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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682691

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to reconstruct subjective constructions of experiences in PE and feelings of being valued within PE classes in Germany by students with visual impairment (VI). Two female and two male students (average age: 19.25 years) participated in the study from the upper level. For the reconstruction of experiences of feeling valued, episodic interviews with a semi-structured interview guide were used. The data analysis was conducted with MAXQDA 2020 based on content-related structuring of qualitative text analysis with deductive-inductive category formation. To structure the analysis, the main category, feelings of being valued, was defined by two poles (positive feelings of being valued as opposed to bullying). As a main finding, respondents primarily reported negative feelings and experiences characterized by instances of bullying, discrimination, and physical and social isolation, perpetuated by both their peers and teachers. In search of a deeper understanding, we identified social hierarchy as an underlying structure determining the students' perceived positioning within the social context and thus directing their feelings of being (de-)valued. It became evident that it is not the setting per se that determined social hierarchy, but that it is more about the concrete manifestation of social hierarchy.


Assuntos
Bullying , Educação Física e Treinamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha , Hierarquia Social , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Visão , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(9): 1292-1301, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465915

RESUMO

Generalizing experiences to guide decision-making in novel situations is a hallmark of flexible behavior. Cognitive maps of an environment or task can theoretically afford such flexibility, but direct evidence has proven elusive. In this study, we found that discretely sampled abstract relationships between entities in an unseen two-dimensional social hierarchy are reconstructed into a unitary two-dimensional cognitive map in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. We further show that humans use a grid-like code in entorhinal cortex and medial prefrontal cortex for inferred direct trajectories between entities in the reconstructed abstract space during discrete decisions. These grid-like representations in the entorhinal cortex are associated with decision value computations in the medial prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal junction. Collectively, these findings show that grid-like representations are used by the human brain to infer novel solutions, even in abstract and discrete problems, and suggest a general mechanism underpinning flexible decision-making and generalization.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Hierarquia Social , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Exp Biol ; 224(19)2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495308

RESUMO

In many animal societies, dominant individuals have priority access to resources. However, defending high rank can be costly, especially in unstable social hierarchies where there is more intense competition. Oxidative stress has been proposed as a potential cost of social dominance, but few studies have examined this cost in relation to social stability. We studied the cost of social dominance in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni by manipulating social stability among males in replicate naturalistic communities for 22 weeks. We found that our social stability treatment influenced status-specific patterns in 3 out of 6 measurements of oxidative stress. Specifically, dominant males experienced increased plasma oxidative damage (measured as reactive oxygen metabolites, ROMs) compared with subordinate males in stable hierarchies only. Subordinate males in unstable hierarchies had higher ROMs than their stable community counterparts, but we found no effect of social stability treatment for dominant males. However, dominant males tended to have reduced total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the liver when compared with subordinate males in unstable hierarchies, suggesting that the cost of social dominance is higher in unstable hierarchies. There were no effects of status and treatment on gonad TAC, muscle TAC or oxidative DNA damage. We conclude that the stability of the social environment influences the relative cost of social dominance in a tissue- and marker-specific manner.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Animais , Hierarquia Social , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Predomínio Social , Meio Social
4.
Elife ; 102021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581271

RESUMO

Social hierarchy formation is strongly evolutionarily conserved. Across species, rank within social hierarchy has large effects on health and behavior. To investigate the relationship between social rank and stress susceptibility, we exposed ranked male and female mice to social and non-social stressors and manipulated social hierarchy position. We found that rank predicts same sex social stress outcomes: dominance in males and females confers resilience while subordination confers susceptibility. Pre-existing rank does not predict non-social stress outcomes in females and weakly does so in males, but rank emerging under stress conditions reveals social interaction deficits in male and female subordinates. Both history of winning and rank of cage mates affect stress susceptibility in males: rising to the top rank through high mobility confers resilience and mice that lose dominance lose stress resilience, although gaining dominance over a subordinate animal does not confer resilience. Overall, we have demonstrated a relationship between social status and stress susceptibility, particularly when taking into account individual history of winning and the overall hierarchy landscape in male and female mice.


