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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36498141

RESUMO

The identification of demographic factors of vulnerability and resilience in communities facing belligerent conflicts is increasingly relevant today. This representative study aims to examine the effect of protracted violence on the level of fear of the overall Israeli-Jewish population, and the role of the conflict on the connection between socio-economic factors and fears. Sixty-six representative samples were identified and surveyed from 2001 to 2019 (n = 37,190) that occurred during (n = 14,362) and between (n = 22,828) seven conflicts and non-conflict periods. Results show that during military conflicts, civilians declared less fears of physical injury comparing routine time; a slow trend of decline in the level of fears over time was observed; during routine periods, fear was associated with female-gender and with the lowest income level group. Ultra-orthodox and Religious respondents had significantly less fear than the secular and traditional respondents. During military conflicts, the results changed significantly, mainly for the lowest income group, women and ultra-orthodox.


Assuntos
Judeus , Judaísmo , Feminino , Humanos , Medo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Agressão , Israel/epidemiologia
2.
J Hist Ideas ; 83(4): 659-670, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36189662

RESUMO

Early modern Europeans organized important reflections on the nature of political society and the justice of warfare around their image of the American Indian. But Jewish parents and children, living in Europe at the mercy of Christian societies and states, also provided Europeans with the occasion to reflect on government and holy war. This article will describe the relevance of Christian theology to the experiences of one Roman Jewish family in the 1640s, before reviewing the place of forced baptism in Scotist thinking on politics in Rome, and establishing the connection between these doctrines and holy war.


Assuntos
Judeus , Teologia , Criança , Cristianismo , Humanos , Judaísmo , Política
3.
Child Abuse Negl ; 134: 105901, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clergy perpetrated sexual abuse (CPSA) is a widespread phenomenon, with many consequences for the victims. To the best of our knowledge, no research has focused on the religious consequences for Israeli Jewish religious men who were sexually abused by rabbis in their adolescence or emerging adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To describe the implications of CPSA for the religious faith, practice, and attitude towards rabbis among sexually abused Israeli religious men. METHODS: Based on a constructivist-phenomenological paradigm, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with eight formerly and/or currently still religious men who had been abused by rabbis. RESULTS: Three main themes regarding religious consequences, emerged from the findings: the impact of CPSA on the religiosity of the victims; the effect of being sexually abused by a rabbi on victims' attitudes toward other rabbis; and the process of finding a new rabbi after the abuse. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study opens a window onto the complex nature of this type of sexual abuse and its religious consequences. The unique findings regarding the range of religious implications are not consistent with previous studies about Christian victims. These findings contribute to the understanding of this distinctive form of abuse, for establishing intervention techniques that will assist the victims and for additional research.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Clero , Masculino , Adolescente , Humanos , Adulto , Criança , Israel , Judaísmo , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Cristianismo
4.
Public Underst Sci ; 31(8): 1012-1028, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912952

RESUMO

Despite growing interest in community-level science literacy, most studies focus on communities of interest who come together through particular science, environmental or health-related goals. We examine a pre-existing community-ultra-Orthodox Jews in Israel-with a particular history and politics vis-à-vis science, technology, and medicine. First, we show how Haredi cosmologies and culture come together to critique science as an epistemology while engaging with science as a technology. Then, we demonstrate how community-based medical experts serve as both science-related knowledge mediators and gatekeepers. Whereas Haredi Jews are constantly critiqued for their low levels of individual secular and science education, these community-based webs of knowledge seemingly position Haredi individuals with knowledge that surpasses the average "secular" Israeli. This case study develops unique analytical tools in the growing field of community-level science literacy, while pushing forward conversations about self-ascribed experts, knowledge gatekeeping, and the socio-political contexts of group critiques of science.


Assuntos
Judeus , Judaísmo , Humanos , Alfabetização , Israel
5.
Soins ; 67(865): 36-39, 2022 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35995499

RESUMO

Jewish spirituality in its principles, its means and its practice offers the possibilities to cope with sickness, suffering and more broadly with the human condition.


