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1.
Semin Speech Lang ; 43(4): 331-346, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896409

RESUMO

Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit early delays and deficits in play. In infancy, they engage in unusual exploratory behaviors with toys. As toddlers, they are slow to develop functional play, and in preschool some children with ASD fail to develop symbolic play despite having the necessary cognitive and language skills. Furthermore, when children with ASD are engaged in play, they demonstrate less playfulness. This article reviews the literature on the characteristics of exploratory, functional, and symbolic/pretend play in children with ASD and possible reasons for their unusual patterns of play development. Increased quantity and quality of play are frequent therapeutic goals for children with ASD. If play interventions are to be successful, it is critical that speech-language pathologists have an adequate assessment of children's play skills. Several frameworks and tools appropriate for assessing play in typical children and children with ASD are described.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Humanos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Instituições Acadêmicas
2.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 222: 105446, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688116

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive impacts of tablet use on young children's inhibitory control and error monitoring. A total of 70 children (35 boys) aged 3.5 to 5 years completed an age-appropriate go/no-go task and were then randomly assigned to a technology group or a comparison group. In the technology group, children completed a cooking task on a tablet for 15 min. In the comparison group, children completed a similarly structured cooking task with toys for the same length of time. Children then completed the go/no-go task again. Compared with children in the comparison group, children in the technology group demonstrated poorer inhibitory control as evidenced by lower accuracy on no-go trials after the cooking task. However, both groups displayed post-error reaction time slowing. Collectively, these results suggest that brief tablet use can impose selective impairment on young children's cognitive abilities for a short period of time following use.


Assuntos
Cognição , Função Executiva , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Jogos e Brinquedos , Tempo de Reação
3.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 72, 2022 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Active play is vital for healthy child development, and schools are a valuable setting to promote this behaviour. Understanding the determinants of children's physical activity behaviour during recess, particularly the role of risk-taking and the influence safety concerns have on active play, is required. This systematic review aimed to 1) synthesise qualitative research with children that explored their perceptions of safety and risk in active play during recess in elementary and/or middle school, and 2) develop a model from the findings to guide efforts in schools to optimise children's active play opportunities during recess. METHODS: Six online databases were systematically searched for articles published between January 2000 and March 2021. Following PRISMA guidelines, records were screened against eligibility criteria using Covidence software, and data extraction and synthesis was conducted using customised forms in Excel and NVivo software. Framework synthesis methodology was employed, conceptually guided by Bronfenbrenner's socio-ecological model and Gibson's affordance theory. RESULTS: Of 9664 records, 31 studies met inclusion criteria, representing 1408 children across 140 schools from 11 countries. An emergent conceptual framework was developed encompassing 23 risk and safety themes and 10 risky play types that children desired in schools. Individual characteristics (age, gender, physical literacy) influenced children's engagement with risk and how they kept themselves safe. Across outer SEM levels, factors interacted to constrain or afford children's active play. Socio-cultural factors (supervision practices, rules, equipment restrictions) constrained active play, which children perceived were driven by adults' concern with physical safety. These factors contributed to a cycle of risk-averse decision making and diminished play affordances, which could inadvertently exacerbate safety issues. A model for risk tolerance in children's active play has been proposed. CONCLUSIONS: The findings show a disparity between the active play children want in schools and what they are able to do. Future work should balance the concerns of adults against the active play children want, involve children in decisions about playground policy, and foster a risk-tolerant culture in schools.