Assuntos
Hierarquia Social , Camundongos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adaptação Psicológica , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Distância Psicológica , Predomínio Social
5.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255970, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469448

RESUMO

People can exhibit their status by the consumption of particular goods or experiential purchases; this is known as "conspicuous consumption"; the practice is widespread and explains the market characteristics of a whole class of goods, Veblen goods, demand for which increase in tandem with their price. The value of such positional goods lies in their distribution among the population-the rarer they are, the more desirable they become. At the same time, higher income, often associated with higher status, has been studied in its relation to unethical behavior. Here we present research that shows how a particular Veblen good, illicit behavior, and wealth, combine to produce the display of illegality as a status symbol. We gathered evidence at a large, country-level, scale of a particular form of consumption of an illictly acquired good for status purposes. We show that in Greece, a developed middle-income country, where authorities cannot issue custom vanity license plates, people acquire distinguishing plate numbers that act as vanity plate surrogates. We found that such license plates are more common in cars with bigger engines and in luxury brands, and are therefore associated with higher value vehicles. This cannot be explained under the lawful procedures for allocating license plates and must therefore be the result of illegal activities, such as graft. This suggests a pattern of "conspicuous corruption", where individuals break the law and use their gains as status symbols, knowing that the symbols hint at rule-breaking, as long as the unlawful practice cannot be incontestably established.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Hierarquia Social , Classe Social , Percepção Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Grécia , Humanos , Renda , Princípios Morais
6.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255151, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351980

RESUMO

Nepotism was initially theoretically predicted and sometimes found to trigger the selection of specific larvae to be reared as queens in the honeybee Apis mellifera. Although the importance of selecting the next queen for a colony indicates that it should not occur at random, nepotism is increasingly considered unlikely in eusocial insect societies. Different prenatal maternal supplies of embryos have been found to impact fitness in many other species and therefore could be a possible trigger underlying the likelihood of being raised as a queen. We offered related or unrelated larvae from six colonies originating from eggs of different weights for emergency queen rearing in queenless units with worker bees from these six colonies. We showed that nurses did not significantly prefer related larvae during queen rearing, which confirms the theory that different relatedness-driven kin preferences within a colony cannot be converted into a colony-level decision. However, we found that larvae originating from heavier eggs were significantly preferred for queen breeding. Studies on other species have shown that superior maternal supply is important for later reproductive success. However, we did observe tendencies in the expected direction (e.g., queens that hatched from heavier eggs had both more ovarioles and a shorter preoviposition period). Nevertheless, our data do not allow for a significant conclusion that the selection of larvae from heavy eggs truly offers fitness advantages.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Hierarquia Social , Animais , Larva , Óvulo/fisiologia
7.
Science ; 373(6552): 348-352, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437155

RESUMO

The structure of animal social networks influences survival and reproductive success, as well as pathogen and information transmission. However, the general mechanisms determining social structure remain unclear. Using data from 73,767 social interactions among wild spotted hyenas collected over 27 years, we show that the process of social inheritance determines how offspring relationships are formed and maintained. Relationships between offspring and other hyenas bear resemblance to those of their mothers for as long as 6 years, and the degree of similarity increases with maternal social rank. Mother-offspring relationship strength affects social inheritance and is positively correlated with offspring longevity. These results support the hypothesis that social inheritance of relationships can structure animal social networks and be subject to adaptive tradeoffs.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Hierarquia Social , Hyaenidae , Comportamento Social , Animais , Feminino , Longevidade , Masculino , Mães , Interação Social , Rede Social
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16931, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417514

RESUMO

Queen pheromones have long been studied as a major factor regulating reproductive division of labor in social insects. Hitherto, only a handful of queen pheromones were identified and their effects on workers have mostly been studied in isolation from the social context in which they operate. Our study examined the importance of behavioral and social context for the perception of queen semiochemicals by bumble bee workers. Our results indicate that a mature queen's cuticular semiochemicals are capable of inhibiting worker reproduction only when accompanied by the queen's visual presence and the offspring she produces, thus, when presented in realistic context. Queen's chemistry, queen's visual presence and presence of offspring all act to regulate worker reproduction, but none of these elements produces an inhibitory effect on its own. Our findings highlight the necessity to reconsider what constitutes a queen pheromone and suggest a new approach to the study of chemical ecology in social insects.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Hierarquia Social , Feromônios/metabolismo , Animais , Tegumento Comum/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Tamanho da Amostra
9.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254574, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324549

