas PCA precipitation was optimal for extraction of CMP fragments.


Assuntos
Caseínas , Jejuno , Animais , Caseínas/química , Bovinos , Citidina Monofosfato , Etanol , Humanos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Percloratos , Ultrafiltração
2.
Cir. Esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 100(12): 762-767, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-LC-141

RESUMO

Introducción: La reconstrucción esofágica es un proceso quirúrgico técnicamente muy complejo, gravado por una importante morbilidad. Clásicamente se han utilizado la gastroplastia y la coloplastia, aunque la yeyunoplastia ya fue descrita por Roux en 1907. Parece demostrado que la plastia de yeyuno libre es una muy buena opción en el tratamiento de la enfermedad del esófago cervical, pero no está tan claro el papel de la yeyunoplastia supercharged en la reconstrucción del esófago torácico. El objetivo de este estudio es el análisis de las reconstrucciones esofágicas realizadas en nuestra unidad y que precisaron de un injerto de yeyuno. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de las reconstrucciones esofágicas realizadas con yeyunoplastias en nuestra unidad entre enero de 2011 y diciembre de 2019. Se analizan datos epidemiológicos, indicaciones, técnica quirúrgica y morbimortalidad. Resultados: Se realizaron 67 procedimientos quirúrgicos de reconstrucción esofágica compleja de los que 10 fueron yeyunoplastias: 5 yeyunos libres en esófago cervical y 5 supercharged en esófago torácico con abordaje transesternal. La morbilidad, mortalidad, estancia media y tiempo de retirada de la alimentación enteral fueron menores en los yeyunos libres que en los supercharged. Conclusiones: En nuestro grupo la yeyunoplastia supercharged es la última opción para la reconstrucción del esófago torácico; el acceso por esternotomía media nos permite un excelente abordaje del mediastino anterior y los vasos mamarios internos. El yeyuno libre sería la primera elección —con indemnidad del resto de esófago— en la reconstrucción del esófago cervical. (AU)


Introduction: Esophageal reconstruction is a very complex surgical procedure, burdened by significant morbidity. Gastroplasty and coloplasty have classically been used. Free jejunal plasty has shown to be a very good option in the treatment of cervical esophagus pathology, but the role of supercharged jejunoplasty in thoracic esophagus reconstruction is still controversial. Methods: A retrospective study of esophageal reconstructions with jejunoplasties performed in our unit between January 2011 and December 2019. Epidemiological data, indications, surgical technique, and morbidity and mortality were analyzed. Results: 67 procedures of esophageal reconstruction were performed, 10 of which were jejunoplasties: 5 free jejunums and 5 supercharged. Morbidity, mortality, mean stay and withdrawal time from enteral feeding were lower in free than in supercharged jejunums. Conclusions: Supercharged jejunoplasty was the last option for reconstruction of the thoracic esophagus. Median sternotomy access provides an excellent approach to the anterior mediastinum and the internal mammary vessels. The free jejunum would be the first choice, with the indemnity of the rest of the esophagus, in the reconstruction of the cervical esophagus. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Reconstrução Pós-Desastre , Esôfago , Jejuno , Cirurgia Geral , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Food Funct ; 13(22): 11532-11542, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318035