Assuntos
Jogos e Brinquedos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Audição , Humanos , Atividade Motora , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742434

RESUMO

A paucity of research has addressed the relationship between each psychological construct of playfulness and smartphone dependency, and the purpose of this research is to understand how each psychological construct of playfulness, including physical animation, social engagement, mental spontaneity, emotional fluidity, and humorous perspective playfulness, influences smartphone dependency of the upper grades of elementary schoolers. For this purpose, a total of 278 questionnaires was analyzed for descriptive, correlation, and multiple regression analysis. The correlation analysis showed that respondents' age positively and parents' education levels negatively correlates to smartphone dependency. The multiple regression analyses showed that physical animation playfulness and emotional fluidity playfulness negatively and social engagement playfulness positively influence smartphone dependency of the respondents. The findings indicate that to reduce smartphone dependency among elementary schoolers, physical animation and emotional fluidity playfulness need to be promoted. The findings also suggest that each component of playfulness has distinctive advantages and disadvantages of developmental processes in childhood, and more future research endeavors need to be directed to understand the role of playfulness in children's behaviors and cognitive processes.


Assuntos
Jogos e Brinquedos , Smartphone , Criança , Emoções , Humanos , República da Coreia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Occup Ther Int ; 2022: 7686818, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35495176

RESUMO

This paper examines the characteristics and current situation of children's vocal enlightenment toy design, studies how to design children's verbal enlightenment toys based on audiovisual associative experience, and develops appropriate optimization strategies and approaches. This paper analyzes the theoretical basis involved in design practice, summarizes the generation and concept of audiovisual association and the significance of associative experience for children's vocal enlightenment, explores the application and characteristics of interaction design in children's toys, and summarizes the creation of interactive toys. The triggered form of associative experience is determined according to the physical and mental development characteristics, interaction behavior, and experimental research of children at this stage. By summarizing the typical design elements of existing children's interactive toys with good sales and reputation and designing a questionnaire, the Kano model was used to obtain the design element priorities to guide design practice. We used audiovisual association as an entry point to writing a sound and picture interactive program through processing and the Arduino platform to develop the interactive toys. "Sound fun" is an interactive toy that extracts the characteristics of children's voices to correspond to the changes of picture elements and can provide real-time feedback of dynamic pictures through the user's voice to achieve the purpose of triggering a synesthetic experience. Interaction design applied to toy design is a new direction in terms of traditional toy design, which enhances the interactivity of toys and enhances the user's sense of experience and participation in the use of toys; it can improve the affinity and fun of toys.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional , Criança , Humanos , Nigéria , Jogos e Brinquedos
6.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 221: 105442, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525170

RESUMO

Many everyday objects require "hidden" affordances to use as designed (e.g., twist open a water bottle). Previous work found a reliable developmental progression in children's learning of designed actions with adult objects such as containers and zippers-from non-designed exploratory actions, to the basics of the designed action, to successful implementation. Many objects designed for children (e.g., toys) also entail designed actions (e.g., interlocking bricks) but might not require a protracted period of discovery and implementation. We encouraged 12- to 60-month-old children (n = 91) and a comparative sample of 20 adults to play with six Duplo bricks to test whether the developmental progression identified for children's learning of adult objects with hidden affordances holds for a popular toy expressly designed for children. We also examined whether children's moment-to-moment behaviors with Duplo bricks inform on general processes involved in discovery and implementation of hidden affordances. With age, children progressed from non-designed exploratory actions, to attempts to interlock, to success, suggesting that the three-step developmental progression revealed with everyday adult objects broadly applies to learning hidden affordances regardless of object type. Detailing the process of learning (the type and timing of children's non-designed actions and attempts to interlock) revealed that the degree of lag between steps of the progression depends on the transparency of the required actions, the availability of perceptual feedback, and the difficulty of the perceptual-motor requirements. Findings provide insights into factors that help or hinder learning of hidden affordances.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Jogos e Brinquedos , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Criatividade , Humanos , Lactente , Resolução de Problemas
7.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 38(6): e1314-e1319, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35639435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We sought to characterize and compare trends in pediatric injuries sustained on motorized and nonmotorized scooters across the United States, to assess the use of safety equipment in children presenting with scooter-related injuries, and provide strategies for injury prevention. METHODS: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried for motorized and nonmotorized scooter-related pediatric injuries from 2014 to 2018 in patients ages 6 to 12 years. Patient demographics, diagnosis, injury location, and narrative of the incident were collected. Bivariate and regression analyses were used to determine demographic and social associations of injury characteristics. RESULTS: An estimated 146,000 (11,452 motorized and 134,548 nonmotorized) injuries occurred in children ages 6 to 12 years over the 5 years. Three of 4 injuries occurred in children younger than 10 years, and most injuries occurred in males (56%).From 2014 to 2018, the nationwide estimated incidence of motorized scooter injuries increased by 112.1%, while that of nonmotorized scooter injuries decreased by 40.3%.Upper extremity injuries were most common with nonmotorized scooters (44.4% of all injuries), while lower extremity injuries were most common with motorized scooters (39.5% of all injuries). Head and neck injuries accounted for 27.4% of nonmotorized scooter injuries and 23.4% of motorized scooter injuries. The number of concussions in motorized scooters increased from 0.4% in 2014 to 2.7% in 2018, while concussions in nonmotorized scooters decreased from 3.5% to 2.7%. Helmets were mentioned in the medical record in 6.6% of the cases. Of these, 60.5% reported no use of helmet at the time of injury. CONCLUSIONS: From 2014 to 2018, the number of motorized scooter injuries increased by 112.1% in the pediatric population ages 6 to 12 years, whereas nonmotorized scooter injuries decreased by 40.3%. In more than 60% of the cases that mentioned a helmet, the child injured was recorded as not wearing a helmet. The rise in pediatric injuries associated with motorized scooters in contrast with the reduction of injuries associated with nonmotorized scooters highlights the need for novel public health policies and interventions promoting helmet use with motorized scooters in the pediatric population.