RESUMO

Norm violators demonstrate that they can behave as they wish, which makes them appear powerful. Potentially, this is the beginning of a self-reinforcing loop, in which greater perceived power invites further norm violations. Here we investigate the possibility that sanctions can break this loop by reducing the power that observers attribute to norm violators. Despite an abundance of research on the effects of sanctions as deterrents for norm-violating behavior, little is known about how sanctions may change perceptions of individuals who do (or do not) violate norms. Replicating previous research, we found in two studies (N1 = 203, N2 = 132) that norm violators are perceived as having greater volitional capacity compared to norm abiders. Qualifying previous research, however, we demonstrate that perceptions of volition only translate into attributions of greater power in the absence of sanctions. We discuss implications for social hierarchies and point out avenues for further research on the social dynamics of power.


Assuntos
Percepção Social , Hierarquia Social , Humanos , Masculino , Normas Sociais , Adulto Jovem
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14599, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272430

RESUMO

Social hierarchy is a potent modulator of behavior, that is typically established through overt agonistic interactions between individuals in the group. Once established, social ranks are maintained through subtler interactions allowing the redirection of energy away from agonistic interactions towards other needs. The available tasks for assessing social rank in rats allow the study of the mechanisms by which social hierarches are formed in early phases but fail to assess the maintenance of established hierarchies between stable pairs of animals, which might rely on distinct neurobiological mechanisms. Here we present and validate a novel trial-based dominancy assay, the modified Food Competition test, where established social hierarchies can be identified in the home cage of non-food deprived pairs of male rats. In this task, we introduce a small conflict in the home cage, where access to a new feeder containing palatable pellets can only be gained by one animal at a time. We found that this subtle conflict triggered asymmetric social interactions and resulted in higher consumption of food by one of the animals in the pair, which reliably predicted hierarchy in other tests. Our findings reveal stable dominance status in pair-housed rats and provide a novel tool for the evaluation of established social hierarchies, the modified Food Competition test, that is robust and easy to implement.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Competitivo , Hierarquia Social , Predomínio Social , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recompensa
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9882, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972627

RESUMO

In bees from genus Melipona, differential feeding is not enough to fully explain female polyphenism. In these bees, there is a hypothesis that in addition to the environmental component (food), a genetic component is also involved in caste differentiation. This mechanism has not yet been fully elucidated and may involve epigenetic and metabolic regulation. Here, we verified that the genes encoding histone deacetylases HDAC1 and HDAC4 and histone acetyltransferase KAT2A were expressed at all stages of Melipona scutellaris, with fluctuations between developmental stages and castes. In larvae, the HDAC genes showed the same profile of Juvenile Hormone titers-previous reported-whereas the HAT gene exhibited the opposite profile. We also investigated the larvae and larval food metabolomes, but we did not identify the putative queen-fate inducing compounds, geraniol and 10-hydroxy-2E-decenoic acid (10HDA). Finally, we demonstrated that the histone deacetylase inhibitor 10HDA-the major lipid component of royal jelly and hence a putative regulator of honeybee caste differentiation-was unable to promote differentiation in queens in Melipona scutellaris. Our results suggest that epigenetic and hormonal regulations may act synergistically to drive caste differentiation in Melipona and that 10HDA is not a caste-differentiation factor in Melipona scutellaris.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Hierarquia Social , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/metabolismo , Animais , Epigênese Genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Feminino , Histona Acetiltransferases/genética , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Hormônios Juvenis/metabolismo
12.
J Vis Exp ; (171)2021 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028432

RESUMO

For many species, where status is a vital motivator that can affect health, social hierarchies influence behavior. Social hierarchies that include dominant-submissive relationships are common in both animal and human societies. These relationships can be affected by interactions with others and with their environment, making them difficult to analyze in a controlled study. Rather than a simple dominance hierarchy, this formation has a complicated presentation that allows rats to avoid aggression. Status can be stagnant or mutable, and results in complex societal stratifications. Here we describe a complex diving-for-food task to investigate rodent social hierarchy and behavioral interactions. This animal model may allow us to assess the relationship between a wide range of mental illnesses and social organization, as well as to study the effectiveness of therapy on social dysfunction.