Assuntos
Judeus , Espiritualidade , Adaptação Psicológica , Humanos , Judaísmo
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954571

RESUMO

In line with findings that nurses from minority groups have an important role in making health services accessible to their community, our study aimed to identify the challenges ultra-Orthodox Jewish nurses faced during COVID-19 in their encounters with patients and health staff from other communities, as well as their own community. The ultra-Orthodox community is a highly religious group that maintains isolation from general society, a phenomenon that affected its member experiences during COVID-19. Our research followed sequential explanatory mixed methods. The quantitative phase included a questionnaire completed by 235 female students (111 ultra-Orthodox and 124 non-ultra-Orthodox), followed by a qualitative phase, which included six focus-groups (n = 15). The quantitative analysis showed that the ultra-Orthodox students felt a higher sense of responsibility toward their community. They used their authority and knowledge to guide their community during the pandemic. The qualitative analysis identified two themes expressed as challenges ultra-Orthodox nursing students encountered within their community and with other sections of Israeli society. Our research shows the important role that transcultural nurses play in mediating updated health information otherwise inaccessible to their community, especially in times of crises. It is important to address dilemmas this group faces inside and outside their respective communities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudantes de Enfermagem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Judeus , Judaísmo , Pandemias
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805230

RESUMO

The Jewish ultra-Orthodox community enforces strict rules concerning its members' way of life and demands that their identities be consistent with that of this conservative community. However, such congruence does not exist for ultra-Orthodox women who identify as lesbians. Drawing on social representation theory, this study examines the unique family structures that lesbian ultra-Orthodox women in Israel have adopted to accommodate their conflicting identities. The study employed a qualitative multiple case study design, conducting in-depth interviews with seven ultra-Orthodox lesbian women, and adopted a phenomenological approach to learn about their lived experience. The women had all married young in arranged marriages and all had children. Four of them were still married, while the other three were divorced. In all cases, however, their lesbian identity was kept hidden. The findings reveal the unique family structures these women created that allowed them to maintain their religious way of life on the surface, while remaining committed to their sexual identity in secret. The study extends the social representation theory and promotes an understanding of the multifaceted identity of ultra-Orthodox lesbian women. The findings can aid in designing interventions that can help such women cope with the secret aspects of their life.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Feminina , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Judeus , Judaísmo
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805751

RESUMO

This study explored the mental health and job satisfaction of Ultra-Orthodox women who work in different cultural environments. Data were gathered from 304 Ultra-Orthodox women who belong to various streams in this society and who were recruited by the Midgam research panel. The participants filled out self-reported questionnaires that assessed their family quality of life, community sense of coherence, diversity climate, inclusive leadership, job satisfaction, and mental health. The participants ranged in age between 19 and 64 years (M = 30.86, SD = 8.71); 43.1% worked within the Ultra-Orthodox enclave, while 22.4% worked with both Ultra-Orthodox and secular individuals and 34.5% worked in mainly secular environments. We observed differences and similarities among the three groups of women. Community sense of coherence was weakest among those who worked outside the enclave, while diversity perception and inclusive leadership were highest among that group. In all three groups, family and community were the most important resources for mental health. Both traditional resources (i.e., family and community) and other resources (i.e., perception of diversity climate and inclusive leadership) were important for job satisfaction.


Assuntos
Judeus , Judaísmo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Judeus/psicologia , Satisfação no Emprego , Judaísmo/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Omega (Westport) ; 85(2): 429-444, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678288

RESUMO

Religious concerns regarding the legitimacy of cadaveric organ donation have been found to be major inhibiting factors for people to consent to donate organs post-mortem for transplantation; this constitutes a major cause for the grave shortfall of available organs for transplantation. The purpose of this review is to explore the view of the three monotheistic religions, namely Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, toward cadaveric organ donation. The literature review reveals that all three monotheistic religions support cadaveric organ donation but within certain restrictions. We provide a detailed description of the approach of each religion and the inhibiting considerations as interpreted by religious authorities. Health professionals need to collaborate with faith leaders in order to optimize the education of the public of believers with regard to the benefits stemming from organ donation. Developing transplantation medicine does not depend solely on technical capabilities and expertise; rather, this development should go hand in hand with religious, traditional and cultural beliefs and rituals. Providing a believer with a religious authority about cadaveric organ donation is very effective in helping families and individuals cope with difficult and critical decisions.