RESUMO

Multiple mycotoxins contamination in foods and feeds threatens human and animal health after they accumulate in the food chain, producing various toxic effects. The common mycotoxins contaimination in feeds are zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON), and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), but the effects of their co-exposure on the jejunum are not well understood. Lycopene (LYC) has been reported to have antioxidant activity that alleviates jejunal damage. In this study, we investigated the possible role of LYC as a treatment to mitigate the combined effects of ZEN, DON, and AFB1 on the jejunum of mice. Eighty male specific-pathogen-free ICR mice were randomly allocated to treatments with LYC (10 mg kg-1) and/or ZEN + DON + AFB1 (10 mg kg-1 ZEN, 1 mg kg-1 DON, and 0.5 mg kg-1 AFB1). The results indicated that LYC alleviated ZEN + DON + AFB1-induced jejunal injury by ameliorating the jejunal structural injury and increasing the villus height/crypt depth ratio and the levels of tight junction proteins (zonula occludens 1 [ZO1], occludin1 and claudin1) in the mouse jejunum. LYC also inhibited the oxidative stress induced by co-exposure to ZEN, DON, and AFB1 via reducing the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and enhancing the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). LYC also alleviated jejunal mitochondrial damage in the ZEN + DON + AFB1-affected mice, evident as an increase in mitochondrial fission 1 (Fis1) transcription and a reduction in mitochondrial mitofusin 1 (Mfn1) and Mfn2 transcription. Co-exposure to ZEN, DON, and AFB1 also significantly increased the transcription of ferroptosis-related genes (transferrin receptor 1 (Tfr1), ferritin heavy chain 1 [Fth1], solute carrier family 3 member 2 [Slc3a2], and glutathione peroxidase 4 [Gpx4]), TFR1 and Fe2+ concentration. Notably, LYC potentially alleviated ZEN + DON + AFB1-induced jejunal ferroptosis. These results demonstrate that LYC alleviates ZEN + DON + AFB1-induced jejunal toxicity by inhibiting oxidative stress-mediated ferroptosis and mitochondrial damage in mice.


Assuntos
Licopeno , Micotoxinas , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ferroptose , Jejuno/metabolismo , Licopeno/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Zearalenona/toxicidade
4.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 433, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A congenital band is an uncommon abnormality that can be found anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal obstruction caused by an anomalous congenital band is very rare in children. To the best of our knowledge, no cases of congenital bands extending from the descending colon to the jejunum have been reported in the English literature CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we present the case of a 12-year-old Syrian patient with intestinal obstruction due to a congenital band extending from the mesentery of the descending colon to the mesentery of the jejunum with an entrapped loop of jejunum between the band and the mesentery. The location of the obstruction was determined by upper gastrointestinal contrast radiography, but the cause of the obstruction was diagnosed intraoperatively. The band was excised without intestinal resection. CONCLUSION: Prediagnosis of congenital bands can be challenging, and surgery is required. When making a bowel obstruction differential diagnosis, it is important to keep this type of band in mind.


Assuntos
Obstrução Intestinal , Criança , Humanos , Obstrução Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Obstrução Intestinal/cirurgia , Mesentério/cirurgia , Jejuno/diagnóstico por imagem , Jejuno/cirurgia , Jejuno/anormalidades , Diagnóstico Diferencial
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361394

RESUMO

Excessive consumption of highly processed foods, such as chips, crisps, biscuits and coffee, exposes the human to different doses of acrylamide. This chemical compound has a multidirectional, adverse effect on human and animal health, including the central and peripheral nervous systems. In this study, we examined the effect of different doses of acrylamide on the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the porcine jejunum. Namely, we took into account the quantitative changes of neurons located in the jejunum wall expressing substance P (SP), galanin (GAL), a neuronal form of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). The obtained results indicate that acrylamide causes a statistically significant increase in the number of neurons immunoreactive to SP, GAL, VAChT and CART in all types of examined enteric plexuses and a significant drop in the population of nNOS-positive enteric neurons. Changes were significantly greater in the case of a high dose of acrylamide intoxication. Our results indicate that acrylamide is not indifferent to ENS neurons. A 28-day intoxication with this substance caused marked changes in the chemical coding of ENS neurons in the porcine jejunum.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Entérico , Jejuno , Humanos , Suínos , Animais , Feminino , Acrilamida/toxicidade , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/fisiologia , Intestino Delgado , Neurônios , Sus scrofa
6.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(11)2022 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355993

RESUMO

The presence of deoxynivalenol (DON) in feed may increase intestinal barrier permeability. Disturbance of the intestinal barrier integrity may affect the absorption of antibiotics used in animals. Since the bioavailability of orally administered antibiotics significantly affects their efficacy and safety, it was decided to evaluate how DON influences the absorption of the most commonly used antibiotics in pigs, i.e., amoxicillin (AMX) and doxycycline (DOX). The studies were conducted using jejunal explants from adult pigs. Explants were incubated in Ussing chambers, in which a buffer containing DON (30 µg/mL), AMX (50 µg/mL), DOX (30 µg/mL), a combination of AMX + DON, or a combination of DOX + DON was used. Changes in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), the flux of transcellular and intracellular transport markers, and the flux of antibiotics across explants were measured. DON increased the permeability of small intestine explants, expressed by a reduction in TEER and an intensification of transcellular marker transport. DON did not affect AMX transport, but it accelerated DOX transport by approximately five times. The results suggest that DON inhibits the efflux transport of DOX to the intestinal lumen, and thus significantly changes its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.