Assuntos
Mergulho , Agressão , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Alimentos , Hierarquia Social , Ratos , Predomínio Social
13.
Scand J Psychol ; 62(4): 537-551, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050532

RESUMO

Team-based work (TBW) plays a crucial role in the success and quality of public services. In the context of the Spanish public sector, our study evaluates if a low level of hierarchical distance (HD) in public organizations condition the public employees' commitment (EC) as well as TBW, assessed in terms of participation and consensus among team members. Simultaneously, we evaluated to what extent EC help to enhance TBW. Employing a sample of 213 government organizations from the south of Spain through a model of structural equations, we were able to answer the above questions. Our results revealed that team-based work functions more successfully within public organizations where there exists little verticality in their structures, norms, values and rules - in simplest terms, where there is minimal organizational HD. Such results also suggest that although regulations exist in the Spanish public sector, should public organizations attempt to be less vertical and more horizontal, they would perhaps have public servants that were more committed to their organizations. As a result, servants view the organization as their own and remain loyal. Finally, from an academic perspective, this study could be one of few to research and evaluate the hierarchical role and employees' commitment to the functioning of public employees based on participation and consensus in their work teams.


Assuntos
Emprego/organização & administração , Hierarquia Social , Relações Interprofissionais , Lealdade ao Trabalho , Setor Público/organização & administração , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(21)2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972414
15.
Horm Behav ; 132: 104994, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991797

RESUMO

Group living confers many benefits while simultaneously exposing group members to intense competition. An individual's rise to prominence within a group may conflict with the overall functioning of the group. There is therefore a complex and dynamic relationship between the behavioral displays that directly benefit an individual, the consequences of these actions for the community, and how they feed back on individual-level fitness. We used a network analysis approach to study the link between behavior, social stability, and steroid hormone levels in replicate communities of the cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, which live in social groups with a dominance hierarchy. We demonstrate that individual behavior can have direct and indirect effects on the behavior of others while also affecting group characteristics. Our results show that A. burtoni males form stable social networks, where dominant individuals act as hubs for social interactions. However, there was variation in the temporal stability in these networks, and this variation in stability impacted hormone levels. Dominant males had higher testosterone levels, however, the differences in testosterone levels between dominant and subordinate males were greatest in stable communities. In sum, our analyses provide novel insights into the processes by which individual and community properties interact.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Agressão , Animais , Hierarquia Social , Hormônios , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Predomínio Social , Rede Social
16.
Elife ; 102021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929318

RESUMO

In a population of wild baboons, a new way to assess biological age reveals a surprising effect of social hierarchy.


Assuntos
Hierarquia Social , Animais , Papio
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(13)2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758100

RESUMO

Research examining institutionalized hierarchy tends to focus on chiefdoms and states, while its emergence among small-scale societies remains poorly understood. Here, we test multiple hypotheses for institutionalized hierarchy, using environmental and social data on 89 hunter-gatherer societies along the Pacific coast of North America. We utilize statistical models capable of identifying the main correlates of sustained political and economic inequality, while controlling for historical and spatial dependence. Our results indicate that the most important predictors relate to spatiotemporal distribution of resources. Specifically, higher reliance on and ownership of clumped aquatic (primarily salmon) versus wild plant resources is associated with greater political-economic inequality, measuring the latter as a composite of internal social ranking, unequal access to food resources, and presence of slavery. Variables indexing population pressure, scalar stress, and intergroup conflict exhibit little or no correlation with variation in inequality. These results are consistent with models positing that hierarchy will emerge when individuals or coalitions (e.g., kin groups) control access to economically defensible, highly clumped resource patches, and use this control to extract benefits from subordinates, such as productive labor and political allegiance in a patron-client system. This evolutionary ecological explanation might illuminate how and why institutionalized hierarchy emerges among many small-scale societies.


