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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983324

RESUMO

Contact allergy to Nickel is the most prevalent contact allergy in western societies. This has led to regulation for metallic items that come into prolonged and direct contact with the skin, such as buttons on clothing, belt buckles, jewelry and watches. In Europe, the legal provision is based on a test in which there is a limit to the amount of nickel that may be released from the item to an artificial sweat solution (EN 1811). This test is costly and has reproducibility issues. The resulting undertesting of items placed on the market, leads to many nickel releasing non-compliant articles being available in spite of the regulations that are in place. In this study, the performance of the standard release test is compared to the performance of a rapid nickel spot test based on dimethylglyoxime (DMG-test). The data suggest that using the rapid DMG-test for compliance testing is sufficiently equivalent to the current gold standard of EN 1811. Previously published comparisons between the DMG-test and EN 1811 did not consider the effect of accelerated wear and corrosion testing according to EN 12472. This study shows that by applying EN 12472, the number of deviating results between the DMG-test and EN 1811 decreases significantly. Regarding consumer protection, it is necessary for wear and corrosion resistance to be considered.


Assuntos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato , Joias , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Níquel/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 32(1): 10-16, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2016 we identified a regulatory gap in Israel reflecting a lack of restrictions on lead in children's jewelry. We conducted surveys that found high levels of lead in children's jewelry. Following the findings, a new standard restricting lead content was introduced in 2018. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to assess whether the new standard had an impact on lead concentrations in children's jewelry on the market 4 months after entry into force, and to examine factors that influenced the standard's effectiveness. METHODS: Thirty-five items of children's jewelry were sampled from stores in Israel in 2018. Lead content of 130 subsamples of these items was tested with X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF). We compared these findings to those before the introduction of the standard. We also conducted five structured interviews with professionals from government ministries, industry and expert bodies to examine factors influencing the standard's enactment and implementation. RESULTS: 17% of jewelry samples exceeded the ASTM lead standard in 2018 compared with 50% in 2016. The mean of the jewelry subsamples analyzed in 2018 was 936 (±1700) compared to 1420 (±5740) ppm in 2016. Scientific and regulatory consensus among those setting the new standard led to its swift enactment. However, enforcement challenges may reduce the standard's impact. SIGNIFICANCE: A new standard on lead in children's jewelry was followed by a decline in lead concentrations, but some products with lead exceedances remained available on the market. Public health campaigns, standards and compliance monitoring, and higher penalties will all help to reach the goal of protecting public health.


Assuntos
Joias , Criança , Humanos , Israel , Joias/análise , Chumbo , Jogos e Brinquedos , Saúde Pública
4.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 41(5): 1119-1124, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346515

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The FM-100 Hue test is used for vocational purposes where hue discrimination is of the upmost importance, such as in jewellery appraisals where small errors in hue discrimination can lead to significant differences in gemstone valuation. The purpose of this study was to determine if the cone contrast test (CCT) could predict performance on the FM-100 Hue, providing a potential alternative test for screening of jewellery appraisers. METHODS: Members of the National Association of Jewelry Appraisers (NAJA; n = 18, ages 34 to 76 years) requiring colour vision certification with the FM-100 Hue were invited to participate in a study to assess performance on the Ishihara test, FM-100 Hue, Lanthony Desaturated D-15 and the CCT. The FM-100 Hue test was administered to award or renew NAJA certification, while the CCT was included as a possible alternative certification test. RESULTS: Average CCT M and S cone scores were predictive of FM-100 Hue total error score (TES: F1,16  = 7.77, p < 0.02; r2  = 0.33). The regression equation indicates that a CCT score of <60 is 3SD below the mean TES in our cohort of jewellery appraisers. Seventeen of 18 jewellery appraisers had FM-100 Hue TES scores significantly below the lower limit for age-matched normal values, indicating exceptional performance (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate the CCT may be an effective substitute for the FM-100 Hue to provide certification of jewellery appraisers, but the small sample size warrants additional comparative validation to support sole utilisation of the CCT. It is of interest that this sample of jewellery appraisers showed lower (i.e., better) than normal TES scores despite mitigating senescence factors. It is conceivable that the enhanced jewellery appraisers' hue discrimination reflects perceptual learning, wherein reward-based repetition on specific tasks can improve performance, even in adulthood beyond critical periods.