Assuntos
Doxiciclina , Jejuno , Suínos , Animais , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Amoxicilina , Mucosa Intestinal , Antibacterianos
7.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 96: 104012, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372389

RESUMO

As a plasticizer, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) has been listed as a potential endocrine disruptor by The World Health Organization. The toxicity of DEHP has been widely studied, but its toxicity on the digestive tract of birds has not been clarified. Female quail were treated by gavage with DEHP (250, 500, 750 mg/kg), with the blank and vehicle control groups reserved. The result showed that DEHP raised the damage severity grade, and decreased the ratio of villus length to crypt depth. The content and activity of cytochrome P450 system (CYP450s) were increased by DEHP. DEHP interfered with the transcription of nuclear xenobiotic receptors (NXRs), CYP isoforms, and the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway. This study revealed DEHP could cause the imbalance in CYP450s mediated by NXRs, and then promote Nrf2 mediated antioxidant defense. This study provided new evidence about the mechanisms of DEHP-induced toxic effects on digestive tract.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Dietilexilftalato , Animais , Feminino , Coturnix/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Codorniz/metabolismo , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Xenobióticos , Jejuno/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo
8.
Curr Oncol ; 29(11): 8600-8608, 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36421331

RESUMO

Robotic surgery is increasingly gaining importance. While initial results suggest an advantage of the robotic over the minimally invasive approach in patients with gastric cancer, definitive proof of its superiority has yet to be provided. There are numerous approaches to recreate a gastric reservoir after a total gastrectomy. However, a major disadvantage of most conventional reconstructions are long term effects such as dumping syndrome, afferent loop syndrome and poor nutrition intake with severe impact on the patient quality of life. The jejunal pouch reconstruction is a beneficial reconstruction, which provides a larger reservoir capacity after gastrectomy and prevents anastomotic stenosis and dumping syndrome. The completely intercorporeal approach with a Pfannenstiel incision instead of an unfavorable midline incision can potentially decrease delayed complications such as incision hernias. With the increased deployment of robotic surgery, a complete intercorporeal reconstruction is now possible without major increase in operating time or further technical weak points. We provide for the first time a detailed technical explanation of the completely intercorporeal robotic jejunal pouch reconstruction after gastrectomy.


Assuntos
Anastomose em-Y de Roux , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Humanos , Anastomose em-Y de Roux/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Gastrectomia/métodos , Jejuno/cirurgia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361051

RESUMO

Growing evidence has demonstrated the benefits of regular exercise on cardiovascular, neural, and cognitive function in humans with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the consequences of AD on gastrointestinal morphology and the effects of regular exercise, which plays an important role against the development of certain gastrointestinal-related diseases, are still poorly understood. Therefore, to assess the changes in intestinal structure in a mouse model of AD and the impact of exercise, 2-month-old 3xTg-AD male mice were subjected to treadmill running 5 days per week for a period of 5 months. Jejunum from 3xTg-AD mice analyzed by histochemical methods revealed significant alterations in morphology. Compared to age-matched wild-type (WT) mice, villi length and crypt depth were increased, and collagen content of jejunum was elevated in 3xTg-AD mice. Jejunum wall dimensions, expressed as total wall thickness, outer longitudinal thickness, and inner circular thickness were decreased in 3xTg-AD compared to WT. Smooth muscle actin expression in jejunal wall was decreased in 3xTg-AD. Most of these aberrations were improved with exercise. Western blot expression of cyclin dependent kinase 5 (CDK5, involved in neural cell death and hyperphosphorylation of tau), was elevated in 3xTg-AD jejunum. This was associated with a 4-fold increase in tau5 expression. Exercise prevented the increase in expression of CDK5 and tau5. Expression of caspase 3 (an apoptotic marker) was elevated in 3xTg-AD jejunum and exercise prevented this. The results of our study indicate that the abnormalities in jejunum of the 3xTg mouse model of AD were prevented with exercise training.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Masculino , Lactente , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Camundongos Transgênicos , Jejuno/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/genética , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças
11.
Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi ; 119(10): 954-960, 2022.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216546