Assuntos
Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Jogos e Brinquedos , Criança , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Equipamentos de Proteção , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Environ Res ; 212(Pt D): 113500, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594962

RESUMO

Clay toys have been used as play materials and educational tools for children. Clay toys exhibit adherent properties, and may facilitate chemical ingestion via dermal absorption and oral (hand-to-mouth, HTM) exposures. Inhalation exposure also be considered when contain volatile chemicals. The purpose of this study was to estimate the exposure dose for chemicals in clay toys via three exposure routes, and to evaluate the relationship between the exposure contribution of each route considering both the chemical properties and children's age. Chemical analysis was conducted for 9 semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), 17 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and 7 metal elements in clay toys (n = 66) purchased from Korean market. Exposure factors for usage pattern of clay toys were conducted based on a nationally representative survey in Korea. A total of 12,144 (60.7%) children responded positively to playing with clay toys. Exposure to SVOCs and VOCs in clay toys via HTM, inhalation, and dermal absorption were estimated. The exposure level was the highest in styrene with 5.2 × 10-3 mg/kg-bw/day (95th percentile population), which was approximately 13% of the acceptable daily dose for styrene. In 3-year-old children, dermal absorption route contributed the highest at 59.2-100%. Chemicals with higher octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) had the greater the contribution of the dermal absorption route and the weaker the contribution of the HTM route. In infants (0-2 years), the contribution via HTM exposure was higher than that in the other age groups. The contribution of inhalation exposure differed depending on the volatility of the chemicals. Furthermore, the exposure route contribution significantly differed due to age-dependent behavioral changes in children. These results suggest that the exposure assessments for children could be considered with multiple exposure routes related to chemical properties.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Pré-Escolar , Argila , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Jogos e Brinquedos , Estirenos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
9.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 42(5): 209-217, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544030