Assuntos
Defeitos da Visão Cromática , Visão de Cores , Joias , Adulto , Idoso , Percepção de Cores , Testes de Percepção de Cores , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Contact Dermatitis ; 85(5): 523-530, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chromium and cobalt are important skin sensitizers. It has, however, been difficult to identify causative exposures. Studies on nickel allergy have demonstrated piercing as critical for both sensitization and elicitation. It may be speculated that the same applies for chromium and cobalt. OBJECTIVE: To examine the content and release of chromium and cobalt from earrings randomly purchased in Denmark. METHODS: Three hundred four earrings were examined with x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. Earrings with measured content of chromium or cobalt were spot tested with diphenylcarbazide spot test (n = 166) or Nitroso-R spot-test (n = 99), respectively. Chromium and cobalt release were quantified in a selected subsample (n = 100) with the artificial sweat test (EN 1811). RESULTS: Chromium was present in 54.6% (166/304) of earrings and cobalt was present in 72.0% (219/304),- measured by XRF. All chromium spot tests for chromium VI were negative. The cobalt spot test was positive for one component. Chromium release was found from 59/100 (median concentration = -0.06 µg/cm2 /week) and cobalt release from 29/100 (median concentration = -0.06 µg/cm2 /week) of earrings in tested subsample. CONCLUSION: Earrings for piercing release chromium and cobalt and may on a case basis be a source of chromium and cobalt allergy.


Assuntos
Cromo/efeitos adversos , Cobalto/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Joias/efeitos adversos , Níquel/efeitos adversos , Cromo/análise , Cobalto/análise , Dinamarca , Humanos , Joias/análise , Níquel/análise
9.
Endocrine ; 72(2): 539-545, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704679

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) are at risk of life-threatening illness. Medical jewellery is recommended for emergencies, but its uptake is unknown. This study assessed the use of medical jewellery among Australian AI patients aged 25 years and under. METHODS: Data on the age, sex, region, and diagnosis of subscribers to the largest medical jewellery provider in Australia were analysed. Subscription rates were calculated using 2017 Australian population data. RESULTS: There were 666 patients aged 25 years and under in the database but only 358 (53.8%) had an active (up to date) subscription, corresponding to a subscription rate of 43.67/million or approximately 14.6% of the estimated patient population. The majority (n = 238, 66.5%) had primary AI; followed by secondary AI (n = 82, 22.9%); and the remaining patients (n = 38, 10.6%) could not be classified. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) was the most frequent diagnosis (n = 153, 42.7%), corresponding to a subscription rate of 18.67/ million or 28.9% of the estimated number of patients with CAH. The mean age of subscribers was 15.9 (SD = 5.8) years. Only 18 (5%) patients were aged under 5 years. More females (n = 199, 55.9%) than males were active subscribers and subscription rates differed significantly by geographic area. Inactive (lapsed) subscriptions increased with age and were highest in the 20-25 year age group. CONCLUSION: Subscription rates were lower than recommended; increased with age; and were more common in females. Older age was associated with higher levels of lapsed subscriptions. Factors leading to low use and discontinuation in young adults should be addressed.


Assuntos
Doença de Addison , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita , Insuficiência Adrenal , Joias , Adolescente , Insuficiência Adrenal/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Adrenal/epidemiologia , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
Cutis ; 107(1): 12-15, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651861

RESUMO

Nickel is ubiquitous in our daily environment and remains the most common cause of contact allergy worldwide. Regulation of nickel release exists in Europe but unfortunately continues to be absent in the United States. Nickel contact allergy most often is associated with earrings and other jewelry; however, novel exposures to nickel through diet and electronic devices and other materials also occur. Once diagnosed, allergen avoidance is key for improvement of symptoms.


Assuntos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato , Joias , Alérgenos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Níquel/efeitos adversos , Níquel/análise
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 764: 142926, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757252

RESUMO

The use of cadmium to produce inexpensive jewelry has recently been documented. Governments have adopted varying standards, with US states focused on either total cadmium content or extractable cadmium from children's jewelry, while the European Union has adopted a limit of 100 mg/kg cadmium for all jewelry. This study evaluated 80 items purchased at a discount jewelry store. The objective was to determine prevalence of cadmium in this jewelry, the amount of cadmium released by simulated mouthing or ingestion, and to confirm previous reports that damage to jewelry can increase cadmium release. Finally, a modified toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) assessed the potential for jewelry to release cadmium after disposal. Thirty-two (40%) items showed detectable cadmium by X-ray fluorescence. Nine high­cadmium pendants and rings with cadmium content ranging from 31.3 to 89.2% were subjected to extractions simulating mouthing or ingestion. Seven of nine items extracted in dilute saline to simulate mouthing released more than the US recommended maximum of 18 micrograms. Damaged jewelry released more cadmium for most items tested, with one ring yielding an average of 10,600 micrograms. Two pendants small enough to be swallowed were tested using dilute HCl to simulate ingestion. While one pendant did not release cadmium in excess of the US recommended maximum of 200 micrograms even when damaged, the other released an average of 63,100 micrograms after being damaged. Fourteen of fifteen samples of two high cadmium charms extracted using a modified TCLP extraction exceeded the 1.0 mg/L TCLP limit for cadmium, averaging 13.1 and 9.6 mg/L respectively for the two charms. These results demonstrate that high­cadmium jewelry may pose a serious hazard if mouthed or ingested, and that regulatory standards that do not take into account the potential for increased release of cadmium resulting from damage to jewelry electroplating are inadequate.