RESUMO

An 87-year-old man had a self-extracted percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy tube (PEG-J tube) and underwent PEG-J replacement. He vomited 2 days after the replacement, and bowel bleeding occurred 5 days after the replacement. Therefore, he presented to our hospital. A simple abdominal computed tomography scan showed a target sign in the jejunum on the anus side rather than on the PEG-J tube tip portion, resembling intussusception. We confirmed mucosa necrosis in the intussusception by small-diameter endoscopy and attempted internal treatment. However, resistance was so strong that the internal treatment was difficult;therefore, he underwent a jejunal resection. Although diarrhea and dumping syndrome are common PEG-J complications, there have been few reports of intussusception caused by PEG-J. We report a case of adult-onset intussusception, which was thought to be caused by long-term PEG-J implantation.


Assuntos
Derivação Gástrica , Intussuscepção , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/efeitos adversos , Derivação Gástrica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Intussuscepção/diagnóstico por imagem , Intussuscepção/etiologia , Intussuscepção/cirurgia , Jejuno , Masculino , Estômago/cirurgia
12.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 35(4(Special)): 1201-1208, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36218098

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze gastrointestinal, respiratory and vascular pharmacological effects of 70% hydro-alcoholic extract of Calligonum polygonoides (Cp. Cr) in animal models. All the procedures were carried-out as per previous literature with slight modification where necessary. It was found that Cp. Cr affected significant relaxation of spontaneous and K+ (80 mM) induced contractions. The results showed a corresponding shift of calcium concentration response curves. Similarly Cp. Cr showed relaxant effect on trachea in carbachol (Cch) induced tracheal contractions. Moreover, contractions induced by phenylephrine (1µM) in quarantine rabbit aortic preparations causes Cp. Cr induced relaxation of aortal contractions. Verapamil was used as a standard calcium channel blocker. The findings of this study suggested vasodilator, bronchodilator and spasmolytic effects of Cp. Cr.


Assuntos
Parassimpatolíticos , Polygonaceae , Animais , Broncodilatadores/farmacologia , Cálcio , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Carbacol/farmacologia , Jejuno , Modelos Animais , Parassimpatolíticos/farmacologia , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Coelhos , Traqueia , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Verapamil/farmacologia
13.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 169: 113449, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206954

RESUMO

Okadaic acid (OA) is an important marine lipophilic phycotoxin responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). This toxin inhibits protein phosphatases (PPs) like PP2A and PP1, though, this action does not explain OA-induced toxicity and symptoms. Intestinal epithelia comprise the defence barrier against external agents where transport of fluid and electrolytes from and to the lumen is a tightly regulated process. In some intoxications this balance becomes dysregulated appearing diarrhoea. Therefore, we evaluated diarrhoea in orally OA-treated mice as well as in mice pre-treated with several doses of cyproheptadine (CPH) and then treated with OA at different times. We assessed stools electrolytes and ultrastructural alteration of the intestine, particularly evaluating tight and adherens junctions. We detected increased chloride and sodium faecal concentrations in the OA-exposed group, suggesting a secretory diarrhoea. Pre-treatment with CPH maintains chloride concentration in values similar to control mice. Intestinal cytomorphological alterations were observed for OA mice, whereas CPH pre-treatment attenuated OA-induced damage in proximal colon and jejunum at 2 h. Conversely, tight junctions' distance was only affected by OA in jejunum at the moment diarrhoea occurred. In this study we found cellular mechanisms by which OA induced diarrhoea revealing the complex toxicity of this compound.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Ácido Okadáico , Animais , Camundongos , Cloretos/análise , Cloretos/metabolismo , Ciproeptadina/farmacologia , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Ácido Okadáico/toxicidade , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/antagonistas & inibidores , Sódio/análise , Sódio/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/metabolismo
14.
Poult Sci ; 101(12): 102172, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240637