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The provision of shade at outdoor recreation sites such as playgrounds confers a variety of public health benefits. It can prevent overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation, and, in turn, protect against skin cancer. Further, shade mitigates heat and may promote physical activity. In this study, we evaluate and describe the amount, type and use of shade at public playgrounds. METHODS: Using a modified shade audit tool, shade audits were conducted to visually evaluate shade coverage at 85 city-operated playgrounds in Guelph, Ontario, Canada, in summer 2019. RESULTS: The main play area of most playgrounds (68%) had no shade available. Although the areas surrounding playgrounds had more shade coverage than the main play areas, we also found minimal shade coverage (> 0% to 30%) in this area for many playgrounds (48%). All shade over main play areas was provided by trees (i.e. natural shade). Permanent, built shade structures were observed in the surrounding area of 13% of playgrounds. Shade coverage in the areas surrounding playgrounds was positively correlated with the number of individuals (rs = 0.259; p = 0.017), children (rs = 0.270; p = 0.012), and active individuals (rs = 0.253; p = 0.020) using the surrounding area. This suggests that individuals seek shade at playgrounds and may be more active in shaded areas. CONCLUSION: Children have limited protective shade available to them at playgrounds. Future research is needed to determine how to best increase shade provision and to further explore the impact it has on playground usage, activity levels, temperature and UVR exposure.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas , Raios Ultravioleta , Criança , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Ontário , Parques Recreativos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle
10.
Infant Behav Dev ; 67: 101712, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35378342

RESUMO

Infants everywhere engage with objects throughout the day, even if the objects of play differ across cultures. Indeed, object play is a universal context for learning. Yet, the characteristics of object play at home remain largely unexamined, especially in infants from non-English-speaking backgrounds. Through frame-by-frame video coding, we documented Hispanic infants' object interactions based on 1-2 h of naturalistic home observations. Infants interacted with a wide variety of toys and household objects in brief bouts that summed to ~60% of their time. As infants transition among objects, they serendipitously generate opportunities for learning that support development across domains.


Assuntos
Comportamento Exploratório , Humanos , Lactente , Aprendizagem , Jogos e Brinquedos
11.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 18(7): 1877-1884, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404223

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Robotic pets or companion robots have demonstrated positive effects on several emotional and physiological factors in humans. Robots could constitute a complementary or alternative method to treat sleep problems, but individual studies on robots' effectiveness regarding sleep show mixed results. The aim of the current study was to compare the effects of robots, plush toys, and treatment as usual on sleep in adults. METHODS: The current study is a systematic review and frequentist network meta-analysis of all randomized and cluster randomized controlled trials comparing the effects of robots, plush toys, and treatment as usual on total sleep time in adults. RESULTS: Four studies were included in the analysis. Three studies were considered to have a high risk of bias, whereas one was rated with some concerns. The studies comprised 381 participants. These participants were older adults, with or without dementia, living in nursing homes. The total sleep time was the only common sleep measure included in all 4 studies. The network meta-analysis showed no statistically significant differences between the 3 experimental groups. CONCLUSIONS: The robot interventions were not found to have positive effects on total sleep time in older adults compared with plush toys or treatment as usual. Future studies should use robots especially made to target sleep, include a thorough screening of the participants, and exclude people with adequate sleep, select appropriate sleep measures, and report the results appropriately for future meta-analyses. CITATION: Støre SJ, Beckman L, Jakobsson N. The effect of robot interventions on sleep in adults: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. J Clin Sleep Med. 2022;18(7):1877-1884.


Assuntos
Robótica , Idoso , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Jogos e Brinquedos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sono
12.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 636, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: From a public health perspective there is growing interest in children's play, including play involving risk and adventure, in relation to children's physical and mental health. Regarding mental health, it is theorised that adventurous play, where children experience thrilling, exciting emotions, offers important learning opportunities that prepare children for dealing with uncertainty and help prevent anxiety. Despite these benefits, adventurous play has decreased substantially within a generation. Parents have a key role in facilitating or limiting children's opportunities for adventurous play, but research identifying the barriers and facilitators parents perceive in relation to adventurous play is scarce. The present study therefore examined the barriers to and facilitators of adventurous play as perceived by parents of school-aged children in Britain. METHODS: This study analysed data from a subsample of parents in Britain (n = 377) who participated in the nationally representative British Children's Play Survey. Parents responded to two open-ended questions pertaining to the barriers to and facilitators of children's adventurous play. Responses were analysed using a qualitative Framework Analysis, an approach suitable for managing large datasets with specific research questions. RESULTS: Four framework categories were identified: Social Environment; Physical Environment; Risk of Injury; Child Factors. Social Environment included barriers and facilitators related to parents, family and peers, as well as community and society. Dominant themes within the Social Environment related to perceptions about the certainty of child safety, such as supervision and the safety of society. Beliefs about the benefits of adventurous play for development and well-being were also important in the Social Environment. Physical Environment factors focused on safety and practical issues. Risk of Injury captured concerns about children being injured during play. Child Factors included child attributes, such as play preference, developmental ability and trait-like characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Improved understanding of what influences parent perceptions of adventurous play can inform public health interventions designed to improve children's opportunities for and engagement in adventurous play, with a view to promote children's physical and mental health.