Assuntos
Transplante de Órgãos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Cadáver , Humanos , Islamismo , Judaísmo , Doadores de Tecidos
10.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 228: 103645, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35772310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 'Harmful sexual sibling behavior' is a term used in this study to refer to childhood sexual behaviors, including abuse (SSA), that are inconsistent with the category of age-appropriate curiosity. Although SSA may be the most prevalent and longest-lasting form of intrafamilial sexual abuse, it is the least reported, studied, and treated. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to deepen our understanding of the sexual characteristics and dynamics of such behavior, as perceived by those involved. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Twenty adults from the Orthodox community in Israel, who experienced sexual interactions with one or more of their siblings, were recruited as participants. METHODS: This qualitative, constructivist, grounded-theory study was based on semi-structured interviews with 20 adults. RESULTS: Four types of sexual dynamics were revealed: an "abusive dynamic," "mutual relations," "sexual routine," and "incidental," with the latter stemming from a new understanding that deepens our knowledge of the subject. The participants discussed the broad, long-term consequences and life-long psychological implications of each dynamic and the coexistence of these dynamics. The results also reveal two cultural dimensions of the participants' perception of the sexual acts: "lack of sexual knowledge" and "the perception that all religious prohibitions are of equal severity." CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the importance of adapting interventions to the siblings' perceptions and avoiding treatment that exacerbates their complex situation. We employ the concepts of dynamics and dimension in describing the phenomenon rather than continuum. The study also highlights the importance of understanding relevant religious-cultural factors.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Irmãos , Adulto , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Humanos , Judeus , Judaísmo/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Irmãos/psicologia
11.
Urology ; 167: 128-131, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35772486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To create a reference guide for six of the major U.S. religions for use by reproductive health specialists to provide patient-centered care for a culturally diverse patient population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We utilized primary source reviews of various religious texts and verified electronic databases to examine perspectives on use of, in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), sterilization procedures such as vasectomy and tubal ligation, and surrogacy for six major U.S. religions: Catholicism, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS), Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, and Islam. Each statement of religious belief was either taken directly from primary source documents or cross-referenced across several secondary sources to ensure accuracy. Perspectives were compiled into a reference document and table for clinical use. RESULTS: Most religions have focused statements concerning assisted reproduction and vasectomy. While there are caveats for most religions, IVF and IUI are largely opposed only by the Catholic church, surrogacy is not permissible in the LDS Church, Catholic Church, and Islam, and vasectomy is not permissible for the Catholic Church, LDS Church, Judaism, and Islam. Similarly, tubal ligation is also not permitted for these religions with the exception of Judaism of which while vasectomy is considered a violation of the Torah, sterilization of a woman is not explicitly discussed in the old testament. Instead, a rabbinic decree states permanent female sterilization as against the views of the faith. The religions with the most lenient rules concerning reproduction and permanent contraception explored include Buddhism and Hinduism each of which have no reservations pertaining to IVF, IUI, surrogacy, or permanent sterilization. CONCLUSION: Religion often plays a significant role in patients' attitudes towards use of ART, permanent sterilization, and surrogacy. Familiarity with the religious beliefs and perspectives is important for the reproductive health specialist in order to provide appropriate counseling for their patients. IMPACT STATEMENT: A summative reference guide can help provide patient-centered care for reproductive health and family planning.


Assuntos
Hinduísmo , Urologistas , Feminino , Fertilidade , Hinduísmo/psicologia , Humanos , Islamismo/psicologia , Judaísmo/psicologia , Masculino
12.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(1): 116-125, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35467628

RESUMO

This paper explores and discusses some threats and challenges faced by the Jewish community as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The article begins with the perspective of Judaism on the tension between individuality and as part of the collective, as one of the direct results of the pandemic outbreak was life in isolation due to closures and fear from infection, a measure that had many implications on our daily life and health. The main part of the article deals with the challenges that the Jewish community faced during the pandemic. The challenges faced by the Jewish Community divided into two categories, general challenges and spiritual challenges. In the general part, the author explores the impact of the pandemic on the Jewish Community, on its structure and the spread of antisemitism. In the other part, regarding spiritual challenges, the author first brings the perspective of Judaism on mental illness and on the mentally ill, then he brings two guiding examples of spiritual challenges faced by the Jewish spiritual leadership during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Judeus , Judaísmo , Masculino , Pandemias
13.
J Integr Complement Med ; 28(6): 507-516, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35467947