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and mechanism of action of 2 feed additives in reducing the impacts of virus and temperature stressors. We determined the effects of protected biofactors and antioxidants (P(BF+AOx)), and protected biofactors and antioxidants with protected organic acids and essential oils (P(BF+AOx)+P(OA+EO)) on the immune and metabolic health of Ross 308 broiler chickens. These biofactors and antioxidants were derived from vitamins, and Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Bacillus subtilis fermentation extracts. All Ross 308 chickens were exposed to a double-dose of live bronchitis vaccine at d 0 and environmentally challenged by reducing the temperature from 32°C to 20°C at d 3 for 48 h. Control birds were fed without feed additives in the diet. Performance data and jejunum samples were collected to evaluate the effects of these treatments on growth, cytokine expression, and protein phosphorylation via kinome peptide array. ANOVA was used for statistical analysis of the performance and gene expression data (p-value of 0.05), and PIIKA2 was used for statistical evaluation and comparison of the kinome peptide array data. The P(BF plus;AOx) and P(BF+AOx)+P(OA+EO) treatments significantly increased bird weight gain and decreased feed conversion. The kinome peptide array data analysis showed increased activity of cytoskeletal, cell growth and proliferation proteins, and metabolic signaling in the jejunum of P(BF+AOx)+P(OA+EO) treated chickens. There was a significant decrease in IL-6 gene expression in the jejunum of P(BF+AOx)+P(OA+EO) samples compared to control at d 15. P(BF+AOx)+P(OA+EO) treatments in the jejunum showed strong immunomodulatory effects, perhaps to control inflammation. P(BF+AOx)+P(OA+EO) improves gut health via growth and metabolic signaling in the jejunum while inducing stronger immunomodulation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Galinhas , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Jejuno , Dieta/veterinária , Aumento de Peso , Suplementos Nutricionais
15.
Poult Sci ; 101(12): 102191, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272232

RESUMO

Broilers are frequently exposed to various immunological stresses, which lead to intestinal damage, weakened immunity, and even growth retardation. Lutein, as a kind of carotenoid, possesses antioxidant and immunomodulatory functions. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of lutein on jejunal mucosal barrier function and inflammatory responses of yellow-feather broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of two hundred eight-eight 1-day-old yellow-feather broilers were randomly allocated to 3 groups with 8 replicate cages containing 12 birds each. Birds were fed broken-rice-soybean basal diet containing 0, 20 and 40 mg/kg lutein (CON, LU20 and LU40) for 26 d. On days 21, 23, and 25 of the trial, broilers were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (1 mg/kg body weight). The results showed that, compared with CON group, LU40 supplementations significantly increased the average daily gain (ADG) of broilers at 1 to 21 and 22 to 26 d of age (P < 0.05), significantly decreased the ratio of feed to gain (F/G) of broilers at 22 to 26 d of age (P < 0.05). LU20 and LU40 supplementations increased goblet cell density in jejunum of broilers under LPS challenge, and LU20 supplementation elevated the villus area (P < 0.05). Scanning electron microscopy of jejunal mucosa revealed significant villi damage, while transmission electron microscopy demonstrated severe enterocyte damage and loss of cellular integrity in CON group. In particular, mitochondria were morphologically altered, appearing irregular or swollen. Apical junctional complexes between adjacent enterocytes were obviously shorter and saccular in CON group. LU20 and LU40 supplementations increased the mRNA expressions of Occludin, Claudin-1, and ZO-1 in the jejunal mucosa of broilers under LPS challenge (P < 0.05), restrained TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway activation in the jejunal mucosa, decreased the mRNA expressions of IL-1ß and IL-6, and strengthened the mRNA expressions of IL-4 and IL-10 (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the protein expressions of p38 and JNK in LU40 group were lower than CON group (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that 40 mg/kg lutein supplementation improved LPS-induced jejunal mucosal barrier function and tamed inflammation of yellow-feather broilers.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos , Luteína , Animais , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Galinhas/fisiologia , Jejuno , Ração Animal/análise , Plumas , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dieta/veterinária , RNA Mensageiro
16.
Thorac Surg Clin ; 32(4): 529-540, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36266038