Assuntos
Pais , Recreação , Criança , Família , Humanos , Pais/psicologia , Jogos e Brinquedos , Reino Unido
13.
Autism Res ; 15(8): 1565-1575, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437928

RESUMO

Early intervention can provide a great benefit for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, no single intervention is effective for all children. Even when an intervention is effective overall, individual child response varies. Some children make incredible progress, and others make slow or no progress. Therefore, it is important that the field move towards developing methods to personalize intervention. Operationalizing meaningful change and predicting intervention response are critical steps in designing systematic and personalized early intervention. The present research used improvement in expressive language to group children that received a targeted social communication early intervention, Joint Attention, Symbolic Play, Engagement, and Regulation (JASPER), into super responders and slow responders. Using baseline data from traditional standardized assessments of cognition and behavioral data from validated experimental measures of play and social communication, we used conditional inference tree models to predict responder status. From a sample of 99 preschool age, limited language children with ASD, play diversity was the most significant predictor of responder status. Children that played functionally with a wider variety of toys had increased odds of being a super responder to JASPER. A combination of lower play diversity and impairments in fine motor abilities increased the odds of children being slow responders to JASPER. Results from the present study can inform future efforts to individualize intervention and systematic approaches to augmenting treatment in real time. LAY SUMMARY: To help us answer the question of for whom an intervention works best, we examined 99 children, age three to five, who qualified as being limited spoken language communicators, and received a targeted intervention for social communication and language. We used child characteristics before intervention to predict which children would improve their language the most and found that the ability to play appropriately with a wider variety of toys predicted the best improvements in expressive language. These findings will help better inform future work to individualize intervention based on the unique needs of each child.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Atenção/fisiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervenção Educacional Precoce/métodos , Humanos , Idioma , Jogos e Brinquedos
14.
Dev Psychol ; 58(4): 662-670, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35343714

RESUMO

Creating objects can increase our evaluation of them, even when we compare them to physically identical copies (IKEA effect). Here we evaluate the influence of collaboration on the IKEA effect in two societies-the United Kingdom and India. One hundred twenty-eight 5-to-6-year-old children (48% female, 50% British middle class, 50% Indian middle class) assembled toys in pairs. Half of the children collaborated to assemble a single toy and half assembled their own toy. In both societies, children demonstrated an IKEA effect (η2p = .19), valuing their own creation over an identical copy. This was the case regardless of whether children collaborated or worked independently. In summary, it seems that the IKEA effect is a potent bias that is present in diverse societies and is insensitive to others' contributions in a collaborative environment. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Psicologia da Criança , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Jogos e Brinquedos , Reino Unido
15.
Ambix ; 69(2): 95-117, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35350972