RESUMO

Introduction: Spiritual interventions (SI) are used by patients and their families as a means to promote health. The family continuum (FC), which includes finding a partner/spouse, getting married, becoming pregnant, and having a safe pregnancy/birth, is an important concept for the Jewish culture as well as other cultures that have a traditional family-centered approach. There is a dearth of professional literature pertaining to SI to promote the FC. Although patients may use SI, this information is not routinely collected in a health history. The purpose of the study was to describe the experience of Jewish women's use of SI to promote the FC. Methods: This ethnographic study included interviews of Jewish women pertaining to FC, a text review, and field study. Coding of the text, site visits, and interviews were performed and reviewed to identify categories and themes and were refined until saturation was achieved. Results: Fifty-three observant and non-observant Jewish women participated in the study. Women expressed that SI were the means for them playing an active role in fulfilling the FC, and included intermediaries to God, self-improvement, and folk/spiritual remedies. The examples of SI included: visits to holy sites and spiritual leaders for blessings and advice, prayers, psalms, doing good deeds, eating special foods, wearing amulets, and performing certain SI with predesignated repetitions. Women attributed these SI to attaining an FC. Women who achieved each FC milestone without difficulty tended to use less SI, whereas women's SI usage increased the longer a milestone was not achieved. Conclusions: Jewish women are using many SI to promote the FC. Health care should be delivered in a culturally competent manner, which includes the incorporation of safe cultural practices. Obtaining a cultural assessment as part of the medical history could assist the health care professional in integrating safe SI into patient care.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Judeus , Feminino , Humanos , Judaísmo , Parto , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35270681

RESUMO

The ultra-Orthodox population in Israel was heavily impacted by COVID-19; it is important to understand the factors that contributed to this. There may be a friction between religious versus governmental guidelines that may reduce adherence to COVID mitigation guidelines, such as social distancing and masking. The purpose of this study is to explore this tension and the extent to which it existed in the surveyed sample. The study identified attitudes of ultra-Orthodox individuals concerning religious and public health measures to mitigate COVID-19 infection. A closed-ended questionnaire was completed by 405 ultra-Orthodox Jews. Most respondents believe that religious learning protects from harm (91%); 74% believe that periodically there are inconsistencies between religious guidelines and medical guidelines; 59% believe that preventive medicine may clash with "Divine protection". Some public health measures applied to contain the pandemic threaten religious lifestyle; this is a source of dissonance among ultra-religious populations, which may substantially decrease willingness to comply with public health measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Judeus , Atitude , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Judaísmo , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 24(2): 80-84, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35187895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections in neonates with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) following circumcision due to Metzitzah Be'Peh (MBP) performed by a Mohel occur each year in small numbers. One solution to this problem is the use of a mucus extractor device instead of MBP, which has been authorized by some rabbis. Yet, using a mucus extractor remains controversial among ultra-Orthodox Jews; thus, creating a need for additional solutions. OBJECTIVES: To seek to reduce HSV-1 infection of neonates due to MBP. METHODS: We tested several oral rinse solutions for their ability to destroy virus infectivity following incubation for 30 seconds and using plaque reduction assays. RESULTS: Corsodyl, Decapinol, and Listerine® all destroyed plaques formation of spiked virus, while Gengigel and Tantum Verde were found to be less effective. We focused specifically on Listerine® due to its efficacy in eliminating contagious HSV-1 from saliva after a 30-second oral rinse. Five different products of Listerine® reduced the infectivity of a spiked virus by more than 4 orders of magnitude in 30 seconds. We also showed that Listerine (up to 7% v/v) can stay in the mouth but did not harm living cells and therefore will not cause any damage to the injured tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Significant reduction in cases of infection with HSV-1 due to MBP can be achieved if Mohalim consistently adopt the practice of careful mouth washing with Listerine® just before performing MBP.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Herpes Simples/prevenção & controle , Herpesvirus Humano 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Circuncisão Masculina , Clero , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Judaísmo , Masculino , Morfolinas/administração & dosagem , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Salicilatos/administração & dosagem , Salicilatos/farmacologia , Terpenos/administração & dosagem , Terpenos/farmacologia
17.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 59(6): 756-766, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018874