RESUMO

Complex esophageal reconstruction represents a high risk and challenging procedure. A dedicated pathway with multispecialty teams can facilitate a systematic checklist approach to perioperative management and evaluation of long-term outcomes. Refinements in the operative technique for supercharged pedicled jejunum (SPJ) for long segment interposition in esophageal reconstruction are reviewed in this article. Medical and surgical complications among this complex niche group of patients are significant and require care in specialist centers with a focused team. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in long-segment SPJ interposition are recognized to provide additional monitoring of surgical outcomes and may help guide interventions for subsequent symptom control.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Esôfago , Humanos , Anastomose Cirúrgica/métodos , Esôfago/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Jejuno/cirurgia
17.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The conditions for jejunal glucose absorption in healthy subjects have not been thoroughly studied. In this study we investigated differences in the jejunal villi enlargement factor, as well as ultrastructural aspects of the surface enterocytes and mitochondria, comparing 2 weeks of high-carbohydrate (HCD) versus high-fat diets (HFD). We also measured the ketogenesis rate-limiting enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGCS2) in relation to jejunal mitochondria. METHODS: A single-centre, randomized, unblinded crossover study in 15 healthy volunteers ingesting strictly controlled equicaloric diets (either HCD or HFD), with 60% energy from the respective source. An enteroscopy was carried out after 2 weeks of each diet and jejunal mucosal biopsies were acquired. Conventional histology, immunofluorescent staining, transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy were used. RESULTS: The villi did not demonstrate any change in the epithelial enlargement factor. Despite an increased mitosis, there were no changes in apoptotic indices. However, the ultrastructural analysis demonstrated a significant increase in the enlargement factor at the bases of the villi. The mitochondria demonstrated increased amounts of cristae after the HFD. The confocal microscopy revealed increased HMGCS2 per mitochondrial marker at the top of the villi after the HFD compared to the HCD. CONCLUSION: There is a morphometric adaption in the jejunal mucosa following the 2-week diets, not only on a histological level, but rather on the ultrastructural level. This study supports the notion that mitochondrial HMGCS2 is regulated by the fat content of the diet and is involved in the expression of monosaccharide transporters.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal , Jejuno , Carboidratos , Estudos Cross-Over , Glucose , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Monossacarídeos
18.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235749

RESUMO

Over-nutrition with cafeteria diet leads to glycemic control failure and subsequent obesity. Bariatric surgery remains the ultimate treatment option, and when complemented with specific dietary protocol, it may mitigate the effects of oxidative stress induced by a cafeteria diet. The study measured antioxidant marker activity: superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and ceruloplasmin (CER), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and lipid peroxidation marker concentrations: lipofuscin (LS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), in the plasma of 56 Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a cafeteria (HFS) or a control (CD) diet and subjected to duodenojejunal omega switch (DJOS) or control (SHAM) surgery. The diet change after the surgery (CD/HFS or HFS/CD) strongly influenced SOD activity in DJOS- and SHAM-operated rats, but SOD activity was always higher in SHAM-operated rats. Every dietary protocol used in the study increased CER activity, except for the CD/CD combination. Cafeteria diet consumed before or after either of surgeries led to decrease in TAC levels. DJOS and no change in diet reduced MDA levels. DJOS reduced LS levels, but its beneficial effect was deteriorated by selected dietary protocols. The cafeteria diet negatively affected the positive impact of DJOS surgery, but SOD, CER, MDA, and LS were significantly lower in rats that underwent DJOS, suggesting that eight weeks of dietary treatment before and after the surgery did not totally dilapidate the effects of the bariatric treatment.