RESUMO

Among the cross currents of social and intellectual life in the early modern era, wonder, utility, and playfulness combined to inspire curiosity and to give value to novel alchemical procedures and chemical remedies. One of the most skilful alchemical and medical performers, who brought theatrical techniques to bear upon an economy of alchemical secrets and magic, was the self-trained Paracelsian physician, mining expert, and alchemical adept, Leonhard Thurneisser zum Thurn (1531-1596). In creatively designed and illustrated books produced for a luxury market, he constructed, in words and images, theatres of procedure, instrumentation, and chemical curiosity based in traditions of Renaissance magic and Paracelsian natural philosophy. Thurneisser's books combined strategies of spectacle and performance within the context of chemical analysis, and in one text especially brought the dramatic technique of "making strange" to bear upon promoting alchemical procedures for purposes of exposing the hidden powers within plants. In staging analytical spectacles involving measurement, instrumentation, and distillation as part of the analysis of minerals, waters, and plants, Thurneisser brought together laboratory-based procedures and theoretically grounded performances within the alchemical marketplace and engaged the agency of readers in establishing the credibility of the philosophy of nature that underscored the products he produced and sold.


Assuntos
Alquimia , Livros Ilustrados , Destilação , Filosofia , Jogos e Brinquedos
16.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 95-99, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362688

RESUMO

Objetivo: relatar a experiência na construção e aplicabilidade de um termo de assentimento livre esclarecido em uma pesquisa com crianças pré-escolares e escolares hospitalizadas para tratamento oncológico. Material e método: trata-se de um relato de experiência sobre a construção e aplicabilidade de um Termo de Assentimento Livre e Esclarecido lúdico para realização de um estudo sobre perfil nutricional e educação alimentar e nutricional de crianças em tratamento oncológico de um hospital público infantil em Santa Catarina-Brasil. Resultados: a construção e aplicabilidade do Termo de Assentimento Livre Esclarecido permitiu melhor compreensão da criança anterior à realização da pesquisa referente às etapas e fases da coleta dos dados do estudo, assim como os riscos e benefícios do mesmo. Foi possível à criança esclarecer suas dúvidas e participar ativamente do estudo. Foram convidadas para participar do estudo 13 crianças de ambos os sexos entre 5 ­ 12 anos de idade que estavam internadas no ambulatório de oncologia. Considerações Finais: adoção do Termo de Assentimento Livre Esclarecido Lúdico construído mostrou-se efetivo ao alcance do objetivo de sua utilização no contexto ético em pesquisa e avançou no sentido de despertar sobre potencialidade para além da pesquisa e, também, como recurso fundamental para o assentimento das crianças em situações específicas no processo de adoecimento e internação, possibilitando o exercício de direito e compreensão do que está sendo realizado durante seu tratamento.


Objective: report the experience in the construction and applicability of an informed term of consent in a survey of children hospitalized for cancer treatment. Material and method: experience report on the construction and applicability of a free and informed term of consent for conducting a study on the nutritional profile and food and nutrition education of children and adolescents undergoing cancer treatment at a public hospital in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Results: the construction and applicability of the informed term of consent allowed a better understanding of the child prior to conducting the research regarding the steps and phases of data collection, as well as its risks and benefits. It was possible for the child to clarify their doubts and actively participate in the study. Thirteen children of both sexes, aged between 5 - 12 years, hospitalized and in the oncology outpatient clinic, were invited to participate. Final considerations: adoption of the playful free and informed term of consent proved to be effective in reaching the objective of its use in the ethical research context and it has advanced in the sense of raising awareness of the potentiality beyond research, and also as a fundamental resource for the consent of children in specific situations in the illness and hospitalization process, enabling them to exercise their rights and understand what is happening during their treatment.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Criança Institucionalizada/educação , Ética em Pesquisa/educação , Nutrição da Criança , Consentimento Informado por Menores , Oncologia , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Educação Alimentar e Nutricional , Hospitalização
17.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 218: 105328, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35124331

RESUMO

Interaction quality during cooperative exchanges affects children's ability to successfully coordinate their actions with a same-aged peer to attain a shared goal. However, it is unclear how initial interactions in one context shape children's ability to cooperate in a subsequent task. In the current research, we examined whether the interaction quality (e.g., affiliation, antagonism, joint coordinated engagement, joint contribution) of a warm-up period between 2-year-old unfamiliar dyads (N = 144 dyads) predicts the dyad's performance and interaction quality in a following cooperative task. Children who participated more effectively during a toy clean-up activity at the end of the warm-up interaction were more likely to respond to their partner's efforts to cooperate in the novel cooperative task. Initial displays of affiliation during the warm-up period appeared to enhance cooperative ability by facilitating cooperative motivation. The current research demonstrates that initial interactions influence toddlers' cooperative performance and thus highlights the importance of considering task order and children's social behaviors when designing studies on cooperative competence.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Grupo Associado , Jogos e Brinquedos , Comportamento Social , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35162896