RESUMO

Historical clinical reports and media narratives suggest that Orthodox Jews are reticent to seek treatment for mental illness, present only with serious concerns, and hesitate to comply with treatment in general and psychopharmacology in particular. On the other hand, recent developments, and some limited research, suggest that Orthodox Jews may be likely to seek and comply with treatment. The current study compared the diagnostic, symptomatic, and treatment characteristics of 191 Orthodox Jews and 154 control patients all presenting to a large private mental health clinic with offices throughout greater New York. Results indicated that the groups were largely demographically similar, and that their diagnoses did not significantly differ. Orthodox Jews initially presented with lower levels of symptoms, terminated with similar symptom levels, attended a similar number of sessions, and were equally likely to use psychopharmacological interventions of similar types, compared to controls. This was equally true of ultra-Orthodox and modern Orthodox Jews. Clinicians providing mental health services to Orthodox Jews should be aware of these findings, which contrast with existing clinical and popular stereotypes. Further, excessive efforts to protect Orthodox Jewish patients against stigma may be unnecessary and counterproductive.


Assuntos
Judeus , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Judeus/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Judaísmo/psicologia , Etnicidade , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico
18.
J Interpers Violence ; 37(5-6): 2581-2597, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659166

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine differences between men and women and between Muslims, secular Jews, and religious Jews in their motivations for using sanctions within their intimate relationships. This work involved heterosexual couples from the general population. The sample included 95 Muslim, 68 secular Jewish, and 70 ultra-orthodox Jewish couples (466 participants). The findings of the study show that sanction use during times of conflict is prevalent among the vast majority of couples. Motivations for the use of sanctions are stronger among women than men. In addition, the strongest motivation expressed by both genders was a motivation for conflict resolution. This is the first time that sanctions, as a tactic to cope with conflict, have been addressed in a scholarly manner. This study provides a preliminary estimate of how commonly these types of behaviors are used in intimate relationships. Theoretical and empirical implications of the theoretical framework and the findings are discussed, including the role of the use of sanction in the escalation of intimate partner conflicts.


Assuntos
Judeus , Motivação , Feminino , Humanos , Islamismo , Judaísmo , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
19.
J Child Sex Abus ; 31(1): 86-104, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947316

RESUMO

Child sexual abuse is present in all strata of Israeli society. However, there is scant research on the emotional experiences of non-abusing mothers after disclosure. In particular, no studies have examined the experiences of these mothers from the Jewish Ultra-Orthodox community in Israel. The current study analyzed the drawings and short narratives of 21 Israeli Ultra-Orthodox mothers to explore the effects of the disclosure of their child's sexual abuse. A phenomenological approach was used to analyze the drawings and yielded four different phenomena: (1) squiggles that represented distress, (2) the mother-child relationship, (3) pseudo-sweet houses, and (4) split drawings. The drawings were either colorful, sweet or shallow, or alternatively were in black and white. As confirmed by the narratives, these drawings primarily expressed the negative emotions of shock, sadness, distress, guilt, and failure as mothers. While some mothers reported breaking down and that pain had permeated their daily lives others coped by dissociating the painful experience, putting up a façade of normalcy, or splitting their lives into two parts corresponding to before and after the disclosure.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Judeus , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Revelação , Feminino , Humanos , Judaísmo/psicologia , Mães
20.
J Interpers Violence ; 37(15-16): NP14830-NP14853, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980066

RESUMO

The peritraumatic response of children during incidents of child sexual abuse (CSA) is a neglected construct in the literature. Despite the widespread use of the fight-flight-freeze model, recent studies have shown that in the unique context of child abuse, additional peritraumatic responses could be relevant. The current mixed-methods study examined children's peritraumatic responses to CSA. The sample consisted of 249 forensic interviews with children aged from 4 to 13 years. An initial qualitative analysis resulted in identifying various ways in which the children responded to the abuse, the children's decision-making around these responses, as well their perceptions of their response. This analysis was followed by quantitative analyses, which explored the frequency of these peritraumatic responses and their correlation with the characteristics of the children and abuse. Six peritraumatic response categories were identified, the most common being fight, flight, and fear. Only ethnoreligious identity was significantly correlated with the fight-or-flight response, with a significantly lower frequency among Muslim and ultra-Orthodox Jewish children. Frequency of abuse and perpetrator familiarity were correlated with the frequency of the fight-or-flight response, indicating that the latter was less relevant in reoccurring incidents of abuse and with perpetrators who were family members. The findings promote the conceptualization of children's peritraumatic responses during incidents of abuse and the realization of the crucial role of children's ecological systems in their peritraumatic responses to incidents of abuse.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Criança , Humanos , Israel , Judaísmo , Narração
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