Assuntos
Dieta , Duodeno , Jejuno , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Ratos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ceruloplasmina , Duodeno/cirurgia , Jejuno/cirurgia , Lipofuscina , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
19.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(31): 4328-4337, 2022 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36159007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bile acids play an important role in the amelioration of type 2 diabetes following duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB). Serum bile acids are elevated postoperatively. However, the clinical relevance is not known. Bile acids in the peripheral circulation reflect the amount of bile acids in the gut. Therefore, a further investigation of luminal bile acids following DJB is of great significance. AIM: To investigate changes of luminal bile acids following DJB. METHODS: Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), DJB, and DJB with oral chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) supplementation were performed in a high-fat-diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. Body weight, energy intake, oral glucose tolerance test, luminal bile acids, serum ceramides and intestinal ceramide synthesis were analyzed at week 12 postoperatively. RESULTS: Compared to SHAM, DJB achieved rapid and durable improvement in glucose tolerance and led to increased total luminal bile acid concentrations with preferentially increased proportion of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) - inhibitory bile acids within the common limb. Intestinal ceramide synthesis was repressed with decreased serum ceramides, and this phenomenon could be partially antagonized by luminal supplementation of FXR activating bile acid CDCA. CONCLUSION: DJB significantly changes luminal bile acid composition with increased proportion FXR-inhibitory bile acids and reduces serum ceramide levels. There observations suggest a novel mechanism of bile acids in metabolic regulation after DJB.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ceramidas , Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/farmacologia , Duodeno/metabolismo , Duodeno/cirurgia , Glucose , Jejuno/metabolismo , Jejuno/cirurgia , Ratos , Salicilamidas , Estreptozocina
20.
Molecules ; 27(18)2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36144661

RESUMO

This present study aimed to delineate Rumex hastatus D. Don crude extract (Rh.Cr), n-Hexane, ethyl acetate, aqueous fractions (Rh.n-Hex, Rh.ETAC, Rh.Aq) and rutin for antidiarrheal, antisecretory effects, anti-spasmodic, gastrointestinal transient time, anti H. pylori, antiulcer effects, and toxicology. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of Rumex hastatus showed different phytoconstituents and shows different peaks in GC-MC chromatogram. Rumex hastatus crude extract (Rh.Cr), fractions, and rutin attributed dose-dependent (50-300 mg/kg) protection (0-100%) against castor oil-induced diarrhea and dose-dependently inhibited intestinal fluid secretions in mice. They decreased the distance traversed by charcoal in the gastrointestinal transit model in rats. In rabbit jejunum preparations, Rh.Cr and Rh.ETAC caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of both spontaneous and K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions at a similar concentration range, whereas Rh.n-Hex, rutin, and verapamil were relatively potent against K+-induced contractions and shifted the Ca2+ concentration-response curves (CRCs) to the right, Rh.Cr (0.3-1 mg/mL) and Rh.ETAC (0.1-0.3 mg/mL) shifted the isoprenaline-induced inhibitory CRCs to the left. Rh.n-Hex, Rh.ETAC and rutin showed anti-H. pylori effect, also shows an inhibitory effect against H+/K+-ATPase. Rumex hastatus showed gastroprotective and antioxidant effects. Histopathological evaluation showed improvement in cellular architecture and a decrease in the expression of inflammatory markers such as, cyclooxygenase (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor (TN,F-α) and phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa B (p-NFƙB), validated through immunohistochemistry and ELISA techniques. In RT-PCR it decreases H+/K+-ATPase mRNA levels. Rumex hastatus was found to be safe to consume up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg in a comprehensive toxicity profile. Docking studies revealed that rutin against H+/K+-ATPase pump and voltage-gated L-type calcium channel showed E-values of -8.7 and -9.4 Kcal/mol, respectively. MD simulations Molecular Mechanics Poisson Boltzmann surface area and molecular mechanics Generalized Born surface area (MMPBSA/GBSA) findings are consistent with the in-vitro, in-vivo and docking results.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias , Rumex , Adenosina Trifosfatases , Animais , Antidiarreicos/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L , Hidróxido de Cálcio , Óleo de Rícino , Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2 , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Jejuno , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/farmacologia , Parassimpatolíticos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro , Coelhos , Ratos , Rumex/química , Rutina/farmacologia , Fatores de Necrose Tumoral , Verapamil/farmacologia , Óxido de Zinco
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