RESUMO

Physical activity (PA) benefits health, and intensive environmental modifications can increase children's PA. Research has not yet addressed if subtle environmental cues, such as posters depicting PA, increase child PA. In the current study, it was hypothesized that children exposed to active posters (vs. nature posters) would spend a larger proportion of free play time engaging with active toys (relative to sedentary toys). Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions in which posters on a laboratory wall depicted 1. People being active, or 2. Nature scenes. Children aged 5-10 years (N = 175) could play with up to eight toys (four active, four sedentary) while parents completed study-related surveys. The proportion of playtime that was active was compared between groups. Poster type did not have a significant effect on proportion of active playtime. Previous environmental interventions that increase children's PA have done so through enhancing access to active opportunities, rather than via signage. It is possible that poster interventions such as this may not influence children's PA, or perhaps other types of cues would have been more effective. Future research should investigate subtle environmental cues that match both the target audience and the accessible PA options (e.g., posters depicting children playing with available active toys) and explore other low-investment environmental modifications to boost children's PA.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Exercício Físico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Cognition ; 223: 105039, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35124454

RESUMO

As adults, not only do we choose what we prefer, we also tend to adapt our preferences according to our previous choices. We do this even when choosing blindly and we could not have had any previous preference for the option we chose. These blind choice-induced preferences are thought to result from cognitive dissonance as an effort to reconcile our choices and values. In the present preregistered study, we asked when this phenomenon develops. We reasoned that cognitive dissonance may emerge around 2 years of age in connection with the development of children's self-concept. We presented N = 200 children aged 16 to 36 months with a blind choice between two toys, and then tested whether their choice had induced a preference for the chosen, and a devaluation of the discarded, toy. Indeed, children's choice-induced preferences substantially increased with age. 26- to 36-months-old children preferred a neutral over the previously blindly discarded toy, but the previously chosen over the neutral toy, in line with cognitive dissonance predictions. Younger infants showed evidence against such blind choice-induced preferences, indicating its emergence around 2 years of age. Contrary to our hypotheses, the emergence of blind choice-induced preferences was not related to measures of self-concept development in the second year of life. Our results suggest that cognitive dissonance develops around 2 years. We speculate about cognitive mechanisms that underlie this development, including later-developing aspects of the self-concept and increasingly abstract representational abilities.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Dissonância Cognitiva , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Jogos e Brinquedos
20.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0261812, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35108298

RESUMO

Using Brofenbrenner's socio-ecological model as a conceptual framework, the objective of this study was to determine playground users (primary school staff and pupils) perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to a physically active school playground at an intra-personal (individual), inter-personal (social), environmental and policy level. Results from a series of qualitative interactions with children (n = 65) from years five and six (9 to 11 years old), and structured interviews with adult teachers (n = 11) revealed key differences in the child and adult perceptions of the playground and the purpose of break-times. A number of inter-related environmental boundaries and school policies were identified as restrictive to children's explorations and activity levels during 'free play' periods, which centred on resource availability, accessibility and health and safety. Further, traditional playground hierarchies act to promote and prevent physical activity engagement for different groups (e.g. gender and age). Finally, differences between the adult and child perception of the primary school playground were observed. Playground physical activity, during break-times appears to be affected by a number of variables at each level of the socio-ecological model. This study provides an opportunity for primary schools to reflect on primary school playground strategies and practices that are implemented at each level of the socio-ecological model to encourage a more effective use of the playground during school break-times.


Assuntos
Jogos e Brinquedos , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Criança , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
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