Assuntos
Joias , Cádmio , Criança , União Europeia , Humanos , Boca , Jogos e Brinquedos
12.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 43(11): 822-826, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606379

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: A case of localized argyria in a 36-year-old female jeweler is described who presented with 2 discrete and asymptomatic bluish-black pigmented macules on the pulp of her left middle finger. A skin biopsy from both lesions demonstrated deposition of brown/black pigmented granules along the basement membrane zone of eccrine glands, blood vessels, nerves, and the dermo-epidermal junction fully in keeping with silver deposition. In addition, there was yellow-brown deposition seen within the interstitial dermis mimicking an early form of ochronosis, so called "pseudo-ochronosis." This latter feature is rarely described in cases of argyria. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirmed the presence of electron dense particles up to 150 nm in diameter and the presence of silver, respectively. On further questioning, the patient had a history of localized and chronic exposure to silver, which specifically involved holding and manipulating silver wires and rings over the left middle finger. This case highlights an unusual and rare presentation of localized argyria in a jeweler. In addition, our case showed preferential silver deposition on dermal elastic fibers which has not been previously described in the literature.


Assuntos
Argiria/patologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/patologia , Joias , Adulto , Argiria/diagnóstico , Argiria/etiologia , Feminino , Dedos , Dermatoses da Mão/induzido quimicamente , Dermatoses da Mão/patologia , Humanos , Ocronose/patologia
13.
Waste Manag Res ; 39(2): 233-241, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608332

RESUMO

Nowadays, the production and exploration of gold has an increased importance all over the world. Recycling is a significant source for the supply of gold and has a pronounced effect on its price. The flotation method, which is more economical and more environmentally friendly than cyanide leaching, has been investigated for recycling gold and silver from jewellery slag. A jewellery slag sample containing 28.3 ppm Au and 42.0 ppm Ag was obtained from a refinery in Turkey. Flotation concentrate assaying 614.6 ppm Au and 511 ppm Ag was achieved with recoveries of 89.0% and 83.2%, respectively. On the other hand, 87.8% Au and 81.5% Ag extractions were obtained by cyanide leaching tests. Based on these results, flotation is suggested, considering its environmental and economic benefits.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Prata , Cianetos , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Ouro , Joias , Reciclagem , Turquia
14.
Am J Emerg Med ; 46: 238-240, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ring tourniquet occurs when a ring becomes entrapped due to swelling or trauma. As the finger expands the blood flow restriction causes additional swelling, which can lead to nerve damage and other complications. Ring tourniquet can be an emergency that requires rapid ring removal. Standard devices for ring removal have been described but rarely tested. We conducted a randomized study to compare removal time, user and participant satisfaction and complications between a motorized diamond disc ring cutter (MDDRC) and a ring cutter attached to trauma shears (TS). METHODS: In pairs, emergency medicine providers removed rings using both devices and wore randomized rings to be removed (silver or steel). Each effort was timed from initiation to removal. After each effort both user and subject rated their satisfaction with the device, using a visual analog scale and reported any complications. Median and interquartile ranges were generated for the primary and secondary outcomes with 95% confidence intervals where applicable. Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests were calculated with a = 0.05 to compare removal time and secondary outcomes between the two tools. RESULTS: Thirty subjects completed the study. Median time to ring removal was significantly lower with the TS compared to the MDDRC (7.7 vs 67.0 s, p < .0001). Device user satisfaction (9.7/10 vs 3.8/10, p < .0001) and participant satisfaction (9.7/10 vs 6.8/10, p < .0001) were significantly higher with the TS, while participant discomfort was significantly lower with the TS (0.0/10 vs 2.2/10, p < .0001). CONCLUSION: This study is the first to compare efficacy, satisfaction and complications of two standard tools for removal of ring tourniquets. The TS took significantly less time than the GEM MDDRC and demonstrated significantly better satisfaction for both the ring wearer and ring remover.