Assuntos
Evolução Cultural/história , Hierarquia Social/história , Recursos Naturais/provisão & distribuição , Evolução Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos/história , Nativos Estadunidenses/história , Antropologia Cultural , Escravização/história , Insegurança Alimentar , Geografia , História Antiga , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , América do Norte , Análise Espaço-Temporal
18.
J Insect Physiol ; 131: 104223, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711330

RESUMO

In the temperate paper wasp Polistes jokahamae, caste is influenced by photoperiod during the adult stage, but the mechanisms underlying the caste-fate determination system have been unclear. We measured the brain levels of monoamines and related substances in females kept isolated for two weeks under different photoperiods. Except for in the first-emerging group, the females developed ovaries under long-day conditions, whereas they stored lipids under short-day conditions. The levels of tyramine in the brain were significantly higher under long-day than under short-day conditions and positively correlated with maximum oocyte lengths. These results suggest that tyramine was produced in response to long daylength during the adult stage and associated with ovarian development, which is the principal characteristic of reproductive workers. There was also a significant positive correlation between dopamine levels in the brain and maximum oocyte length, independent of photoperiod, suggesting that dopamine is involved in reproductive function with tyramine resulting in the induction of reproductive workers. Meanwhile, higher levels of tryptophan in the brain were found in short-day conditions and positively correlated with lipid stores. However, serotonin synthesized from tryptophan and N-acetylserotonin were not associated with lipid stores without photoperiodic responses, suggesting that tryptophan is involved in the physiological changes toward gyne under short daylength, independently of serotonin signaling. In conclusion, tyramine and tryptophan are candidates for mediating photoperiod-dependent caste-fate determination in P. jokahamae: the former is involved in generating the worker caste while the latter is involved in generating the gyne caste.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Hierarquia Social , Vespas/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Ovário/fisiologia , Fotoperíodo
19.
Brain Behav ; 11(5): e02090, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645918

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Circadian rhythms shift toward an evening preference during adolescence, a developmental period marked by greater focus on the social domain and salience of social hierarchies. The circadian system influences maturation of cognitive architecture responsible for motivation and reward, and observation of responses to reward cues has provided insights into neurocognitive processes that underpin adolescent social development. The objective was to investigate whether circadian phase of entrainment (chronotype) predicted both reward-related response inhibition and social status, and to explore whether mediator and moderator relationships existed between chronotype, reward processing, and social status outcomes. METHODS: Participants were 75 adolescents aged 13-14 years old (41 females) who completed an eye tracking paradigm that involved an inhibitory control task (antisaccade task) within a nonsocial reward (Card Guessing Game) and a social reward (Cyberball Game) context. Chronotype was calculated from weekend midsleep and grouped into early, intermediate, and later terciles. Participants indicated subjective social status compared with peers in seven domains. RESULTS: An intermediate and later chronotype predicted improved inhibitory control in the social versus nonsocial reward context. Chronotype also predicted higher perceived social status in two domains (powerful, troublemaker). Intermediate chronotypes reported higher "Powerful" status whereas later chronotypes were higher on "Troublemaker." Improved social reward-related performance predicted only the higher powerful scores and chronotype moderated this relationship. Improved inhibitory control to social reward predicted higher subjective social status in the intermediate and later chronotype group, an effect that was absent in the early group. CONCLUSION: This behavioral study found evidence that changes toward a later phase of entrainment predicts social facilitation effects on inhibitory control and higher perceived power among peers. It is proposed here that circadian delayed phase in adolescence is linked to approach-related motivation, and the social facilitation effects could reflect a social cognitive capacity involved in the drive to achieve social rank.


Assuntos
Hierarquia Social , Sono , Adolescente , Ritmo Circadiano , Feminino , Humanos , Motivação , Recompensa
20.
J Vis Exp ; (169)2021 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749672

RESUMO

Current risk assessment strategies for honey bees rely heavily upon laboratory tests performed on adult or immature worker bees, but these methods may not accurately capture the effects of agrochemical exposure on honey bee queens. As the sole producer of fertilized eggs inside a honeybee colony, the queen is arguably the most important single member of a functioning colony unit. Therefore, understanding how agrochemicals affect queen health and productivity should be considered a critical aspect of pesticide risk assessment. Here, an adapted method is presented to expose honey bee queens and worker queen attendants to agrochemical stressors administered through a worker diet, followed by tracking egg production in the laboratory and assessing first instar eclosion using a specialized cage, referred to as a Queen Monitoring Cage. To illustrate the method's intended use, results of an experiment in which worker queen attendants were fed diet containing sublethal doses of imidacloprid and effects on queens were monitored are described.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Abelhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Abelhas/fisiologia , Hierarquia Social , Medição de Risco , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Abelhas/embriologia , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
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