Assuntos
Remoção de Dispositivo/instrumentação , Dedos/irrigação sanguínea , Joias/efeitos adversos , Torniquetes , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
15.
Acta Clin Belg ; 76(4): 304-306, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960767

RESUMO

We present the case of a 45-year-old woman, working as a silver polisher since 11 years, complaining of dyspnea on exertion and dry cough. Intensive diagnostic workup, including high-resolution CT scan of the chest and lung biopsy by VATS led to the diagnosis of pulmonary siderosis. Pulmonary siderosis is a benign, non-fibrotic type of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of iron oxide, which is generally asymptomatic (except in concurrent smoking or concurrent silicosis). Combination of relevant exposure and the typical findings on CT-imaging (centrilobular nodules without cranio-caudal gradient) usually strongly suggest the diagnosis, but this should always be discussed at a multidisciplinary consultation. This includes discussing whether to perform a lung biopsy for histological confirmation. Cessation of the causative exposure is the only-treatment one can take and then radiological features can improve and even disappear of time. Unfortunately, this treatment has an enormous impact on patient's life because it implies changing profession. Preventive measures can be taken by employers (respiratory equipment and ventilation). This case illustrates that physicians should stay vigilant about occupational exposures in clinical practice as well as the need for multidisciplinary consult in patients suspected of having interstitial lung disease.


Assuntos
Joias , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Silicose , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 111 p.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283724

RESUMO

Introdução: A cidade de Limeira-SP contempla um relevante polo produtivo de joias e bijuterias, bem como um cenário de flexibilização do trabalho, por meio da informalidade e terceirização. Os trabalhadores, assim como a população podem ser expostos a diversos elementos, dentre eles, a elementos potencialmente tóxicos (EPT), como o Arsênio (As), Chumbo (Pb), Mercúrio (Hg), Cádmio (Cd), Níquel (Ni), Zinco (Zn), Cromo (Cr), Cobre (Cu) e Estanho (Sn). Esses EPTs podem ser identificados e quantificados no organismo humano, por meio da análise metabolômica, a qual quantifica os metabólitos relacionados ao metabolismo humano. Objetivo: Descrever o perfil de saúde de trabalhadoras e perfil metabolômico por HPLC-MS de soldadoras inseridas no arranjo produtivo local, informal e domiciliar da produção de joias e bijuterias na cidade de Limeira, SP, e identificar as doenças associadas aos metabólitos encontrados. Metodologia: Este estudo de delineamento transversal incluiu 129 participantes, sendo divididas em dois grupos, denominado "Exposto" (n=72) e "Controle" (n=57). A partir da amostra inicial, foi selecionada uma sub amostra de 15 participantes de cada grupo, "Exposto" e "Controle", para o desenvolvimento da análise metabolômica untargeted no plasma. Todas as participantes responderam questionários de doenças referidas, adaptados do Inquérito Domiciliar sobre Comportamentos de Risco e Morbidade Referida de Agravos não Transmissíveis para coletar informações sobre saúde, hábitos de vida e informações gestacionais. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas para análise de metais e uma subamostra foi selecionada para análise metabolômica untargeted por HPLC-MS. Testes exatos de Fischer foram aplicados aos dados de doenças autorreferidas e consumo de grupos alimentares (p<0,05), bem como teste de comparação de médias para as concentrações de EPT. Para os dados cromatográficos foram aplicados a análise multivariada pelos métodos de análise de Componentes Principais (PCA) e a análise discriminante por mínimos quadrados e parciais (PLS-DA). Resultados: Ao analisar todas as mulheres do estudo, foi encontrada uma diferença estatisticamente significante das doenças respiratórias (p=0,04) para o grupo Exposto, enquanto as mulheres do grupo Controle referiram mais frequentemente tosse seca (p=0,02) e diabetes gestacional (p=0,02). A análise das condições socioeconômicas mostrou que as mulheres de ambos os grupos têm remuneração abaixo do salário-mínimo da época da coleta (2017), embora as mulheres do grupo Exposto apresentem maior remuneração. Para o grupo de soldadoras foi identificada uma maior concentração de Pb no sangue (mediana Exposto= 13,8 µg L-1; mediana Controle=8,3 chumbo µg L-1; p= 0,02; U=58). Conclusão: O total de pessoas do sexo feminino do grupo Exposto referiu doenças respiratórias, enquanto a análise estatística realizada para as amostras metabolômicas não foi capaz de mostrar qualquer padrão de diferenciação entre os grupos de mulheres soldadoras e não soldadoras.


Introduction: The city of Limeira-SP includes a relevant production chain for jewelry and fashions jewelry, as well as a homebase work scenario, through informality and outsourcing. Workers as well as the population can be exposed to various elements, including potentially toxic elements (PTE), such as Arsenic (As), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), Nickel (Ni), Zinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu) and Tin (Sn). These PTEs can be identified and quantified in the human body, through metabolomic analysis, which quantifies metabolites related to human metabolism. Objective: To describe the health profile of female workers and the metabolic profile by HPLC-MS of welders inserted in the local, informal and household production arrangement for the production of jewelry and fashion jewelry in the city of Limeira, SP, and to identify the diseases associated with the metabolites found. Method: This cross- sectional study included 129 participants, being divided into two groups, called "Exposed" (n = 72) and "Control" (n = 57). From the initial sample, a sub-sample of 15 participants from each group, "Exposed" and "Control", was selected for the development of untargeted metabolomic analysis in plasma. All participants answered questionnaires on referred diseases, adapted from the Household Survey on Risk Behaviors and Referred Morbidity of Non- Communicable Diseases to collect information on health, lifestyle and gestational information. Blood samples were collected for metals analysis and a subsample was selected for untargeted metabolomic analysis by HPLC-MS. Fischer's exact tests were applied to data on self-reported diseases and consumption of food groups (p <0.05), as well as a means comparison test for PTE concentrations. For the chromatographic data, multivariate analysis using the Principal Component analysis methods (PCA) and the discriminant analysis by least squares and partials (PLS-DA) were applied. Results: When analyzing all the women in the study, a statistically significant difference was found in respiratory diseases (p = 0.04) for the Exposed group, while women in the Control group reported more frequently dry cough (p = 0.02) and gestational diabetes (p = 0.02). The analysis of socioeconomic conditions showed that women in both groups have remuneration below the minimum wage at the time of collection (2017), although women in the Exposed group have higher remuneration. For the welders' group, a higher concentration of Pb in the blood was identified (median Exposed = 13.8; median Control = 8.3; p = 0.02; U = 58). Conclusion: The total number of females in the Exposed group reported respiratory diseases, while the statistical analysis performed for the metabolomic samples was not able to show any pattern of differentiation between the groups of welder and non-welder women.


Assuntos
Plasma , Doença Crônica , Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde do Trabalhador , Metabolômica , Joias
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234924, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640002

RESUMO

Glycymeris shell beads found in Middle Palaeolithic sites are understood to be artifacts collected by modern humans for symbolic use. In Misliya Cave, Israel, dated to 240-160 ka BP, Glycymeris shells were found that were neither perforated nor manipulated; nevertheless, transportation to the cave is regarded as symbolic. In about 120 ka BP at Qafzeh Cave, Israel, modern humans collected naturally perforated Glycymeris shells also for symbolic use. Use-wear analyses backed by experiments demonstrate that the Qafzeh shells were suspended on string, thus suggesting that the collection of perforated shells was intentional. The older Misliya shells join a similar finding from South Africa, while the later-dated perforated shells from Qafzeh resemble other assemblages from North Africa and the Levant, also dated to about 120 ka BP. We conclude that between 160 ka BP and 120 ka BP there was a shift from collecting complete valves to perforated ones, which reflects both the desire and the technological ability to suspend shell beads on string to be displayed on the human body.


Assuntos
Fósseis/história , Joias/história , África do Norte , Exoesqueleto , Animais , Cavernas , História Antiga , Hominidae , Humanos , Israel , África do Sul , Tecnologia
19.
Biomarkers ; 25(6): 483-489, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615823

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the genotoxic effects of gold jewellery fumes and its association with GSTM1 and GSTT1 genetic polymorphisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 94 subjects including 54 gold jewellery workers and 40 controls. The DNA damage was evaluated by alkaline comet assay and genotyping by PCR. RESULTS: The mean total comet score (TCS) in gold jewellery workers was significantly higher as compared to the control subjects (128.0 ± 60.6 versus 47.7 ± 21.4; p = 0.0001). Duration of occupational exposure had positive correlation (r = 0.453, p < 0.01) with DNA damage. Age and tobacco use had significant effects on the TCS of the exposed group as compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The frequency of the GSTM1-null genotype in the exposed group was significant (p = 0.004) as compared to the control group. No significant association (p > 0.05) between the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes and DNA damage was found. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that there is increased DNA damage in gold jewellery workers due to their occupational surroundings. Hence there is a strong need to educate the workers about the adverse health effects of potentially hazardous chemicals and highlight the importance of using protective measures.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Ouro/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Genótipo , Glutationa Transferase/sangue , Humanos , Joias/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Paquistão , Adulto Jovem
20.
Recenti Prog Med ; 111(7): 463-464, 2020.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658886
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